A. From SrImAn SaDagOpan's tamizh treatise:
So far gOdai has used the nAyaka-nAyaki bhAvam to show that the sole purpose
in life is for the jIvAtmA to seek union with the paramAtmA and attain
brahmAnandam only after reaching paramAtmA. She has outlined in detail the
sorrow that the jIvAtmA goes through until this union happens. This is the only
and the supreme goal. Sri SadagOpan quotes SrImAn Justice rAmAnujam: “All the
wealth in nature are God’s blessings; these are meant to be used by people as
fertilizers in growing the bhakti in the society” - (i.e., to be used in His
service and nothing else). That is what ANDAL is pointing out through her aRuL
mozhigaL. gOdai who showed us that the only goal of life is to be united with
emperumAn, sang the praise of “Ongi ulagaLanda uttaman” and got the
greatness of being permanently united with Him.
To show that reaching His kaimkarya sAmrAjyam is a herculean task, she sang the first one hundred and thirty three pASurams of nAcciyAr tirumozhi depicting the viraha bhakti (tApam), UDal (fight representing the temporary frustrations) etc. In the last 10 pASurams, she describes with great glee how her kaNNan, who was playing hide and seek with her, finally showed Himself up and gave her a sight where He revealed Himself to her and her friends in AyarpADi and removed all their despair. Thus ends the viSlesham (the separation and the longing associated with it), and the samslEsham (the brahmaAnda anubhavam associated with realizing Him) is attained.
gOdai started with the realization and declaration: “nArAyaNanE namakkE paRai tariuvAn” in the first pASuram of tiruppAvai. Here, nArAyaNanE refers to the upAyam or means, and “namakkE paRai taruvAn” refers to kaimkaryam as the benefit to be attained. Since she had not succeeded in attaining this, she proceeded in nAcciyAr tirumozhi with falling at the feet of kAman (1), performing SiRRil (2), resorting to observances such as taking bath before dawn in the river (3), playing kUDal game (4), and conversing with the cuckoo and desiring to see Him in person (5). Since she did not succeed yet, she tried to live with just the dream of her marriage with kaNNan (6). Since the dream anubhvam was not enough, she asked pA’ncajanya AzhvAn for the means to attain Him (7), then she was reminded of Him by the clouds because their color resembled His nIla mEni (8), and used them as messengers just like sItA pirATTi sent word through hanumAn to Lord rAma. Being reminded of His soundaryam because of the things she saw in the rainy season, she started losing herself (9). She starts the tenth tirumozhi with further expression of her intense pain of separation from Him, and in pASuram 10-4, she expresses her losing faith in His word “na tyajEyam” (I will not forsake My devotees). She then starts feeling that even her AcArya sambandham (association with periAzhvAr who was very dear to Him) was not sufficient for her to reach Him. But by the end of the 10th tirumozhi (10.10), she reaffirms that even if His words (na tyajeyam) turn out to be false, her AcArya sambandham will definitely yield the result without fail. By the end of the 11th tirumozhi, ANDAL again declares that His words cannot after all be untrue, because priAzhvAr trusts in His words; even otherwise, if He decides not to keep His word, who is there in this universe who can question Him any way? But neither her trust in her sambandham with her AcAryan, nor her trust in His words, have yielded the result as yet. She is becoming weaker every second, and she decides to try to reach Him by her own efforts; and since she is too weak to undertake any effort by herself, she asks her elders to take her and leave her in any place which has His sambandham (12). In tirumozhi 13, she pleads with her elders that if they cannot do that, then they should at least bring any material that has had association with Him, and establish a connection of that object with her self, so that she can sustain her life (13).
Thus, ANDAL’s life was one of being born in a prapanna kulam that had nArAyaNa as the sole object to be attained and to be worshiped, and nArAyaNa as the means to be attained as well as the end to be attained. Even so, she could not just sit around for Him to unite her with Him, and she resorted to all means at her disposal to attain Him, and could not sustain her life until she attained Him.
While ANDAL was thus going through intense pain because of her separation from Him, emperumAn wished to transform her love for Him into parama bhakti – the stage where bhakti overflowed beyond limit and she could not see herself alive without Him even for a second any more, and then only He wanted to reveal Himself to her. The bliss of this union with Him is such that the person who is not prepared to receive it will not be able to enjoy that experience. Just as food given to persons suffering from indigestion might result in danger to their life, the great bliss of union with Him might not be digestible if a bhakta has not matured to the stage of parama bhakti. Now that ANDAL’s devotion to Him is at its ultimate limit, He decides to shower this great bliss of union with Him on her. Just as nammAzhvAr (tiruvAimozhi ) received a blessing “en avAvaRac cUzhndAi”, gOdai also is showered with His Grace. Finally, gOdai’s kaNNan ennum kAdalan, her kaNNil ADum mAyavan, her “kuRai onRum illAda gOvindan”, shows Himself to her.
Since the parama bhakti that is needed for reaching Him, and the pErinbam that results from reaching Him, are both limitless and beyond description by any one individual, ANDAL captures this anubhavam by presenting these two aspects through pASurams involving conversation between two sets of people. It can also be said that it is difficult to find a cEtanan who has both parama bhakti and also the pErimba experience at the same time in this world. For this reason also, one can say that the pAsurams of this current tirumozhi (paTTi mEyndu) are presented in two parts – in the form of a conversation between two sets of people. The first part starts with the question from the seekers asking whether they have seen emperumAn – this represents the seekers’ ‘parama bhakti’; the second part is the response of those who have had the pErAnandam of having attained Him – this represents the ‘pErinbam’ of those that have attained Him after seeking Him with parama bhakti.
C. Additional thoughts from SrI PBA:
For all the suffering that ANDAL went through as conveyed from “tai oru ti`ngaL” up to “kaNNan ennum”, she now concludes with the great blessing that she received from kaNNan by His appearance to her. This is analogous to the experience of nammAzhvAr in “en ava aRac cUzhndAyE”. Unlike nammAzhvAr who describes his realization in first person, ANDAL chooses to present her realization in the form of a dialog between two groups of gopi-s.
D. Additional thoughts from SrI UV: gOdai decides to forsake all her own efforts “ciru mAniDivar nAm Seyvaden” and leaves it all to her father “villipuduvai viTTucittar tangaL dEvarai valla pariSu varuvipparEl adu kANDumE” (NT 10.10). When vishNu cittar understands through gOdai’s folks her pitiful plight of pining for her gOvindan, he decides to bring Him to her using his prabhAvam. To show that, gOdai uses the term “viTTu cittar viyan gOdai” (NT 13.10). In order to please periyAzhvAr, kaNNan shows Himself to her with His parivAram in brindAvanam. Becoming ecstatic with the sight, gOdai shares her delight with all her friends and composes this last tirumozhi to describe that event.
There are three interpretations for the way the pASurams are arranged with “kaNDIrE” in the first half and “kaNDOmE” in the second half.
First interpretation: the tirumozhi is a dialog between two groups of gopi-s – one set representing the overflowing prama bhakti towards Him and the resulting search for Him, and the other set representing the resulting anubhavam on attaining Him. This is the way that SrI PVP has interpreted the tirumozhi.
Second interpretation: In the first two lines of each pASuram, seeing kaNNan and being excited by His sight, she asks the gopi-s around her whether they are seeing Him the way she is seeing Him, and then in the next two lines, she describes what she is seeing – her anubhavam.
Third interpretation: ANDAL had pleaded with her elders to bring anything that belongs to Him and associate them with her so that her grief will be removed. Now she has found kaNNan, and she is showing Him to those surrounding her, and confirming that they see Him also, so that they will believe her at least now. In order to ensure that all those surrounding ANDAL trust her and heed her words in future, kaNNan reveals Himself to them also. She is repeating their responses in the affirmative – that they are also seeing kaNNan in bRndAvanam in their midst, in the last two lines of each pASuram. This is similar to kaNNan showing His viSva rUpam to the deva-s also, in addition to showing the viSva rUpam to arjuna, to ensure that the deva-s will treat arjuna with the proper respect.
This third interpretation gains credibility because mostly in the first two lines of most pASurams, we find the words that refer to ANDAL (“ennai” etc.), whereas the last two lines invariably end with “bRndAvanattE kaNDOmE”. The reference to bRndAvanam here confirms that the gopi-s are not really in bRndAvanam, but that kaNNan is showing Himself to them along with bRndAvanam, with all the specialities of brindAvanam.
In NT pASuram 10.10 (‘nalla en tOzhi’), we see the reference to “kANDumE” – in plural. The intent is that because of the blessing of, and association with, periAzhvAr, not only ANDAL but all the other gopi-s are blessed with His appearance. What gOdai wants to stress here with the plural of “adu kANDumE” is – with just her way alone, even she cannot see Him; but, if the same is a present from vishNu cittar, everyone can see Him.sarvam SrIman nArAyaNAyEti samarpayAmi.
pASuram 14.1 (fourteenth tirumozhi-pAsuram 1 paTTi mEyndOr
baladEvanin tambiyai brindAvanattE kaNDOmE
paTTi mEyndOr kArERu baladEvarkku Or kIzhk kanRAi
iTTiru iTTu viLaiyADi i’ngE pOdak kaNDIrE
iTTamAna paSukkaLai inidu maRittu nIrUTTi
viTTuk koNDu viLaiYADa virundA vanattE kaNDOmE
A. From SrImAn SaDagOpan's tamizh treatise:
sundarAngan kaNNan gives gOdai several, wonderful sights (sEvai) and gives her paramAnandam. In the first pASuram, gOdai indicates how kaNNan is independently roaming around in brindAvanam area, while acting as a good brother to balarAman and being mischievous at the same time with the AyarpADi girls and pleasing all His friends.
- “Did you see a dark-hued, bullish personality, who is balarAman’s brother and who goes around playing and grazing cows to His delight?”
