adiyEn will start this posting with the tribute to Sri RanganAyaki housed in " OrANN Vazhi AchArayrkaL Vaazhi ThirunAmam " and commence the commentary on the Second slOkam and place it in the context of Sri ParAsara Bhattar's well respected skills as a MahA Kavi and deep devotee of Sri Ranga NaacchiyAr.
Tribute to Sri RanganAyaki as the Second AchAryan
Pankayap-poovil PiRantha Paavai NallAL VaazhiyE Panguniyil Utthara NaaL Paarr uthitthAL VaazhiyE MangayarkaL Tilakamena Vantha Selvi VaazhiyE Maalarangar MaNi Maarbhai mannumavaL VaazhiyE YenkaL Yezhirc-ChEnai mannarkku Itham-uraitthAL VaazhiyE Irupattanju uttpporuL Maaliyampum AvaL VaazhiyE Senkamalac-Cheyyarangam Sezhikka VanthAL VaazhiyE Sriranga NayakiyAr ThiruvadikaL VaazhiyE
Hail to the auspicious lady born in the red lotus flower !
Hail to the sacred lady, who incarnated on this LeelA VibhUthi on a Panguni Uttharam day !
Hail to the Lady, who is the most auspicious symbol among Women !
Hail to the most beautiful One, who has chosen the sacred chest of Lord RanganAthA, as the enduring (eternal) place of Her residence !
Hail to this (second ) AchAryan in our AchArya paramparai, who initiated the esoteric meanings of Tatthav-Hitha- PurushArthams to our sacred Senai MudaliyAr (VishvaksEnar) to serve as the next link in the eternal AchArya Vamsam!
Hail to this AchAryan, who revealed the inner meanings of the 25 Tatthvams of Sri VaishNava sampradhAyam !
Hail to this avathAram of MahA Lakshmi, who incarnated to grow the Isvaryams of every kind at Srirangam known for its beautiful lotus ponds!
Our deep Salutations to the holy feet of the Empress of Srirangam, Sri Ranga NaacchiyAr !
Sri Paraasra Bhattar's status as a MahA Kavi
Sixty one of the Sri GuNa Rathna KOsam belong to the total of 337 verses in all his sthuthis set in 45 kinds of poetic metres.
Dr.S.PadmanAbhan of the Depatment of Sanskrit has analyzed brilliantly the extraordinary skills of ParAsara Bhattar as a Mahaa Kavi and great Sri VaishNavite AchAryA. He has highlighted with examples the skills of ParAsarA as a MahA Kavi arising from the limitless anugraham of the dhivya dampathis of Srirangam, who raised ParAsarA as their own child and lulled him to sleep in a cradle in Their sannidhi. Such a rare anugraham has led to greatness in ParAsarA's sthuthis and it is no where more evident than in the Sri GuNa Rathna Kosam SlOkams. Dr.PadmanAbhan lists a few of these quality marks in MahA kavi ParAsara Bhattar's sthOthrams in general and in Sri GuNa rathna Kosam verses in particular:
1. "Sadhya: Paranirvruthi ": Capacity to transport the mind of the listener and the reciter to a world of immeasurable Joy (Aanandham).
2." ParichithamivAthApi Gahanam ": Capacity to reveal the magnanimous dimensions and unfathomable depths once a critical mind tries to comprehend the full significance of the words chosen by the poet.
3."PadhAnAm SaubhrArtham ": A close affinity and cohesion among the words chosen in the poetry.
4." SayyA or Paaka ": Judicious juxtaposition of the words in a slOkam in such a way that the words do not allow any substitution or change .
5. "animishanishEvyam SravaNayO:" Having a total effect of Sweetness in hearing the slOkam again and again. It has an insatiable effect due to its MaadhUryam .
6. "Bahu-guNa ParINAhi" Having many other GuNAs to distinguish it as great poetry marked by enjoyable RasAs and BhAvAs such as " PrasAda (Clarity of word and meaning ) , Ojas (power to stimulate the mind), SamatA (balanced expressions), Kaanthi (lustre and elegance to stand out), SusabhsabdatA ( usage of Refined words and expressions).
Additional marks of greatness arise from clever use of SabdhAlankArAs (Figurs of Speech), poetic metres, skills in handing VyAkaraNam (Grammar)and NyAyAs (Maxims).
The end result is like " SitAkshIra NyAyam " (adding Sugar to Milk to enhance their individual enjoyments).
