yaj~na-bhRt yaj~na-kRt yaj~nI yaj~nabhuk yaj~na-sAdhanaH |
om yaj~na-bhRte namaH.
om yaj~na-bhRte namaH.
The root from which the word bhRt is derived is bhR poshaNa
dhAraNayoH to hold, to support.
pramAdAt kurvatAm karma pracyavatyadhvareshu yat |
If there is a mistake in the performance of sacrifices due to
negligence or oversight, the sacrifice will become imperfect.
SrI vELukkuDi kRshNan notes that the term bhRt suggests that bhagavAn bears the bhAram (burden) of completing the yaj~na successfully when the performer is unable to bear this burden for successful completion by himself. All the yajamAna has to do is to shift the burden for forgiving all the deficiencies at the end to bhagavAn by doing a pUrNAhuti. This is the final Ahuti that is offered, with divine thoughts at the Lotus feet of Lord kRshNa, asking for forgiveness for all the known and unknown, intended and unintended deficiencies in the performance of the yaj~na in order to ensure that the yaj~na as a whole becomes completed (pUrNam). The faults inherent in the performer of the yaj~na, the faults in the procedures, the faults used in the materials used in the offering, (deficiencies in mantra, tantra, vidhi, viparyAsa etc.), are all forgiven by bhagavAn when the final Ahuti is made with His Divine feet in mind. Among the mantra-s that are meditated upon at the time of pUrNAhuti are:
prAyaScittAnyaseshAni tapaH karmAnyAtmakAni vai |
upAcArApadeSena kRtAn aharar mayA |
pUrNAhutim uttamAm juhoti ; karmam vai pUrNAhutiH ;
AvirgIrbhiH yatatona Unam tena uktim vidhema
SrI Sankara reflects the same meaning in his interpretation yaj~nam bibharti pAti iti yaj~na-bhRt.
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri notes that there
are four chief priests at any yAga, called Rtvija-s, and they ensure that all
steps of the yAga are performed correctly without any deficiency.
SrI cinmayAnanda continues his earlier interpretation of the term yaj~na, and
gives his interpretation for the current nAma as:
om yaj~na-kRte namaH.
Both SrI Sankara and SrI BhaTTar give the interpretation that Lord vishNu has this nAma because He created yaj~na as a means for the well-being of the universe.
SrI BhaTTars interpretation is: jagad- hitAya yaj~namAdI
sRjati iti yaj~na-kRt
The following Sloka-s in the gItA explain in detail, in the words of Lord kRshNa, the idea that bhagavAn created yaj~na as a means of establishing a connection between the deva-s and the human beings:
saha-yaj~nAH prajA sRshTvA purovAca prajApatiH |
devAn bhAvayatAnena te devA bhAvayantu vaH |
ishTAn bhogAn hi vo devA dAsyante yaj~na bhAvitAH | (gItA 3.12)
In the beginning, the Lord of all beings, creating man along with the sacrifice, said: By this shall you prosper; this shall be the cow of plenty granting all your wants.
By this (yaj~na), please the gods, and the gods will support you. Thus nourishing one another, may you obtain the highest good.
The gods, pleased by the sacrifice, will bestow on you the enjoyments you desire.
In his explanation for the nAma vashaTkAraH, SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri
elaborates on this connection and interdependence between the deva-s and the
manushya-s as follows:
The term yaj~na-kRt has also been interpreted as One Who is the
performer of yaj~na-s.
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the interpretation:
As has been noted in several previous nAma-s, Sri Sankara gives an
alternate interpretation for the term kRt as One Who destroys -
yaj~nI He for Whose sake the yaj~na-s are done.
BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is sarva yaj~nAnam SeshI yaj~nI He Who is the Lord
tells the Lord that he has not performed the karma-s ordained for his varNa,
example is an excellent illustration of why BhagavAn is called
should remember that it is just sheer naicyAnusandhAnam that leads
979. yaj~na-bhuk The Enjoyer or the Protector of the
980. yaj~na-sAdhanaH a) He Who is an accessory for the
981. yaj~nAnta-kRt He Who produces the fruit of the
om yaj~na-guhyAya namaH.