- “Yes, we did; we saw that gOpAlan in brindAvanam, looking after His most beloved cows with great joy, lovingly calling them by their names, feeding them water and letting them graze the grass happily.”B. Additional thoughts from SrI PVP:
paramapadanAthan was like a “vAn iLa araSu” (periyAzhvAr tirumozhi 3-6-3), “appointed” by nitya sUri-s (“viNNATTavar mUduvar” – tiruviruttam –2) who were like wise, elderly ministers. He considered them dear to Him and accepted their offerings – “cUTTu nan mAlaigaL tUyana Endi” (tiruviruttam 21). Consistent with their true nature as His Sesha-s, they offered tirumanjanam to Him daily and offered dhUpam etc. But then, one day, He found out that there was lot of butter stored in the houses of the gOpi-s in AyarpADi, and that nappinnai had become of age. Suddenly, He lost interest in paramapadam and took incarnation in tiruvAippADi as kaNNan, started roaming around like a bull in AyarpADi at will, and attained great luster as a result of this incarnation. This is what is described in this pASuram.
paTTi mEyndu : When He was in SrI vaikuNTham, He was a Bull all right, but a tied Bull. BhaTTar used to say often: “In parama padam, SrI vaikunTha nAthan is destined to be an eternal prince - growing on the lap of tiru anantAzhvAn, under the care of vishvaksEnar or sEnai mudaliyAr and under the wings of periya tiruvaDi (garuDan) – just as periAzhvar has said: vAn iLavaraSu”. Since He was constantly watched, He was like a bull that is tied, with the controlling rope always held by others. When He came to tiruvAippADi, He transformed into a new shiny hued bull that gallivants around as it wishes. After He made His appearance in gOkulam as kaNNan, He had no one to control Him, and so, He started performing mischiefs at His will like an elephant that has entered a sugarcane grove. In paramapadam, He could not do anything against His svarUpam and was acting “normal and decent”. Here, in tiruvAippADi, there is talk everywhere of “kaNNan stealing butter”, “such and such a girl has been abducted by kaNNan ” etc. He did not abide by any “accepted rules” or “norms”. This is what gOdai means by “paTTi mEyndu”.
kAr Eru: “Dark-hued Bull”. In Ayar pADi, He got His natural hue by running around hither and thither according to His own sweet will with a majestic gait, like an unrestrained bull. In contrast, He was probably pale white in color in paramapadam (“paramapadattil uDambu veLuttup pOlE kANum iruppadu”).
baladEvarkku Or kIzhkanRAi: He was willing to be under the control of baladEvan, who was His elder brother. In paramapadam, He was used to being pampered on the lap of tiru anantAzhvAn and because of that sweet memory, He is letting Himself be controlled by baladEvan now (who is the avatAram of tiru anantAzhvAn). Thus, even though He was full of mischief when it came to the young girls of AyppADi, when it came to balarAma, He behaved like a sweet little younger brother. Also, whenever the girls got mad at Him and refused to talk to kaNNan, balarAman acted as a mediator between the two parties and made them friends again; so, He always remained under the control of balarAman.
SrI PVP explains in detail the significance of the term “baladevarkku Or kIzhk kanRAi”, by pointing out the intimacy of their relationship in their other incarnations as well.
During SrI rAma avatAram, when perumAL and pirATTi where resting in the parNa SAlai, iLaiya perumAL was standing guard without even winking, bow and arrow in hand, and protected them. It was as if lakshmaNa had an intimate part of, and was sharing in, whatever comfort rAma and sItA derived in being together.
“ramyamAvasatham kRtvA ramamANA vanE traya: |
dEva gandharva sankASAs tatra tE nyavasan sukham ||” (rAmAyaNam bAla kANDam 1-29)
Those three (rAman, sItai and lakshmaNan), who looked like dEva gandharva-s built a parNa sAlai and lived happily in the forest. iLaiya perumAl was sharing the happiness that rAma and sItai experienced by being together and helped them more and more to experience that happiness.
So also, in the balarAma incarnation, balarAma derived great satisfaction by increasing the happiness of kRshNa and the gopi-s by mediating between them, as and when the gOpi-s were hurt because of the mischief of kRshNa.
sandeSais sAma madhurai: prema garbhaih agarvidai: |
rAmENa ASvAsitA gOpyO hariNA hRta cetasa: || (vishNu purANam 5-24-20)
Those gOpi-s who had their hearts stolen by hari (kaNNan) were consoled by balarAman’s sweet and kind words and thus felt comforted. periyAzhvAr in his tirumozhi 1-7-5 talks about how kaNNan normally acts subservient to His brother balarAman (“balaDevan ennum tan nambiyoDap pin kUDac celvAn”). And balarAman always watched out for kaNNan and made sure that no danger befell Him.
iTTiRu iTTu viLaiyADi : iTTIRu means “action proceeding from one’s haughtiness or arrogance”. iTTu means “on account of” – e.g., adai iTTu vandAn. (He came for that or on account of that). So in this pASuram, this phrase means that kaNNan did everything He could to create havoc to express His arrogance or haughtiness. He is making noises to show His happiness and independence. This is like a muktAtmA (a realized soul) going to SrI vaikuNTham and chanting sAma gAnam loudly to show his extreme delight and ecstasy on being able to do kaimkaryam to bhagavAn eternally from then on.“Etat sAma gAyanaAstE |
(muktAtma reaches paramAtmA and sings – ‘hA vuhA vuhA vu – I am the food for paramAtmA; I am food; I am food; I am the enjoyer of food (in the form of paramAtma’s love); I am the enjoyer of food; I am the enjoyer of food).
In a similar fashion, paramAtma came here and because He gets a chance to show His souseelyam, soulabhyam etc by sharing Himself with folks, He becomes so ecstatic and makes noises.
SrI PVP refers to pUrvAcArya-s wondering aloud that the paramAtmA Whom the upanishad declares as “avAkya anAdarah” (chAndogya. 3.14.2) – He Who is without speech because He has nothing to gain and has all the Glory – this para tattvam is now behaving in such a way that He has come to the “iTTIru iTTu viLaiyADum” stage.
viLaiyADi: shows His leelA vyApAra-s. After all, the whole purpose of His incarnations is leelA.
i’ngE pOdak kaNDIrE: have you seen the acts that we cannot get to see even if we go to paramapadam?
Thus far, we have enjoyed the first two lines that are from those who are asking the question, in SrI PVP’s mode of interpretation, and ANDAL’s question to her friends, in SrI UV’s mode of interpretation.The next two lines are from those who respond. The same applies to all remaining pASuram-s.
iTTamAna paSukkaLai: The cows that are dear to Him. It is only the AyarpADi girls who are very dear to Him; how is it that the cows are termed as dear to Him? Just as young lovers love the mediators who try to unite the lovers together very much, this kaNNan also loved the cows more than the gOpi-s, because they gave Him the excuse to go after the girls. He will make sure the cows wander away towards where the girls are and then try to call for the cows by playing on His flute (with the hidden intention of calling His lovers!). tiruvAimozhi 6-2-2 talks about this “AgaL pOga viTTuk kuzhal Udu pOyirundE”. The cows helped Him in another way as well. When He returned home late in the evening after playing with the AyarpADi girls, if the parents enquire as to why He was late, He could say “These cows wandered away a long distance; I had to go and round them up and that is why I am late”! Thus, there were at least two reasons why the cows were very dear to Him.
iTTamAna paSukkaLai: In tiruvAImozhi 10-3-10, nammAzhvAr says that for kaNNan, looking after these cows is more enjoyable than being in His paramapadam : “tivattilum paSu nirai mEyppu uvatti”. SrI PVP’s anubhavam is that even in paramapadam, He only dreams about the cows he looked after in His kRshNa incarnation, and speaks incoherently about them, as in delirium, in His sleep.
inidu maRittu : Calling each cow sweetly by its name. How could He have remembered the thousands of names of those cows? Obviously, it is not difficult for Him who gives a name and form to countless cEtana-s during the time of sRshTi (creation).
nIrUTTi: When the cows and calves need water to drink, He will find a water pond of the right size for them and demonstrate to them how to drink the water - He will hold both His hands on His back , bend down to the water, and sip the water with His mouth; the cows and calves will imitate Him and thus quench their thirst. tiruma’ngai AzhvAr describes this in periya tirumozhi 2-5-3 - “varaimI kAnil taDam parugu karu mugil” (that cloud-hued perumAn pretended to drink water from the pond in order to make the young calves drink water).
SrI PVP continues his anubhavam of the term ‘nIr UTTi”, by referring to bhagavAn’s words in the gItA, where He indicates that He believes in setting an example for the others (in this case, SrI PVP’s anubhavam is that He is setting an example for the cows!).“yad yad Acarati SrEshTha: tat tadeva itaro jana: |
(People without the requisite knowledge will perform only those karma-s that those with knowledge will perform; they will perform the karma-s only to the extent that the knowing people perform). Consistent with this, kaNNan performed the act of drinking water from the pond, so that the cows could follow His example. And He enjoyed looking after these cows - “kanRu mEyttu inidu uganda kALAi” – (tiruneDum tANDagam 3-16).
viTTuk koNDu viLaiYADa: Thus leaving the cows to graze (viTTuk koNDu), He went around sporting Himself (viLaiyADa). How can He play when the cows are grazing in the meadows? That is the whole purpose of His taking this incarnation. So He is relishing in that, without minding His greatness, ignoring the care of His hair, not washing His clothes, and wandering hither and thither according to His will. After the cows have finished grazing and had enough water to drink, there is nothing else to do. Then, there is only playing for Him. He appeared in the earth only to do leelA or playing.
virundA vanattE kaNDOmE: this kind of scene cannot be had in SrI vaikuNTham or even in tiruvAippADi; the anubhavam that kaNNan had in SrI brindAvanam is similar to the practice the kings had in building secret palaces in secluded spots so that they can enjoy time with their wives in seclusion.C. Additional thoughts from SrI UV:
iTTIRiTTu: Recall that SrI PVP had interpreted this phrase as “As a result of the display of His arrogance or haughtiness”. SrI UV gives a different interpretation.
iDudal is ‘doing’ or ‘giving’; IRu is ‘finishing’; “iTTIRiTTu” means “Having fulfilled all that He was thinking about”. It can even refer to the jagad vyApAra leelan’s sRshTi, sthiti and samhAram.i’ngE pODa: Has He come to this place where I am?
1.when the nAyakan is late in coming to her, the nAyaki usually is mad and uses chiding remarks. This anger is reflected in the first two lines of this pASuram. gOdai is referring to kaNNan as a ‘kArERu’ that has been gallivanting around stealthily, and the stealthiness is taking a dark-hued form. Doesn’t baladEvan make sure that He does not lose His dEvatvam even though He is strong? This kaNNan is subservient to baladEvan and yet is committing atrocities.
2.The second interpretation is that gOdai is full of respect for emperumAn, as reflected in her earlier reference to Him as “kaRRinam mEykkavum mEykkap peRRAn” (NT 12-8). Even though He is doing “paTTi mEyndu” now, He is one who has no comparison [oppillA appan] and one with no blemishes. He has so much soulabhyam that He raises even His subordinates to a level higher than Himself; and elevates the devotees who are dear to Him. This respect of gOdai to Him is reflected in the first two lines of the pASuram. Listening to this, gOdai’s elderly folks who did not have any interest in Him earlier, now form great respect for Him, which is reflected in the next two lines.