The Second slokam of Sri GuNa Rathna KOsam is a classic example of the poetic skills of a MahA Kavi:
UllAsa-Pallavitha-Paalitha-SapthalOkee- nirvAha-kOrakitha-nEma-katAsha-leelAm Sriranga-harmyatala-MangaLa-dheepa-rEkhAm SrirangarAja-MahishIm SriyamAsrayAma:
On the eve of DeepAvaLi , it is only appropriate to dwell deep on the glories of Sri MahA Lakshmi , who is blessing us as the ArchA Moorthy, Sri Ranga NaacchiyAr, at SriRangam. May She confer all of Her choicest blessings on the members of our devout groups on this DipAvaLi day and the rest of the Year!
The Mahimai of Sri RanganAyaki
MahA Lakshmi Tattvam is gigantic in scope to comprehend by people of limited intellect like us. AdiyEn will summarize the thoughts on Her tattvam from asmath AchAryan's KaalakshEpam granthams.
There are two pramANams that would help us understand Her glories quickly and clearly :
1. She is " Thrividha chEthanarkkum SWAMINEE "
She is the one who is the Lordess of the three kinds of ChEthanmas ( Bhaddha Jeevans, Muktha Jeevans and Nithya Jeevans). All the three Jeevans take orders from Her and recognize Her as their niyAmikai (commander) and their Isvaree. She can not therefore be just another Jeevan.
2. Sri Lakshmi Sahasra Naamam recognizes Her as "Sri VaasudEva Mahishi PumprahdAnEsvarEsvari". This word " PumpradhAnEsvarEsavri " has profound meanings and this compound world breaks up into four individual words :
" Pum+PradhAnam+Isvaran+IsvarI ".
Here "Pum " stands for the Jeevans (pumAn ); "PradhAnam" stands for Moola prakruthi. " Isvaran" denotes the Lord. "IsvarI" stands for MahA Lakshmi, the empress of Jeevans, Prakruthi and Isvaran.
As PumpradhAnEsvarEsvari, She is understood thus as the Sarva NiyAmikai (
PumpradhAnEsvarEsvari or the Isvari of PumpradhAnEsvaran Himself). She is
understood as "sarva-prakAra-abhimatha-anuroopa- svaroopa -GuNa "-rathna-Kosam
Swamy ParAsara Bhattar will be developing these themes in the different slOkams of Sri GuNa Rathna Kosam .
She is understood as the " Tadh sadhrusIm Sriyam " or as the Empress, who matches Her Lord's divine attributes in every way .
" Tadh " here denotes Isvaran (Sriman NaarAyaNan), who is the subject matter of the four chapters of Brahma Soothram ( Samanvayam, AvirOdham, Saadhanam and Phalam ). She is fully matched with that "Tadh" (Sriman NaarAyaNan , Her Lord). She has antharbhAvam (inner presence ) in all of His acts. Infact , he goes about His leelais like creation to please and amuse Her . He takes the cues from Her ingithams (signs) originating from Her eye brows in going about His duties. They are what is revered together as " Sookshma mithunam " and Yeka Seshis, the divine couple with subtle, matching attributes as Yeka-Seshi dampathis.
In Sri RangarAja Sthavam intended expressly to celebrate the glories of Lord RanganAthA, Swamy ParAsara Bhattar can not help pointing out the "PumpradhAnEsvarEsvaree" aspect of Sri RanganAyaki:
"nama: SriranganAyakyai yadh-bhru-vibhrama bhEdhatha: IsOsithavya-Vishamya -nimnOnaatham idham Jagath " ---Sri Rangarajasthavam: SlOkam 7
(Meaning): "I pay obeisance to that Goddess Sri RanganAyaki, whose brow-rises and lowerings in turn, have decisive impact in that they will cause the higher-ups and the lower-downs respectively, (i.e)., the peaks and the troughs in the world; why, it could even make one the Super-Lord or a servant, She being the all-deciding force."
Parasara Bhattar is going to dwell on the extraordinary and Special relationship between the divine couple with an analogy that links the lustre of a gem with the gem itself as an inseperable principle in one of the SlOkams of Sri GuNa Rathna Kosam that we will cover later (Svatha: SrIsthvam VishNO:---)
The various poorvAchAryAs, who have commented on Sri AlavandhAr's ChathusslOki have also agreed on this matter:
The first slOkam of ChathusslOki celebrates the parathvam (Supermacy) obtained by MahA Lakshmi through Sriman NaarAyaNa sambhandham.
The second of the four slOkams pays tribute to her PurushakArathva PrabhAvam (Intercession with Her Lord on our behalf).
The third slOkam reveals that Mahaa Lakshmi known for such soulabhyam (ease of access) has antharbhAvam (inner presence and thus involvement ) in jagath- KaaraNathvam (origin /creation of the Universe and its beings). Here the celebration of Her role as UpAyam is recorded.
In the fourth and the final slOkam of ChathusslOki, the Phalan resulting from this UpAya anushtAnam focusing on Her is prooved .
MahA Laksmi is the Saha Dharma ChaariNI of the Lord. As His Saha Dharma ChAriNI, She has "Hethu Garbha Viseshanam". She has a role thus in all karmAs, which dampathis do together. EmperumAn creates the Universe. She is with Him then and is involved as Saha Dharma ChAriNi even there. They receive the havis of Jeevan together, when Prapathti is performed. They thus serve together as the AathmA for all the Universe and its beings.
This is a view that has come to us from Sage ParAsarA (the author of Sri VishNu PurANam), Swamy AlavandhAr, EmperumAnAr, EmpAr and all the way down to Swamy ParAsara Bhattar.
In the 22nd slOkam of Sri GuNa Rathna KOsam, Swamy ParAsara Bhattar acknowledges the Yeka Seshithvam aspect of the dhivya Dampathis:
"hElAyam akhilam charAcharmidham BhOgE VibhUthi: ParA dhanyAsthE parichAra karmaNi sadha Pasyanthi yE Sooraya: Sri RangEswara Devi ! Kevala nirvAahya VargE vayam SeshithvE PumAn ParikarAhyEthE tava spAraNE"
(Meaning): Oh Sri RanganAyaki! All the sentients and the insentients of this Universe are meant for Your play. The nithya VibhUthi of Sri Vaikuntam is for Your BhOgam (enjoyemnt) as well . The fortunate Nithya Sooris are for serving You. Here in Your LeelA VibhUthi, We remain as the Ones to be protected by Your Krupai. Your consort Sri RanganAthan is immensely proud of You , while being Your Lord.
EmperumAnAr in SaraNAgathi Gadhyam explicitly states that MahA Lakshmi commands all the parijanams (nithya sooris)to their respective assignments. Such is the glory of Our ThAyAr, Sri RanganAyaki !
adiyEn will now take up the commentary on the second slOkam of Sri GuNa Rathna Kosam, which is known for its Madhura LakAra prayOgams:
ullAsa Pallavitha paalitha SapthalOkI nirvAha kOrakitha nEma KatAksha LeelAm Sriranga harmyatala MangaLa dheepa rEkhAm SrirangarAja MahishIm Sriyam aasrayAma:
The Madhura lakArams are housed in the seven of the 18 words chosen by Swamy Prasara Bhattar :
" UllAsa, Pallavitha, Paalitha, Saptha Loki, leelAm, Harmayatala and MangaLa " .
These lakArams start with UllAsam and conclude with MangaLam in this PrArthanA-Poorvaka Prapatthi slOkam .
This slOkam is proverbially recited in front of Sri RangarAjan's Sannidhi at Srirangam between the two Thirumana ThUNgaL, where the infant ParAsarar's cradle was set up by the dhivya dampathis for their son .
Please recite this slOkam during your next visit to Lord RanganAthan's sannidhi. You can also recite the first slOkam of Padma Raaga Paddhathi of Swamy Desikan as an additional sacred verse there. The recitation of Both the slOkams will confer on you dhivya sampath and mahath Isvaryam.
Translation of the Meaning by Dr.V.N.Vedantha Desikan
(Meaning ) " HER eye glances, that open up and partially close, are major acts-not to be thought of as light or ineffective twinkling of the (ordinary)eye. With such eye-movements, She achieves everything! --The creation of the seven worlds, the protection thereof, etc.
Imagine the whole seven-world object as a tree. Then, the sprouting of the tree, its growth, its bearing buds, the buds blooming, are all events, so to say in a figurative fashion, in the tender creeper that Her divine Eye-glance. What can it not achieve? All achievements at the level of the world-governance are the sport for the eye-movement of Goddess RanganAyaki , who dwells in the royal palace of Ranga VimAnam, as an ever lit-lamp of auspiciousness. May we surrender unto her!".