SrI UV notes that a similar bhAvam can be assigned to the remaining pASurams also.sarvam SrIman nArAyaNAyEti samarpayAmi.
kaNNan viLaiyATTaik kANDOm
anu’nga ennaip pirivu Seidu Ayar pADi kavarndu uNNum
kuNu’ngu nARik kuTTERRai gOvardhananaik kaNDIrE?
gaNa’ngaLODu min mEgam kalandAR pOla vanamAlai
minu’nga ninRu viLaiyADa virundAvanattE kaNDOmE
“Did you happen to see that young bull by name gOvardhanan, who made me suffer by leaving me alone, has completely taken over AyppADi, is enjoying every bit of it, smells of butter all the time, and looks after the cows?” “Yes, we have seen that kaNNan who wears vanamAlai and plays with all His troupe in vRndAvanam. Watching the beautiful vanamAlai on His dark-hued tirumEni is like watching the lightning in the midst of the clouds”.
gOpAla tApani upanishad talks about His garments which shine like lightning and His wearing the vanamAlai:
sat punDarIka nayanam mEghAbham vaidyutAmbaram |
dvibhujam gnAna mudrADyam vanamAlinam Isvaram ||
(“We should meditate on SrI kRshNa paramAtmA who has eyes resembling the blossomed red lotus flower, a hue like that of the blue color of the clouds, garments that shine like lightning, two hands, and who is rich in knowledge and is wearing a garland made out of forest flowers”).B.Additional thoughts from SrI PVP:
anu’nga ennaip pirivu Seidu: anu’nga – such that I suffer intensely. He left me to suffer and die. When He was with me, He said “I will not separate from you, if I do, I shall not live”. Saying thus, He left me. Because of this, I have to continue to live, in the hope that may be I will get to see Him yet, while suffering intensely because of the separation. Thus, I cannot totally destroy myself in sorrow. gOdai refers to this kind of a death-like torture “anu’nga”.
ennai - Did He think that like Him, I will also grow with separation, with separation as the ‘fertilizer’ for my growth?
Ayar pADi kavarndu uNNum: SrI PVP gives the meaning “Akramittu” – forcibly invading, seizing, for the term kavarndu. He made girls like me (who loved Him) suffer in separation, but abducted those who did not have as much love for Him as I have, imprisoned them in their homes, and enjoyed spending time with them. If only I had stayed away from loving Him, I would not have had to experience this kind of pain.
anu’nga ennaip pirivu Seidu, Ayar pADi kavarnudu uNNum – He left me to suffer through separation, and He is enjoying Himself with the other girls in Ayar pADi.
kuNu’ngu nARi: ‘kuNu’ngu’ means “smell of cattle, butter, etc.”. gOdai loves to enjoy the smell of butter on kaNNan.
Has there been anyone else who had such kind of a desire? sItApirATTi says :“dIkshitam vrata sampannam varAjina dharam Sucim |
“I am devoted to You, wearing dIkshai and special deer skin, doing vratam, very pure and having a deer’s antler in hand”. When rAma was preparing Himself for the yAgam, sItai was very impressed with her husband, who was wearing butter on His tirumEni and doing yAgam wearing deer skin. If His teacher vasishThar says that He has to observe fast for one day for the vratam, He will abstain for two days. If vasishThar says that He should not touch any one else but sItai, He will keep taking bath again and again even if He touches sItai.
kaNNan is the direct opposite of this AcAra picture! parA’nkuSa nAyaki falls in love with the anAcAra vEsham of kaNNan (tiruvAimozhi 4-8-4 ): “kaRaiyinAr tuvar uDukkai kaDaiyAvin kazhi kOl kaic caRaiyinAr kavarAda taLir niRattAl kuRaivilamE” (He is wearing a dress made out of tuvar – skin; that dress has a lot of stains! He is having a stick in His hand to manage the cows and wearing a string of bells – caragai maNi – around His waist in order to make the cows follow Him; what is the use of my fair hue if He does not look at me?”).
In the same way, gOdai falls in love with the butter-smell coming from kaNNan.
kuNu’ngu nARi – He Who is known as sarva-gandhan, has now willingly taken an incarnation so that He can have kuNu’ngu nARRam – the smell of butter and cattle (SrI T. S. Rajagopalan).
kuTTERRai: “kuTTERu” literally translates to “kuTTi ERu – Young bull”. Since He has seized AyarpADi at will and is enjoying everything as He pleases (Ayar pADi kavarndu uNDu), He is acting like a young, proud bull.
gO-vardhananai: One who takes care of cows, and makes them grow from one to one-hundred-thousand. He is used to make sure girls do not survive, but at the same time takes good care of hundreds and thousands of cows.Now we come to the response part.
gaNa’ngaLODu: With His thousands of friends. “tannErAyiram piLLaigaLODu taLar naDai iTTu varuvAn “(periyAzhvAr tirumozhi 3-1-1).
min mEgam kalandAR pOla vanamAlai minu’nga ninRu: The vanamAlai that He is wearing looks like lightening on the cloud-hued kaNNan. The vana mAlai on Him looks like the combination of the lightning in the dark cloud. Imagine the beautiful shining vana mAlai dangling back and forth on His dark tiru mEni, to capture the anubhavam of PVP.
vanamAlai minu’nga ninRu: In mathurai, He went after the mAlAkAran, who presented Him with a mAlai or garland with great enchantment; that is why the mAlai that He is wearing is shining. That mAlAkAran is like a “garbha dAsar “– one who is subservient to perumAl even in the womb of his mother; periyAzhvAr is also a mAlAkArar like him and gOdai thinks that since she is his tirumagaL, He will wear gOdai’s garland and play happily.
viLaiyADa virundAvanattE kaNDOmE: If He wears that mAlai and comes to vrindAvanam, the girls in tiruvAippADi would swoon because of His exquisite charm and so He cannot play there. Instead, He plays with His sakA-s as long as He wants in SrIbrindAvanam and enjoys leelA rasam.
virundAvanattE kaNDOmE: We found kaNNan with vana mAlai, a sight that is normally to be found in SrI vaikunTham, but we found Him with this vana mAlai here in brindAvanam, easily, as a feast to our eyes (SrI T. S. Rajagopalan).
C.Additional thoughts from SrI UV:
anu’nga ennai pirivu Seidu Ayar pADi kavarndu uNNum – He left me, and instead went after the cowherd girls in the SEri (the locality where the cowherds live), just so that He can consume butter without being obstructed. He enticed the AyarpADi folks so that they will feel enchanted and not stop Him from eating butter.
kuNungu: periyAzhvAr refers to this also in periyAzhvAr tirumozhi 2-4-1 “veNNai aLainda kuNungum”. He attracts the folks and eats the butter and yogurt and in that process obtains a distinctive smell on Himself.sarvam SrIman nArAyaNAyEti samarpayAmi.
pASuram 14.3 (fourteenth tirumozhi-pAsuram 3 mAlAip piRanda nambiyai)
garuDanadu Ciragin kIzh varuvAnaik kaNDOm
mAlAip piRanda nambiyai mAlE Seyyum maNALanai
ElAp poygaL uraippAnai i’ngE pOdak kaNDIrE?
mElAl paranda veyil kAppAn vinataic ciRuvan ciRagu ennum
mElAppin kIzh varuvAnai virundAvanattE kaNDOmE
A. From SrImAn SaDagOpan's tamizh treatise:
“Did you see the one who is the embodiment of Love, the one who entices all the girls with His soundaryam, the one who is meant to be my maNALan and the one who goes around throwing lie after lie, go this way?” “We saw a wonderful sight; we saw that kRshNan playing in vrindAvanam. vinatai’s son, garuDan was flying up and down following His path just so that rAja-vENUgOpAlan will not be affected by the hot sun’s rays”. (For a change, instead of SenrAl kuDaiyAm AdiSEshan being an umbrella for Him, here, periya tiruvaDi – garuDan feels happy that He gets to do this kaimkaryam at least now, because AdiSEshan has made His avatAram as balarAman).B.Additional thoughts from SrI PVP:
mAlAip piRanda: mAl = love. He was born as the incarnation of love (towards the girls of AyarpADi). The Sruti declares that in SrI vaikunTham, bhagavAn is of the form of satyam, j~nAnam, etc., as we see in the following mantra from taittirIya AraNyaka 1.1:
“satayam j~nAnam anantam brahma |
yo vEda nihitam guhAyAm paramE vyOman |
so’Snute sarvAn kAmAn saha brahmaNA vipaScitEti ||
(Whoever sees in his heart-cave, the Brahmam that has the form of truth and knowledge and is endless, that person enjoys in paramapadam, the association with that sarvaj~nan with all His kalyANa guna-s.)
Thus, while the vEda declares that He is of the form of satyam, j~nAnam, etc. in SrI vaikunTham, , ANDAL declares that He is of the form of pure love in His incarnation here. She called Him “mAlE” in tiruppAvai-26 too.
nambiyai : The word nambi literally means “a person who is eminent among men”, and is used as a reference to bhagavAn. By referring to Him as “mAlAip piRandavan”, ANDAL only covered one attribute or guNa of kaNNan. Since He is full of endless kalyANa guNa-s, she now adds the word nambi.
mAlE Seyyum: One who was dedicated to showering His love on others. Lord rAma was known for showering His affection and love on all people of all age groups, young and old, men and women, spontaneously first, and this generated their love towards Him.
“sarvEshAm hi sa darmAtmA varNAnAm kurutE dayAm
caturNAm hi vayassthAnAm tEna tE tamanuvratA: “ (ramAyaNam ayodhyA kANDam 17-16)
Our kaNNan similarly showered His love on the AyarpADi girls first, and thus ensured that it generated their love towards Him!
maNALanai: He is the only maNavAlan who can rule over my feminine charm.
ElAp poygaL uraippAnai : He says lies which do not make sense. One gOpi saw kaNNan having turmeric and sandalwood on His tirumEni one time and asked Him “From which girl did you get these marks?” He lied through His teeth “Would I have gotten these from anyone else but you? Do I even know any other girl?” If one wants to listen to truth, one has to go to rAma avatAram. He is “priyavAdI ca bhUtAnAm satyavAdI ca rAghava: “ (rAmAyaNam ayodhyA kANDam 2-32). rAman will speak very sweetly to all beings and He will speak only the truth.
perumAL’s words always reveal the truth and does good for everyone. Since rAma always spoke the truth, His words were always internally consistent, and were true even as they were uttered. kaNNan’s words were always contradicting each other and always appeared as lies. But, His lies also ended in good for everyone, and had the same effect as truths. Thus, for devotees, truth was the refuge in rAma avatAram and lie was the refuge in kRshNa avatAram.
rAma protected His devotees by coordinating His mind, body and words; kaNNan protected His devotees by lessening His own greatness and lying, if only it could protect His devotees. He said that He will not take up any weapon during the war, but took it anyway; He made day time appear like night time, and protected the pANDavas by revealing to them the secret for killing duryOdhana and other enemies.
poygaL uraippAnai: it is not just one or two lies; He has said hundreds of thousands of lies, and made them all sound like truth.
i’ngE pOdak kaNDIrE?: Did you see this great liar go this way? ANDAL considers that His characteristic of lying should be obviously noticeable to everyone as a great way to identify Him!
Now comes the reply from the respondents.
mElAl paRanda veyil kAppAn vinataic ciRuvan ciRagu ennum
mElAppin kIzh varuvAnai : garuDan was spreading his wings in the sky in such a way that kaNNan will be in the shadow of his wings and not be affected by the direct rays of the sun. SrI nampiLLai used to enjoy the words “vinatai ciRuvan” used by ANDAL:
1. ANDAL has chosen the word “ciRuvan” to refer to garuDan in a very meaningful way, clearly revealing that garuDan is Seshan for her also. (“What a wonderful choice of words by ANDAL!” – nampiLLai used to exclaim and enjoy). One who serves as the umbrella for Him is by birth a dAsan for her also.
2. mahAbhAratam talks about kadru (garuDan’s step mother), who made vinatai (garuDan’s mother) her servant and made her stand in the direct sunlight. garuDan protected her at that time from the direct sunlight by giving her shade by spreading his wings in the sky. gOdai might be referring to that also by ‘vinatai ciRuvan’ – the ‘child’ of vinatai, who cared for his mother.
mElAppin kIzh varuvAnai virundAvanattE kaNDOmE: Just as sampAti protected his younger brother jaTAyu from the direct sunlight by spreading his wings, garuDan also made his wings into an umbrella and gave kaNNan shade from the sun. We saw kaNNan as He was playing under those spread wings in bRndAvanam.
C.Additional thoughts from SrI UV:
mAlAip piRanda nambi – He is the incarnation of love and affection to His devotees without distinction; He showered His love and affection even to the uneducated and simple folks of AyarpADi (Our AcArya-s describe these folks as ‘ones who do not even know the difference between the left and the right hands – such simple people). Thus this term is an indication of His guNa paripUrNatvam.
poygaL uraippAnai: Sri UV indulges in this phrase with enjoyment. A ‘good liar’ will lie such that it seems like he/she is telling the truth. All that is said should be internally self-consistent, so that the whole story sounds true. If someone is trying to go up a coconut tree and if he is asked “why are you going up the tree?”, and if he says “I am trying to get some grass from the top of the tree for my calf”, anyone can definitely determine that he is lying, and that his intent is to steal the coconuts. No one will believe him. Our kaNNan is a skillful elder brother to this kind of a liar (“avanukku aNNan ikkaNNan”). If kaNNan was going up the coconut tree, He can also say that He is looking for grass; and if asked to explain how He is looking for grass on a coconut tree, He would say “coconut trees are tRNa-vRksha (the name for a coconut tree in samskRt), and where else will tRNam (the term for grass in samskRt), if not on a tRNa-vRksham? kaNNan would skillfully play with words, will sound with all sincerity and feign truthfulness. If kaNNan is caught while stealing butter from the pot, and if asked “what are you looking for in the pot?”, kaNNan will say “I am looking for my lost calf”. If somebody asks Him how a calf be found in the pot, He would say “I am not looking for the calf in a small pot; I am looking for it in a big pot which looks like a cave”. If some gOpi confronts Him and asks Him why He is torturing her like this, He would say “the woman who is on my chest is making me torture you like this; what can I do?”.sarvam SrIman nArAyaNAyEti samarpayAmi.
viyarttu viLaiyADum kaNNanaik kANDOm
kArt taN kamalak kaN ennum neDum kayiRu paDutti ennai
Irttuk koNDu viLaiyADum ISan tannaik kaNDIrE?
pOrtta muttin kuppAyap pugar mAl yAnaik kanRE pOl
vErttu ninRu viLaiyADa virundAvanattE kaNDOmEA.
From SrImAn SaDagOpan's tamizh treatise:
“He has loving lotus-like eyes embedded in His kariya tirumEni, with which He enslaves me and pulls me here and there with His love and takes my mind with Him wherever He goes, as this is His sport. Did you see this ISan anywhere?”
“We saw Him playing in vrindAvanam, with His body all perspiring. He looked like a huge, dark, shiny, baby elephant that is decorated nicely with pearl garment (because of His perspiration).” (He wouldn’t perspire in SrIvaikuNTham or if He is inside nandagOpan’s house, but we saw Him perspiring because of His playing around outside).B. Additional thoughts from SrI PVP:
kArt taN kamalak kaN ennum:His having red eyes on His black hued body is like seeing refreshing, blossomed lotus flowers with a background of black-hued clouds. His tirumEni, which has the hue of the raining clouds, attracts the hearts and eyes of the on-lookers. Added to that, the beauty of His eyes enchants everyone who looks at Him even further.
BharatAzhvAn exclaims that seeing the beautiful form of rAma pirAn is the only way to get relief for his sorrow of having been born to kaikeyi:
mEgha SyAmam mahA bAhum sthira sattvam dRDa vratam |
kadA drakshyAmahE rAmam jagata: Soka nASanam || rAmAyaNam ayodhyA kANDam 83-8
(He is dark-hued like the cloud; He has long arms; He has consistent strength; He is steadfast in His vratams; He is the one who can relieve the world from sorrows. When will we get to see that rAmapirAn?)
kamalak kaN ennum neDum kayiRu paDutti ennai: He enslaved me through the long net of His beautiful eyes.
kamalak kaN ennum: His eyes are like the lotus flowers that are fully blossomed, beautiful, cool and refreshingly fragrant, and express His unbounded kindness towards everyone.
neDum kayiRu: His lovely eyes attract me and hold me like an infinitely long rope that follows me wherever I go, and ensures that I cannot escape. With His cool glances, He enslaves me so that I cannot escape, ensures that I am completely under His control and incapable of any independent action, and considers this as His main sport as a svatantran.
neDum kayiRu paDutti ennai iRttuk koNDu viLaiyADum ISan: Roaming around, showing off His beautiful tirumEni and attracting girls with His enchanting eyes is all that He does. He has taken over me completely with His beauty, and the net result is that I am completely out of control, and blabber senselessly in fear, and He enjoys this as His pastime, and is the svatantran who does not have to answer to anyone.
pOrtta muttin kuppAyap pugar mAl yAnaik kanRE pOl vErttu ninRu viLaiyADa: When He is playing, small drops of perspiration appear on His face, and they look like the pearl-laden garment (kuppAyam) placed on an elephant-calf.
yAnaik kaNRE pOl:
SrI T.S. rAjagOpAlan notes here an interesting aspect in the choice of words that gOdai uses to describe kaNNan: In the first pAsuram of this fourteenth tirumozhi, she used the phrase “kArERu” (one is who is like a proud, dark bullock); in the second, she used “kuTTERu” (He Who is like a young bull); in this forth pAsuram, she uses “yAnaik kanRu” (He Who looks like a young elephant). The more and more she looks at Him, the more and more He appears new and novel to her (“kANak kANap pudumai koNDAdu” – SrI TSR’s words).
vErttu ninRu viLaiyADa virundAvanattE kaNDOmE: There is no question of His perspiring in Sri vaikuNTham; In tiru AyppADi, He is the young prince, and can’t play and perspire for fear of His parents who want Him decorated with garlands all the time; but, in bRndAvanam, no one constrains Him from playing and sweating, and this is how we found Him in bRndAvanam.
C. Additional thoughts from SrI PBA: kuppAyam means garment; periyAzhvAr uses the same term in peiryAzhvAr tirumozhi 3.5.6. - “kuppAyam ena ninRu kAtci tarum gOvardhanam ennum koRRak kuDaiyE”.
virundAvanattE vIdiyil kaNNanaik kaNDOm
mAdhavan en maNiyinai valaiyil pizhaitta panRi pOl
Edum onRum koLattArA ISan tannaik kaNDIrE?
pItaka ADai uDai tAzhap perum kAr mEgak kanRE pOl
vIdi Ara varuvAnai virundAvanattE kaNDOme
A. From SrImAn SaDagOpan's tamizh treatise:
“Have you seen the Lord who is the Sriyah pati (The Lord of SrI or Lakshmi), my precious jewel, who is arrogant like a boar that skillfully escaped from the net that was thrown to catch it, and does not give away anything from His side except when one is devoted to Him unconditionally?” gOdai is doing nindAstuti of kaNNan here saying that He is “eTTiyum eTTAdavan, kiTTiyum kiTTAdavan”. That mAdhavan is an ‘azhagan’ who is wearing the shining syamantaka gem. When gOdai is feeling proud that she has ensnared Him with her beauty, He is running away from her and is looking like a forest pig that has escaped from the net that the hunters laid for it.
“We saw that person walking in our street in bRndAvanam. He was wearing an exquisite pItAmabaram; it was so long that it was flowing on the ground as He was walking, moving this way and that way beautifully. He looked like a huge, dark colored cloud floating on the sky here and there. We saw Him not in the public places of AyppADi where everyone can see, but in our own SrI bRndAvanam, which is meant for us to play with Him exclusively”.B. Additional thoughts from SrI PVP:
mAdhavan: laksmI nAthan. Since He has for Himself SrIdEvi, who is ma’ngaiyar tilakam, He is a great rasikan.
en maNiyinai: This great rasikan is also an exemplary bhavyan, whom I can tie like a maNi or gem at the end of my garment and control.
valaiyil pizhaitta panRi pOl: But He has now run away like a wild boar that has escaped from its net. SrI puttUr kRshNa svAmi aiyengAr comments that while He gets tied by bhakti, He also escapes from this net temporarily so that He can develop this bhakti of His devotee into parama bhakti, and no matter how much the devotee tries, He won’t be caught till He achieves His wish. He gives the reference from tiruccandaviruttam 83, where tirumazhiSai AzhvAr declares that even SrI vaikunTham is nothing compared to the anubhavam of parama bhakti obtained by controlling the mind with bhakti: “vILvu ilAda bogam viNNil naNNi Erinum…eTTinODu iraNDu ennum kayiRRinAl manam tanaik kaTTi, vIDu ilAdu vaitta kAdal inbam AgumE”
Edum onRum koLattArA: He does not give anything of Himself to these bhaktas; instead, He considers whatever they possess, including the devotees themselves, as His belonging.
pItaka ADai uDai tAzha: Hi tiruppItAmbaram is majestically and gracefully rolling on the ground.
perum kAr mEgak kanRE pOl: perum – huge; kAr – dark; megam – cloud; kanRu – the just-formed cloud fully laden with water (representing His dayA). He resembles the big, dark-hued, rain-laden cloud. SrI puttUr kRshNa svAmi aiyengAr describes His pItAmbaram as resembling lightening, and His tirumEni resembling the dark cloud. The term ‘kanRu’ can also refer to His youth.
vIdi Ara varuvAnai: Just as the clouds occupy the whole sky, He is treating the whole street as His when He is coming. SrI puttUr kRshNa svAmi aiyengAr quotes from kRshNakarNAmrutam which describes this beautifully:paScAt gavAm gopa sutai: parIto vENusvanAnandita viSvacetA: |
(“Let us pray that Our kula daivam gOpAlan comes in that street behind the cows, all surrounded by cowherd boys, delighting everyone by His vEnugAnam and filling in the whole street”).
virundAvanattE kaNDOme: We did not see Him in tiruvAIppADi, where everyone could see Him; but, we saw Him in SrI bRndAvanam, made especially for His playing with us.