Commentary by Dr.V.N.V
Please witness the wonders of the eye opening and closing activities of the Divine consort of Lord RanganAthan! Reflect on its extraordinary accomplishments! Please remind yourself that the creation, protection and the destruction of all the seven universes are achieved effortlessly with those eye openings and closings. Those little glances cause the blossoming, budding and growth of the tree of seven universes and their beings. All of these wondrous deeds happen from the power of the benevolent glances arising from that tender creeper, Sri RanganAyaki .
That divine consort behind the srushti, sthithi and samhAram of the worlds resides at the great palace at Srirangam as the Empress and shines forever from there as the most auspicious lamp lighting our way.
Additional observations by AdiyEn
The seven LokAs are protected by a joyous and tender creeper sprouting young shoots. As it moves, it is like the tender, UllAsa laasyam of a female dancer. As TaaNDavam, the energetic dance is for the Male dancer, and the tender and delicate movement of Laasyam is for female dancers.
This UllAsa Laasyam is unique to Sri RanganAyaki . The word UllAsam has number of meanings. It can mean Joy/delight or it can mean beginning /commencement . It can also mean the Ten UllAsams covered by the KavyaprakAsA, a work by MammadA (10th century) on the structure of utthama Kaavyams and sthuthis. Here the joyous waving of the golden creeper of Sri RanganAyaki performing UllAsa Laasyam at the time of Jagath Srushti can be imagined.
The second word is "Pallavitha". This means sprouting young shoots (arumbus). Those, who have seen a creeper grow can relate to this phenomena. The word arises from "Pallava:" meaning a sprout, sprig, a bud or a blossom. Pallavitha means therefore that which buds or blossoms. "Pallava:" also means an amorous sport. This can be related to the jagath Srushti .
The third word is "Paalitha" meaning protected. What is being protected? The joyous sprouts budding are protected by the UllAsa pallavam. These are the Saptha Lokams.
The first Paadham thus refers to Sri RanganAyaki as " UllAsa Pallavitha Paalitha Saptha LokI ".
The Second Paadham
"NirvAha kOrakitha nEma KatAksha LeelAm " is the second Paadham . "nEma" means half or partial . "nEma KatAksha LeelAm " means therefore the power of the play of the half open, half closed eyes of Sri RanganAyaki.She is partially opening Her eyes and closing them. She is engaged in this Leelai. What happens as a result? What gets administerd or executed (NirvAham )by this? KorakAvasthA happens. "nirvAha kOrakitha nEma KatAksham " falls on the seven worlds. "korakAvasthA " means the state of an unblossomed flower or a bud, which has not fully developed into a flower.
Swamy ParAsara Bhattar is fond of referring to Sri RanganAyaki as a Nithya Yuvathi to distinuguish her from an elderly matron. He describes Her as being in the boundary of a girl and a maiden (Saisava- youana- vyatikarA) in verse 43 of the Sri GuNa Rathna Kosam. The movement of the glances of this young girl and their effects are described here in terms of the execution of Jagath VyApAram (Srushti et-al).
The third Paadham of SlOkam 2:
"Sriranga harmyatala mangaLa Dheepa RekhAm "
"Harmya" means a palatial mansion. Harmya talam or harmya Sthalam means the the room in that palace, (i.e) the garbha graham of the mansion with seven ramparts, Srirangam .
At the "Sriranga Harmya Talam", She shines as " the MangaLa dheepa RekhA " or the nanthA ViLakku or the Jyothi of the most auspicious eternal lamp inside the royal palace of Ranga VimAnam.
RekhA is a way of rendering Vedam. Her nature as the essence of Sruthis might also be indicated here. RekhA generally means a line or streak . That Jyothi is saluted here.
The Fourth paadham of The SlOkam 2:
" SrirangarAja MahishIm SriyamAsrayAma:"
She is the Patta MahishI (Empress ) of the Lord of Srirangam, the BhUlOka VaikuNtam. She is "Sri Devi" or "Sri". One PoorvAchAryA has already observed : "Your name is Sri. What else more is there for us to say?".
Swamy ParAsara Bhattar addresses this fast-sprouting, tender Creeper, the eternal JyOthi inside Sri Ranga VimAnam, Sri RanganAyaki, the root cause of the birth and kshEmam of the seven worlds and offers his Prapatthi at Her sacred feet.
Subhamasthu! Sarva mangaLAni santhu!
Sri RanganAyakyai nama:
Daasan, Oppiliappan Koil VaradAchAri SatakOpan
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