C.Additional thoughts from SrI PBA:
valaiyil pizaitta panRi: kaNNan’s innate pride is being referenced here. He is like a wild boar that has successfully escaped from the net through its might, ferocious and full of ego when it escapes. kaNNan is just like that haughty boar that has escaped its snare and can never be caught again.Edum onrum – not even an iota.
koLat tArA – He won’t give even a trace of anything of Him unless the person is totally devoted to Him. His durlabhatvam to those to whom He does not wish to reveal Himself is indicated here.D. Additional thoughts from SrI UV:
mAdhavan en maNiyinai: He is always easily accessible to periya pirATTi. So also, there once was a time when I could rule over Him, just as it is easy to take a gem and tie it in the end of the garment.
panRi pOl: It is very difficult to catch a boar through any part of its body very easily – not through the nose, or leg, or ears, or tail. So also, He is not giving me access to His tiruppavaLam (lips), tirukkai (hands) and tiruvaDi (feet). He doesn’t realize that being accessible to me is for his benefit only. May be, because He incarnated as a varaAham, He forgot that it would be for His benefit and He is acting as if He wants to escape from the net as any normal boar would do.
perum kAr mEgak kanRu – It is as if the huge cloud (perum kAr mEgam) has incarnated in a form that can walk on the street (kanRu). The inner meaning is that He removes all the tApam-s of His devotees and gives them the sweetness of His anubhavam.E. Additional thoughts from SrI T. S. Rajagopalan:
mAdhavan en maNiyinai: mAdhavan Who is very dear to me like a precious gem.
Edum onRum koLat tArA – We are the svam – property, and He is the svAmi – One Who owns this property, that is, everything including us.
perum kAr mEgak kanRE pOl: ANDAL follows periyAzhvAr’s example here. He addresses kaNNan as “karu malaik kuTTan” – the Dark Baby mountain” – periyAzhvAr tirumozhi 1-8-5).aDiyAL,
nAcciyAr tirumozhi XIV – paTTi mEyndOr kArERu
pASuram 14.6 (fourteenth tirumozhi-pAsuram 6 darumam aRiyAk kuRumbanai)
udaya sUriyanaip pOlum kaNNanaik kANDOm
darumam aRiyAk kuRumbanait tan kai SAr’ngam
puruva vaTTam azhagiya poruttam iliyaik kaNDIrE?
uruvu karidAi mugam SeydAi udaya paruppadattin mEl
viriyum kadirE pOlvAnai virundAvanattE kaNDOmE
A. From SrImAn SaDagOpan's tamizh treatise:
“Have you seen that kaNNan go this way - the One who does not have any mercy towards those who love Him, indulges in mischief towards everyone, and has beautiful eyebrows that resemble the SAr’ngam bow that He carries in His hand, but also does not know how to share this beauty of His with those who love Him?”
“We did see that kaNNan with a dark colored tirumEni and lotus-like face in vrindAvanam. With His brilliant face in the background of His dark-hued body, He looked like the rising sun in the background of the huge Eastern mountain”.B. Additional thoughts from SrI PVP:
darumam aRiyA: His behavior towards ANDAL clearly shows that He does not know even the ABC of darumam or dayai. This is quite contrary to what He told sItA pirATTi during His incarnation as rAma. In sundara kANDam 38.41, pirATTi tells hanuman that She has personally been told by Lord rAma that He considers dayA as the highest dharmam:“AnRSamsyam parO dharmah tvatta eva mayA Srutah”
PirATTi laments: “This is not just the word that I heard from hanumAn whom You sent as a messenger to me. I heard it from Your own mouth when we were together and You were ready to give anything I wanted. I asked You at that time - ‘Of all the guNa-s, which is the one that You think as the best?’, and You responded: ‘I cannot withstand when someone is in pain; I consider dayA to be the best of virtues”.
The inner meaning of pirATTi’s question is “What happens if ever we become separated?”. SrI rAma’s answer for that is “I will not let you grieve from separation from Me under any circumstance”. “mayA srutah” - the reason why pirATTi is saying this is –“I know I heard these words myself from Your mouth. Are these going to be just words that were uttered casually, and not meant to be followed by You in practice?” pirATTi is asking hanumAn to remind rAma of these words, and ask Him the same question - “Are You going to stand by Your words and show that dayA to me, or are they going to be just mere words?”
kuRumbanai: On second thoughts, ANDAL feels: “AnRSamsyam or dayA can be expected of Lord rAma who is cakravarti tirumagan, but after all kaNNan is just a kurumban - a mischievous cowherd, and dayA cannot be expected out of Him”.
tan kai SAr’ngam aduvE pOl puruva vaTTam azhagiya: He Whose eyebrows have the beauty that resemble the beauty of the SAr’ngam bow that He has in His hand. There is nothing in the world that is equal in beauty to His eyebrows except His own SAr’ngam – bow. Only these two can stand comparison to each other, and nothing else can be compared to either of these. If we see the bow in His hand, we can say - “That which is supposed to be on His face (namely the eyebrows) is in His hand”. On the other hand, if we look at His eyebrows, we could say “How come the bow that is supposed to be in His hand, is now embedded in His face?” His eyebrows are so beautiful and curved, and thus resemble the beautiful Sar’ngam in all respects – including that of piercing others by their beauty.
poruttam iliyai: There is no match between this beauty of His on the one hand, and His cruel treatment of those who love Him, on the other. What is the use of the beauty of this unloving person? He does not show any affection to me, even though I am showering my love on Him.
kaNDIrE? Even though His love to us is not evident, it is our lot to love Him all the same. gOdai desires to see Him even as One not showing any affection for her.Now follows the response:
uruvu karidAi – He with a dark hue.
mugam SeidAi – With a youthful, reddish, beauiful countenance. (SeidAi is interpreted as Semmai uDaiyadAi, where Semmai refers to redness as well as beauty). SrI puttUr kRshNaswAmy aiye’ngAr refers to the lotus-like eyes, mouth, hands, feet etc., and the shining bright ornaments that adorn Him.
udaya paruppadattin mEl viriyum kadirE pOlvAnai – paruppadam refers to parvatam. KaNNan, with His dark hue and reddish, youthful, beautiful countenance, is like the rising sun in the background of the black mountain.
The rising sun is such that it can be seen with bare eyes; it is red and lustrous and feels cool to the eyes. KaNNan also has dark tirumEni and is lustrous by His youth, lotus-like eyes, hands, feet and lips and is decorated with radiating beautiful jewelry. So, when He came in SrI brindAvanam which is luscious green, He resembled the rising sun.
In SrImad rAmAyaNam ayodhyA kANDam 3-36, SrImad vAlmIki compares Lord rAma to the rising Sun:tadAsanavaram prApya vyadIpayada rAghava: |
“When He reached that great Asanam, He made it shine with His own luster; like the mEru mountain that shines from the rising Sun’s bright rays”.
When rAma was getting ready for His paTTAbhishEkam, He was wearing many shining, beautiful ornaments, and was talking to everyone who came to see Him with a smiling face. vAlmIki compares Lord rAma’s appearance at that time to that of the rising Sun. When kaNNan chose to reveal His pleasing appearance in SrI bRndAvanam to the gopi-s, ANDAL is using this same analogy to describe kaNNan. There is also a description of kaNNan to the “pleasing appearance of the Sun” in samskRt literature - “tatra gOvindam AsInam prasann a Aditya varcasam”.
virundAvanattE kaNDOmE: ANDAL uses the analogy to describe the pleasing appearance of kaNNan as seen in bRindAvanam, like the beautiful and radiant rising Sun in the backdrop of the black mountains, and not the “scorching Sun of mid-day” that He was as seen by her in AyarpADi!C. Additional thoughts from SrI UV:
darumam ariyAk kuRumbanai: The inner meaning is that He behaves as One who does not conform to the world standards, but loves the cowherds of AyarpADi so much that He indulges in mischievous acts in playing with them.
tan kai SAr’ngam aduvE pOl puruva vaTTam azhagiya: To vanquish His enemies, He has the SAr’ngam (bow) in His hand. His eyebrows resemble the SAr’ngam; they are curved like the bow in shape; they have the quality to weaken anyone who looks at them with their beauty; they torture His lovers too. Thus, He has one bow in His hand to vanquish His enemies and He has two bows in the form of eyebrows to give trouble to those who love Him; He is only bent on doing mischief and has no dayai. What else can we call Him except “darumam ariyAk kuRumban?”. The inner meaning is that He is the azhagan who has no equal.udayap parupadam – He is “kadir madiyam pOl mugattAn “ (tiruppAvai 1)
karu niRak kaNNanaik kANDOm
poruttam uDaiya nambiyaip puRam pOl uLLum kariyAnaik
karuttaip pizhaittu ninRa ak-karu mA-mugilaik kanDIrE?
aruttit tArA gaNa’ngaLAl Arap perugu vAnam pOl
virtuttam peridAi varuvAnai virundAvanattE kaNDOmE
A. From SrImAn SaDagOpan's tamizh treatise:
“Have you seen that kaNNan who is “poruttam ili” in the sense that He does not know how to share His beauty with those who love Him as we saw in last pASuram, but who is quite consistent (poruttam uDaiya nambi) in the sense that His mind is as cruel, merciless and dark inside as His hue is outside? He is also One who escapes our mental comprehension, and is huge and dark like the dark clouds.”
“Yes, we saw that emperumAN in bRndAvanam, surrounded by a big crowd of all His friends, and He looked like a bright sky studded with a huge collection of stars when He came surrounded by His friends”.
gOdai is using nindA stuti in the first half of this pAsuram and in the second half shares her great happiness with her friends.
ANDAL reached that state “parmA gati” pointed out by Srimad bhAgavatam.
B. Additional thoughts from SrI PVP:
poruttam uDaiya nambiyai: In the previous pAsuram, gOdai called Him “poruttamili”. Now she says “What I said earlier was wrong in one sense. ‘poruttam ilAmai’ would apply to the people of this world who appear contradictory in the inside and outside. He is really “poruttam uDaiya nambi” since He is dark outside, and He is also dark inside – His mind is cruel and He has no love to those who love Him”. Then again, He is ‘nambi’ – One Who is complete in all respects, and so there is no way that He can be called ‘poruttam ili’ any way.
puRam pOl uLLum kariyAnai: what is the poruttam that applies in His case? Just as He is dark-hued on the outside, He has a dark heart also. So He is uniformly dark inside and out. He is not inconsistent like cakravarti tirumagan, who was dark outside, but had a very kind heart that was far from dark. gOdai is reaching the peak of nindA stuti here!
karuttaip pizhaittu ninRa: He Who has falsified my belief and faith that He will not leave me thus. He is standing forgetting the memory of me and Himself. When He was with her, He said “I will not leave you; if I leave, I shall not live”. Even as gOdai was beginning to believe in His words, He left her and made her thoughts false.
ak-karu mA-mugilaik kanDIrE?: But even after all that He did to me, I cannot even get mad at Him for leaving me, because of His exquisite and incomparable divine beautiful form resembling the dark-hued cloud.
Now follows the response:
arutti – This term means “a thing that is greatly liked”. ANDAL uses this word to qualify the “tArA gaNa’ngaL” or the collection of stars. SrI PVP explains the word as “spRhaNiya” – desirable. SrI kRshNasvAmi aiye’ngAr ascribes the ‘desirability’ of the stars (nava graha-s) because they are worshipped by those who desire lesser benefits. The ‘desirability’ could also be attributed to their sheer beauty, which is the interpretation that is suggested by SrI UV.
aruttit tArA gaNangaLAl Arap perugu vAnam pOl: Just like the sky that is flooded with innumerable collections of beautiful stars and planets.
virtuttam peridAi varuvAnai : viruttam refers to the samskRt word ‘vRndam’, which means ‘ a large collection (of kaNNan’s friends)’. periyAzhvAr describes the scene when kaNNan walks surrounded by His friends: “tannEr Ayiram pILLaigaLODu taLar naDai iTTu varuvAn” (periyAzhvAr tirumozhi 3-1-1). ANDAL’s description of this scene of kaNNan surrounded by His huge gathering of friends looks like the beautiful sky filled with the large collection of lustrous stars and planets.
SrI PVP gives an alternate pATham also. Instead of “Arap perugum”, if we take the words as “Arap parugum”, then we have “aruttit tArA gaNa’ngaLAl Arap parugum vAnam pOl” – then we have the anubhavam: When kaNNan is seen in the midst of his multitude of friends, He looks like the beautiful star-studded cloud that is fondly viewed (Arap parugum vAna pOl) by a large number of people (viruttam peridAi varuvAn).
Yet another anubhavam given in SrI PVP’s vyAkhyAnam is – aruttittu ArA gaNa’ngaLAl Arap parugum vAnam pOl. This gives another beautiful meaning - He is the cloud Who is surrounded by the large gathering of people who are never satisfied (ArA gaNa’ngaLAl) no matter how much they worship Him (aruttittu), and Who is enjoyed by them ever more, constantly (Arap parugum).
The identical analogy of people looking at the cloud without being satisfied, and people looking at kaNNan and not feeling satisfied, is also given by SrI valmIki in rAmAyaNam ayodhyA kANDam 3-30 in the context of describing Lord rAma’s beauty. There he describes how dasarathan was constantly looking at rAma’s beauty without becoming satisfied, just like the people who keep looking longingly at the rain-bearing clouds after a summer drought.
“gharmAbhi taptA: parjanyam hlAdayantamiva prajA: |
na tatarpa samAyANtam paSyamAnO narAdhipa: ||”
virundAvanattE kaNDOmE: When He is seen in tiruvAippADi along with His friends, because of the large number of other people around, one can only get a cursory glance at Him, like looking at a whole forest; but in bRndAvanam which is the exclusive place for His consorts, gOdai’s friends are getting a good, close ekAnta Sevai of kaNNan.
C. Additional thoughts from SrI UV:
SrI UV gives an alternate interpretation that has a completely positive connotation by ANDAL, instead of the ‘nindA stuti’ interpretation of SrI PVP.
poruttam uDaiya nambi – He has ‘all match’ with me because He has now appeared before me.
karuttai – He Who has always been dear to my heart, and has dwelt in my heart.
kariyAn: He Who will not create tApam to anyone.
pizhaittu ninRa akkaru mAmugilai: When He left me He said “na jIvEyam khsaNamapi”; and He preserved His life just for me and came to me today.
SrI UV also gives alternate interpretations for some of the terms in the pASuram:
tArA: wife; tArA gaNa’ngaL viruttam peridAi varuvAnai – He Who is coming, surrounded by all His consorts.
vAnam: One of the meanings for this word is ‘rain’. The phrase ‘tArA gaNa’gaL Arap perugu vAnam” can then refer to “torrential rains”. SrI UV refers us to periyAzhvAr tirumozhi 3.4.1, where AzhvAr compares the arrival of gOvindan decorated with His peacock feathers etc., and surrounded by His friends, accompanied by the sound of His flute and other instruments, to the arrival of rain accompanied by dense clouds. The description is of gOpi-s rushing out of their houses thinking that huge rain clouds were approaching.
“tazhaigaLum tongalum tadumbi e’ngum
taNNumai ekkamattaLi tAzh pIli,
kuzhaLgaLum gItamum Agi e’ngum
gOvindan varuginRa kUTTam kaNDu
mazhai kolO varuginRadenRu Solli” (periyAzhvar tirumozhi 3.4.1)
sarvam SrIman nArAyaNAyEti samarpayAmi.
kalyANi kRshNamAcAri http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Oppiliappan/message/2778
pASuram 14.8 (fourteenth tirumozhi-pAsuram 8 veLiya Sangu onRu uDaiyAnai)
veLiya Sa’ngu onRu uDaiyAnaip pItaka ADai uDaiyAnai
aLi nangu uDaiya tirumAlai AzhiyAnaik kaNDIrE?
kaLi vaNDu e’ngum kalandARp pOl kamazh pU’nkuzhaLgaL taDantOL mEl
miLira ninRu viLaiyADa virundAvanattE kaNDOme
A. From SrImAn SaDagOpan's tamizh treatise:
gOdai is done with her nindAstuti of emperumAN. At last He is coming to ANDAL displaying all His soundaryam, to remove all her sufferings from His separation forever. In this pASuram, ANDAL describes this scene as He is coming to her: “Did you see that Sriyah pati (tirumAl), who carries the exquisitely white hued Sa’ngam called SrI pA’ncajanyam in His one hand, wears the beautiful pItAmbaram on His body, carries a cakram in His other Hand and is the embodiment of compassion towards all?”
The response: “We saw that perumAn playing in virundAvanam; His beautiful, fragrant hair, which looked like dark bees flying around after drinking a lot of honey, was flowing on His big shoulders when He was playing.”
B. Additional thoughts from SrI PVP:
veLiya Sa’ngu onRu uDaiyAnai: He is having in His hand, the great Sri PA’ncajanyam – conch, that is white in color and adds beauty of color to His dark tirumEni. tirumangai AzhvAr refers to His dark hue resembling the color of ink and of the great dark blue ocean, and His resting on the fig leaf, bearing the conch on His hand - periya tirumozhi 7.10.2 “kaiyil Or SanguDai mai niRak kaDal”.
veLiya Sa’ngau onRu uDaiyAnai: SrI T.S. rAjagopAlan associates the term “onRu” to the whiteness of the Sa’ngu that He has – in this interpretation, the Sa’ngu that He carries in His hand is incomparable in its whiteness to any other Sa’ngu. In other words, this supreme and incomparable whiteness is adding to the beauty of the beautiful dark hue or emperumAn as He is revealing Himself to ANDAL and her friends.
pItaka ADai uDaiyAnai: His red garment is adding more beauty to His dark tirumEni.
aLi nangu uDaiya: This is to be interpreted as “nangu aLi uDaiya” - He Who has deep Mercy in His heart (towards His devotees).
tirumAlai : SrI PVP enjoys the use of this word “tirumAlai”, immediately following the phrase “aLi nangu uDaiya” – One Who has love towards His devotees, and points out that emperumAn has this great compassion towards His devotees because He is “tiru mAl” – One Who is ever associated with tiru or mahA lakshmi.
AzhiyAnai: He who has the cakkaram in His hand. It is common for AzhvArs to talk of bhagavAn’s Sa’nkham and cakkaram in one breath – for example: - kUrAr Azhi veN Sa’ngu Endi – nammAzhvAr tiruvAimozhi. 6-9-1 - Sangu cakkarangaL enRu kai kUppum – nammAzhvAr tiruvAimozhi. 7.2.1
But here ANDAL starts the pASuram with “veLiya Sa’ngu”, and then refers to His pItaka ADai, aLi, His being a tiru mAl, and then only refers to His having a cakkaram in His other hand (AzhiyAnai). SrI PVP sees the subtle significance in ANDAL not referring to His Sa’nkham and cakram in one breath – it is just to make sure that His beloved does not suffer “kaN eccil” – dRshTi dosham.
Now, follows the response:
kaLi vaNDu e’ngum kalandARp pOl kamazh pUnkuzhaLgaL taDantOL mEl miLira: ANDAL describes the beauty of the appearance of the locks of His hair, the beauty of His broad shoulders, and their fragrance. kaNNan’s beautiful hair locks are floating on His broad (“maLLANDa tiN tOL”) shoulders; this looks like the collection of bees buzzing around after being intoxicated with consumption of lot of honey from fragrant flowers. Again, this cannot be seen and enjoyed in tiruvAippaDi, because yasOdai would have braided kaNNan’s kuzhal and decorated it with flowers. So one cannot find His hair rolling around chaotically on His shoulders in beautiful wavy appearance. But ANDAL’s friends now find kaNNan freely playing round with His lustrous locks flowing on His broad shoulders in SrI brindAvanam.
kaLi vaNDu e’ngum taDam tOL mEl: SrI T.S. rAjagOpAlan: The dark locks of hair flowing on the taDam tOlgaL (broad shoulders) are like a great garden where intoxicated bees are roaming around. Thus the comparison of the broad shoulders to a great garden, and the comparison of the fragrant locks of hair to the fragrance of the flowers in the garden, and the dark color of the flowing locks of hair to the swarming bees is to be enjoyed.
C. Additional thoughts from SrI PBA:
BhagavAn’s beautiful black fragrant locks of hair rolling on His broad shoulders have been compared to the buzzing crowd of intoxicated bees after they have consumed the honey from the fragrant flowers, by other AzhvArs also. :
1)periyAzhvAr indulges in emperumAn’s “Se’nkamalap pUvil tEn uNNum vaNDE pOl pangigaL vandu un pavaLa vAi moippa” - (periyAzhvAr tirumozhi 1.9.2) – The locks of hair rolling over His reddish lips resembles the bees trying to drink honey from red lotus flowers). 2) tiruma’ngai AzhvAr also refers to the dark beautiful black locks of hair of emperumAn – mai vaNNa naRum ku’njik kuzhal pin tAzha – tiruneDuntANDakam 21 – where the deep dark color of the hair is compared to the dark ink (mai vaNNam), and the curly hair (ku’njik kuzhal) falling freely on His body (pin tAzha) is described.
D. Additional thoughts from SrI UV:
Sa’ngu onRu uDaiyAnai – Note the use of the word “onRu”. SrI UV translates this term as “oppaRRa – incomparable”. The word “onRu” specifically stresses that the Sa’ngu that He has is unique in that it is incomparable to any other Sa’ngu that has ever existed or will ever exist.
gOdai is presenting an extraordinary picture of kaNNan with four special attributes: 1. He is holding SrI pA’ncajanyam – conch, in His left upper hand 2. Because He found gOdai and is attempting to come faster to her, His pItAmbaram is slipping and He tries to hold that with His lower left hand 3. With His lower right hand, He is holding His Chief Consort – tirumagaL 4. On His upper right hand, He is holding tiruvAzhi – cakkaram. And He is coming with great kAruNyam because of His association with SrIdEvi.
aLi nangu uDaiya tiru mAl – Note that the adjective “aLi nangu uDaiya” applies to both tiru and mAl – to both pirATTi and to Him.
sarvam SrIman nArAyaNAyEti samarpayAmi.
kalyANi kRshNamAcAri http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Oppiliappan/message/2809
pASuram 14.9 (fourteenth tirumozhi-pAsuram 9 nATTaippaDai enRu)
asurargaLai azhitta kaNNanaik kaNDOm
nATTaip paDai enRu ayan mudalAt tanda naLir mAmalarundi
vITTaip paNNi viLaiyADum vimalan tannaik kaNDIrE?
kATTai nADit tEnuganum kaLirum puLLum uDan maDiya
vETTai ADi varuvAnai virundAvanattE kaNDOmE
A. From SrImAn SaDagOpan's tamizh treatise:
“Have you seen this blemish-less emperumAn, who, through His leelA, first created the beautiful lotus in His navel, then created brahmA on this lotus, and ordained him to create the rest of the worlds?”
“We did see that kaNNan (in virundAvanam), who created the creator, but who did not then just leave the protection of the created beings to this creator alone or to the created beings themselves, but took it upon Himself to protect them also by getting rid of the evil beings in order to protect the good. We saw that kaNNan who, like a hunter who kills all the wild animals, got rid of dhEnukAsuran, the elephant kuvalayApIDam and bakAsuran so easily.”
ANDAL is seeing Him as the Creator of the four-faced brahmA, who is in the sprouting lotus in bhagavAn’s nAbhIk kamalam. In SrImad bhAgavatam daSama skandam, in the fourteenth chapter, brahmA describes the leelA of His Creator, and the Creator of all. One of the Sloka-s which describes Him in brahmA’s words is as follows:
“SrI kRshNa vRshNi kula pushkara joshadAyin kshmA nirjara dvijapaSUdadhi
vRddhi kArin |
uddharma Sarvarahara kshiti rAkshasa dhRk Akalpam Arkam arhan bhagavan namastE ||”
“hE kRshNa, you are like the sun making the lotus that is vRshNi kulam blossom! hE kRshNa, you are like the moon that makes the ocean waves (the earth, deva-s, brAhmaNa-s, animals, oceans, etc.) rise up and flourish! You are the sun that drives away darkness that appears in the form of false religions! You are the destroyer of the asura-s such as kamsa! You are the One who is worthy of worship always by the likes of the Sun! I prostrate to You!”. It is this kRshNan (who was praised by brahmA) that ANDAL finds in SrI bRndAvanam, that she is describing in this pASuram.
B. Additional thoughts from SrI PVP:
“nATTaip paDai” enRu ayan mudalAt tanda: BhagavAn created brahmA and then told Him “Go ahead and proceed with the creation of others”. He first created the brahmANDam with all the requisites for brahmA to proceed with creation. This was creation at the samashTi level, or at the aggregate level. Then He ordained brahmA to proceed with the next level of creation – at the individual or vyashTi level.
ayan mudalAt tanda: SrI PVP enters into discussion on the issue of reconciling the singular used in bhagavAn’s command to brahmA “paDai – create”, and the following phrase in plural “ayan mudalAt tanda - by giving (creating) brahmA and others”. SrI PVP explains that even though bhagavAn created brahmA and other prajApati-s through him for the purpose of procreation, the specific function of creation was entrusted to brahmA alone, and hence the use of the singular “paDai”. The reference to prjApati-s is described in many places, including vishNu purANam 1.7. The first sons of brahmA – sanandana and others, were completely estranged from the universe and devoid of desire for progeny, and dedicated themselves totally and absolutely to holy wisdom. Thus brahmA had to create the prajApati-s to continue with his creation. So the term ‘mudalA” in this context will mean “etc._- “by creating brahmA etc., and then asking brahmA to proceed with creation”. But the singular is justified by the fact that brahmA was the sole individual that was directly commanded by bhagavAn with the task of creation:
tatra suptasya devasya nAbhau padmam abhUt mahat |
tasmin padme mahAbhAga! Veda vedA’nga pAragah ||
brahmotpannah sa tenoktah prajAh sRja mahAmate || (nArasimha purANam)
“Oh great one! When that nArANayan was sleeping, a great lotus was formed in His nAbhi. In that lotus appeared brahmA who was well versed in vEdams and vEdAngams. nArAyaNan told brahmA: “oh great learned one, create the jIva-s”. Note the words from bhagavAn to brahmA – “prajAh sRja” – “nATTaip paDai”.
Alternatively, SrI PVP comments that the pATham “ayan tannait tanda” has been favored by SrI nampiLLai, since this matches with the singular used in the original command “paDai”, and is thus more appealing in the view of SrI nampiLLai.
(SrI UV resolves the issue by giving the interpretation that “ayan mudalA” means “with brahmA as the principal or the first one” – “mudalvanAga”. See more discussion under SrI UV below).
naLir mAmalar undi vITTaip paNNi viLaiyADum: As part of His leelA (viLaiyADum), He created a place (vITTaip paNNi) in the lotus flower sprouting from His cool (naLir), deep, large, navel (mA malar undi) for brahmA to feel comfortable in his very difficult job. Every word chosen here is significant. naLir means “comforting, pleasant, cool”, to provide a comfortable accommodation for brahmA in his difficult job of creation. mA malar is “the big flower” – the lotus flower in His navel, that is big enough to accommodate this large brahmANDa. His tirunAbhik kamalam relieves tiredness because of being cool and has the broad area for creating the whole universe and other sRshTi-s; He has given a place for brahmA on this nAbhik kamalam and enjoying this whole sRshTi game as His leelA rasam.
vimalan tannaik kaNDIrE?: He is pure of heart – vimalan. He is “vimalan” because He engages in creation only for the benefit of the jIva-s, and does not worry about the fact that brahmA and others are only interested in the ‘position and status’, and are not truly interested in attaining Him.
Now follows the response:
kATTai nADit tEnuganum kaLirum puLLum uDan maDiya vETTai Adi varuvAnai : The friends of gOdai respond that they see Him as One Who goes and searches after (nADi) the evil beings such as dhEnukan, kuvalayApIDam, bakAsuran, etc., like an aggressive hunter going in search of wild animals hiding in hard-to-find bushes.
SrI PVP gives a nice connection between the first part, where gOdai asks her friends whether they found the One who created brahmA and through him created all the prajA-s, and the response where the friends say that they found this great One Who hunts down and destroys the asura-s. BhagavAn could have left it as the responsibility of brahmA to protect and look after the jIva-s that he has created, or alternatively, He could have left it to the jIva-s to take care of themselves. But the compassionate Lord vishNu does not absolve responsibility for the protection of His children. He makes sure that the Asuric people are hunted down and destroyed, so that the good ones can live in peace. The asura-s take all kinds of deceitful forms, but He hunts them down and gets rid of them for the welfare of the good – [[ “paritrANAya sAdhUnAm vinASAya ca dushkRtAm | dharma samsthApanArthAya sambhavAmi yugE yugE” || - gItai]]
He created this universe directly and then delegated further responsibilities to brahman and others to create other sRshTi-s. Instead of leaving their maintenance and protection from evil forces to the sRsTi-s themselves, He feels attached as their Owner, takes avatArams and comes and helps them get rid of enemies.
virundAvanattE kaNDOmE: we saw Him not in tiruvAippADi, but in SrI bRndAvanam, where we could hug Him to our heart’s content with great love (just as sItai embraced SrI rAmapirAn after the vadam of karan and his troupe - “bhartAram parishasvajE” – rAmAyaNam AraNya kANDam 94-18)
C. Additional thoughts from SrI UV:
ayan mudalA: SrI UV also discusses the consistency issue between the singular form “paDai” and the possible plural form “ayan mudalA”, and refers to the different possible explanations referred to by SrI PVP. In addition, he gives a very satisfactory explanation by giving the meaning “mudalvanAga – as the first one”, referring to brahmA being the first one that bhagavAn created. If “mudalA” is taken as plural – brahmA and others, then he gives reference to tiruvAimozhi 10.10.3 “mEvittozhum piraman Sivan indiranAdikkellAm nAbhikamala mudal kizhangE”, where nammAzhvAr refers to brahmA, Siva, indra, etc., all originating from His navel as the first place of origin with brahmA – in other words, bhagavAn created brahmA from His navel, and then brahmA created the others.
viLaiyADum: having brahma as His child and talking with him is leelA for Him; making madhu-kaiTabha-s steal the vEda-s and recovering them back is leelA for Him; keeping brahmA as a pretext and doing vyashTi sRshTi in the form of his antaryAmi, just as He performs samashTi sRshTi, sthiti and samhara is leelA for Him.
vimalan: akhila hEya pratyanIkan – completely devoid of any limiting or defiling defects of any kind. (SrI PBA translates the term as ‘parama pAvanan’). He is vimalan because He provides a house (body) for the jIva-s for their benefit for the enjoyment of their karma-s purely out of His kRpA, because He does not have dOshams such as discrimination, inequality, injustice etc. (vaishamyam); and because even though He is the antaryAmi in everyone, none of the defects of these jIva-s even remotely attach to Him.
kaLiRU: elephant. He killed kuvalayApIDam in mathurA. One can ask – how come ANDAL is referring to the killing of kuvalayApIDam in the forests of bRndAvanam (kATTai nADi… virundAvanattE kaNDOmE) , when the elephant was actually killed in mathurA? It could be taken to mean any elephant that was slain in the forest instead of to kuvalayApIDam. Alternately, SrI UV comments that mathurA was a ‘forest’ till kaNNan came there and slew kuvalyApIDam etc., because mathurA without kaNNan is a ‘deserted forest’ anyway. He gives reference to vALmIki, who describes ayodhyA without rAma as a “forest” - “ayodhyAm aTavIm viddhi”.
uDan maDiya: SrI UV interprets the word ‘uDan’ to mean “together, and then discusses the relevance of this word in this pASuram. With this interpretation, this wording suggests that dhEnukan, kuvalayApIDam, bakAsuran, etc. died together or at the same time. Since all these asuras were killed when kaNNan was very young, in a short space of time, without much effort on His part, it can be said for practical purposes that “they all died at the same time”. It is also true that even if dhenukan, kuvalyApIDam, and bakAsuran came together to attack kaNNan at the same time, He is capable of vanquishing them all at the same time.
In contrast, SrI PVP interprets the word ‘uDan’ to mean “uDanE” – immediately, on the spot, without effort on the part of kaNNan. This seems like a more straightforward interpretation.
vETTai ADi varuvAnai – Reference was made earlier to vaidEhi embracing Lord rAma after He returned from the battlefield after slaying kara, dUshaNa etc. Here, ANDAL is describing her kaNNan returning after hunting down and slaying the evil asura-s. The parallel is evident. This last pASuram before the final one which is the phala Sruti, can be understood as the blessing of all of ANDAL’s elders and friends for her to embrace her kaNNan and live happily in His service for ever.
D. Additional thoughts from SrI T.S.rAjagOpAlan:
The main theme of this particular pASuram is ANDAL’s description of bhagavAn’s extreme kRpA in creating the universe for the benefit of the jIva-s, and His Infinite Mercy in protecting the created beings.
sarvam SrIman nArAyaNAyEti samarpayAmi.
kalyANi kRshNamAcAri http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Oppiliappan/message/2841
pASuram 14.10 (fourteenth tirumozhi-pAsuram 10 -
parundAL kaLiRRUkku aruL Seyda)
emperumAn aDikkIzh vAzhvar
parundAL kaLiRRUkku aruL Seyda paraman tannaip pArinmEl
virundAvanattE kaNDamai viTTu cittan kOdai Sol
marundAm enRu tam manattE vaittuk koNDu vAzhvArgaL
perum tAL uDaiya pirAN aDik kIzhp piriyAdu enRum iruppArE
A. From SrImAn SaDagOpan's tamizh treatise:
In the very last pASuram of nAcciyAr tirumozhi, SUDik koDutta nAcciyAr, ANDAL, declares the benefit or phalan that will accrue to those who chant the last tirumozhi that came out as a result of extreme happiness from seeing her kaNNan in virundAvanam:
gOdai, the daughter of viTTucittan, sang these pASurams narrating how she discovered in brindAvanam, right on this Earth, that very same Paraman who saved the elephant, gajEndran. Those who want to cross the ocean of samsAra should keep these pASUrams in mind as their medicine for achieving the objective of having the nitya anubhavam of being associated with His Feet for ever and inseparably.
There is no doubt, that with ANDAL’s anugraham, bhaktas will be blessed with this great anubhavam of being for ever at emperumAN’s tiruvaDigaL.
B. Additional thoughts from SrI PVP:
gOdai completes the prabandham by concluding that whoever does anusandhAnam of this tirumozhi will be blessed with eternal kaimkaryam to emperumAn.
parum tAL kaLiRRUkku aruL Seyda paraman: He Who relieved the suffering of the elephant with fat, huge legs. The reference to the ‘huge, mighty legs’ here is to show that the misery and suffering that the huge elephant was subjected to was also proportionately huge, and He relieved that misery.
That elephant got stuck in an area which is not natural for it – in the water, where a crocodile caught its leg. When gajEndran could not get out of the clutches of the crocodile no matter how hard it tried, and ultimately called out His name for help, He just rushed out to help gajEndran, without properly adjusting His vastram, and without worrying whether His weapons (Sa’nkha, cakra etc.), were properly positioned. At the speed at which He was rushing out to relieve gajEndran of his suffering, bhagavAn’s dress was flying in a disorderly fashion, as was His hairdo ( arai kulaiya, talai kulaiya – are SrI PVP’s words). His concern for His devotee was such that like a mother, He started blowing out warm air from His mouth at the wounds of gajEndran to provide relief from the pain. His actions made it clear that there is no other rakshakan worth calling for, for those who think of seeking protection.
SrI PVP points out the significance for ANDAL recounting gajEndra vRttAntam here. She is pointing out that she underwent suffering of the magnitude of gajEndran, all because of separation from Him; and just as He appeared in front of the elephant and removed his suffering, now He has appeared before her and removed her sorrow also.
SrI PVP gives reference to vishNu dharmam, where the power of thinking of Him and meditating on HIm is revealed in the following SlOka describing the gajEndra vRttAntam:
“param Apadam Apanna: manasA acintayat harim |
sa tu nAgavara: SrImAn nArAyaNa parAyaNa : || “ (vishNudharmam 69-47)
“Even as he was facing extreme danger, the great gajEndra who was dedicated to kaimkaryam to bhagavAn as his greatest wealth (kaimkarya SrI), and who had the realization that nArAyaNa is the Sole Protector, contemplated on Hari in his mind”.
pArin mEl: He has been seen right here, in this bhU lokam itself, in His leelA vibhUti.
VirundAvanattE kaNDamai: He has been seen in bRndAvanam in the solitude of His exclusive devotees, and not in the midst of the multitude of people in tiru AyppADi. He reveals Himself exclusively to His true devotees easily, but not to those who are not exclusively devoted to Him. He gives Himself to those who love Him dearly.
viTTu cittan kOdai: The key emphasis on AcArya being the necessary and essential intermediary in the realization of emperumAn is the principal point that is brought out by ANDAL here. ANDAL has been repeatedly pointing out that her great virtue and blessing is that she has the association with her AcArya in the form of periAzhvAr. The reason why gOdai could see such divine scenes is the fact that she was viTTucittan’s daughter. She has already confirmed this in NT 10.10 “viTTucittar tangaL dEvarai valla parisu varuvipparEl, adu kANDumE”.
PuttUr SrI kRshnasvAmi aiyengAr refers us to SvAmi dEsikan’s nyAsa tilakam, Slokam 22, where the pride with which we should treasure our association with our AcArya, and the importance of our AcArya as a necessary intermediary in our receiving His protection, are revealed:
“uktyA dhana’njaya vibhIshaNa lakshyayA te pratyAyya lakshmaNa muner
bhavatA vitIrNam |
srutvA varam tadanubandha madAvalipte nityam prasIda bhagavan mayi ranganAtha || “
(“Oh aranganagarappA! I am aware of Your promise to all prapanna-s through Your words to arjuna and vibhIshaNa, that You will always protect those who have surrendered to You unconditionally; I also know of the discourse You had with emperumAnAr, where You have promised to him that anyone who has association with him through any of the subsequent AcArya-s in his lineage, will automatically reach Your Divine feet at the end of this lifetime. Being thus assured of Your protection, I am proud of my association with emperumAnAr. I pray to You to bless me always for ever”.
viTTu cittan kOdai Sol marundAm enRu: The pASuram-s thus composed by gOdai who is proudly associated with vittu cittan as her father and AcArya, are verily the medicine to get out of the bondage of samsAra.
manattE vaittuk koNDu vAzhvArgaL: Those who realize this great truth (namely, that the pASurams revealed to us by ANDAL are the medicine to cross the ocean of samsAra). These are the people that are described in taittirIya AraNyaka as
“Anandam brahmaNO vidhvAn na bibhEdi kutascana | “ (taitt. AraN. 9)
(One who has realized the Bliss of Brahman will not fear anything”.)
SrI TS rAjagOpAlan quotes several passages where bhagavAn is Himself
described as the medicine for the suffering resulting from the bondage of
“marundum poruLum amudamum tAnE” (mUnRAm tiruvandAdi-4);
“nirvANam besahjam bishak” “oushadam” – SrI vishNu sahasranAmam.
“vaidyo nArAyaNo harih”
What ANDAL is revealing to us here is the singing of His glory is equally a medicine, nay, a better medicine, for the suffering of samsAra. [[ Recall the incident of kaNNan being forever indebted to draupadi for her calling out His name when she needed His protection – a great illustration of His nAma mahimA]].
perum tAL uDaiya pirAN aDik kIzh piriyAdu enRum iruppArE: These devotees will forever be blessed with being united inseparably with Him through kaimkaryam at His Divine Feet. This is the be-all and end-all of life; the best of all the things to be obtained. His tiruvaDigaL are the sweetest of all the sweet things in life; doing kaimkaryam to His tiruvaDi is the greatest goal. gOdai said in tiruppAvai-29 also “unakkE nAm AT ceyvOm” – (we shall serve only You).
ANDAL gives her final blessings to us: piriyAdu enRum iruppArE – “Unlike me, who had to ask everyone “kaNDIrE” (have you seen Him?), the devotees who understand this tirumozhi as the final remedy for the bondage of samsAra (namely, meditate on Him and Him alone as the Object to be attained and the means to be attained), will be permanently and inseparably united with Him, and will have the anubhavam of enjoying Him always. Meditating on Him and His glory will become their permanent pastime.
C. Additional thoughts from SrI PBA:
pArin mEl: In this world itself. Recall that in NT-13.9, gOdai declared “kommai mulaigaL iDar tIra gOvindaRkkOr kuRREval, immaip piRavi SeyyAdE inip pOic ceyyum tavam tAn en?” (What is the greatness in performing kaimkaryam in SrI vaikuNTham after reaching there through the arcirAdi mArgam, if I cannot do intimate kaimkaryam to Him in this birth right here and now by embracing Him with all the desire that I have for Him?). She even hated paramapada anubhavam compared to kaimkaryam right in this world. In this pASuram she is rejoicing that she at last got that bhAgyam in this world itself, through the use of the phrase “pArin mEl”.
perum tAL uDaiya pirAn aDik kIzh piriyAdu enRum iruppArE: ANDAL literally echoes the words of periAzhvAr, her AcArya and father - “en~jnAnRum emperumAn iNai aDik kIzh iNai piriyAdu iruppar tAme” – (periyAzhvAr tirumozhi 4.9.11).
D. Additional thoughts from SrI UV: parundAL: “parutta tALgaL” – signifies that the elephant put all its strength on its huge legs and tried to get out of the clutches of the crocodile. When it failed after long effort, the elephant called out for help “mudalE, mudalE” (the very First of all beings). All the deva-s and gods kept away, since they know that they were not “mudal”. The next kshaNam, nampirAn, who is an ocean of love, left paramapadam and came flying to the earth to relieve the elephant of its sorrow. This is the story that ANDAL has been told by elders. In that story, gajEndran was trying to offer the flowers that he had gathered at the Feet of bhagavAn. Similarly, ANDAL was crying out to Him since she wanted to embrace Him with her “kommai mulaigaL” and wished to serve Him at His great feet. Just as He showed Himself to the elephant, He showed Himself before her and blessed her also. She got the grace of watching Him with glee for ever.
viTTu cittan kOdai Sol: Her words through this tiruvAimozhi are really the result of the anugraham of periAzhvAr.
manattE vaittu koNDu vAzhvArgaL: These should be chanted with the full heart and soul.
Perum tAL uDaiya pirAn aDik kIzh piriyAdu enRum iruppAr: EmperumAn’s anubhavam and kaimkaryam will be had here (“ingum”), there (“angum”) and everywhere (“engum”) and at all times (“ekkAlamum”).
paraman tannaip pArin mEl: If emperumAn leaves SrI vaikunTham and descends down to this earth, how can we ever describe through words this kAruNyam of His?
pArin mEl virundAvanattE kaNDamai viTTu cittan kOdai: It would have been possible to see Him very easily in bRndAvanam during His actual vibhava avatAram. But now I see Him myself as SrI bRndAvanak kaNNan in this world along with my friends. What great nIrmai on His part! And what greatness my father has to make this happen!
perum tAL uDaiya: perumai porundiya tALgaLai uDaiya – One Whose Divine feet are praiseworthy, famous etc. During His trivikrama avatAram, He spread His tiruvaDi-s in such a way that the whole universe could worship them at the same time; such is the greatness of His Divine Feet. ANDAL praises them as “perum tALgaL” also because He came to her instantly from far away to bless her and save her.
sarvam SrIman nArAyaNAyEti samarpayAmi.
SrI ANDAL, SrI rangamannAr tiruvaDIgaLE SaraNam.
SrI periyavAccAn piLLai tiruvaDIgaLE SaraNam.
SrI perumAL kOil prativAdi bhayankaram aNNangarAcAriyAr svAmi tiruvaDIgaLE SaraNam.
Sri uttamUr vIraraghavAcAriyAr svAmi tiruvaDIgaLE SaraNam.
kalyANi kRshNamAcAri http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Oppiliappan/message/2868