The word guhyam is derived from the root guh samvaraNe to cover, to keep secret. Guhyam means `rahasyam' or secret. Different interpreters have given their diverse anubhavam of how bhagavAn is the hidden secret behind yaj~na-s.
Sri BhaTTar comments that bhagavAn is the `secret' behind the sacrifice, because not everyone understands that He is the ultimate object of the sacrifice, and that even though bhagavAn is not in need of any offering, He still feels satisfied as if He has been long expecting the offerings, and enjoys them. Only those who are wise and knowledgeable about the injunctions, the means and the fruits of the sacrifices, realize this secret about Him; others do not realize this secret. SrI BhaTTar quotes the following from the mahAbhArata in support:
sarve vedAh sarva vedyAH sa-SastrAH sarve yaj~nAH sarva ijyaSca kRshNaH |viduH kRshNam brAhmaNAs-tattvato ye teshAm rAjan sarva-yaj~nAH samAptAH ||
jyotIgmshi SukrANi ca yAni loke trayo lokAH loka-pAlas-trayI ca |trayo'gnayaSca AhutayaSca pa'nca sarve devA devakIputra eva ||
"All the veda-s and all that has to be learnt, all the SAstra-s and all the sacrifices, and all worship all are SrI kRshNa. Those who know kRshNa correctly this way, may be considered to have completed all the sacrifices successfully".
"All the shining luminaries in the universe, the three worlds, the three guardians of the world, the three fires, and the five offerings in those holy fires, and all the gods, are all SrI kRshNa, the Son of devaki".
The above references bring out another subtle secret that is elaborated by SrImad SrImushNam ANDavan: Even though the offering in a given yaj~na may be for some of the other deities, the real Deity Who ultimately receives all the offerings is BhagavAn and no one else. BhagavAn is the antaryAmi of all these other deities, and while He feels satisfied with the offering, He also ensures that these other deities are satisfied, and thus it is no one other than BhagavAn Who is the ultimate object of all yaj~na-s. Not everyone who performs yaj~na-s understands this, and thus bhagavAn is the secret behind the yaj~na-s in this sense as well yaj~na-guhyam.
Sri VeLukkuDi kRshNan brings out another dimension to the anubhavam of this nAma: Accepting the relatively meager offering in the yaj~na with great delight, BhagavAn can give to the performer of the yaj~na, the benefit even up to moksham; in other words, there is no limit to the return that He can bestow on the performer of the yaj~na in return for the relatively trivial offering that bhagavAn does not even need. This is a great secret that is not easily understood by most people. He keeps the means of yaj~na as a great secret that is understood only by a few who know the yaj~na SAstra properly, and so He is yaj~na-guhyam.
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri notes that there are two aspects to any sacrifice the material aspects, and the thoughts behind the performance of the karma. We dealt with this discussion under nAma 981 (gItA 4.33). Lord kRshna declares that the thought behind the actions is more important than the act itself. When this thought itself is dedicated to bhagavAn, in other words, when the thought behind the yaj~na or offering is not one that aims at receiving some benefit for the performer of the yaj~na, this is the best form of yaj~na. This is the secret behind the performance of yaj~na-s in their ultimate true sense. When such thought is the basis for the offering, this is a manifestation of Brahman Himself, and so there is no difference between Brahman and the yaj~na or the offering, and so He is called the `secret of the sacrifice' or the yaj~na-guhyam'. This seems to be the meaning for Sri Sa'nakara's interpretation for the nAma yaj~nAnAm guhyam j~nAna-yaj~naH phalAbhisandhi-rahito vA yaj~naH; tad-abheda upacArAt Brahma yaj~na-guhyam "The secret of sacrifices is `knowledge-sacrifice'. Yaj~na may also mean any deed performed without desire for the fruit; Brahman, as identified with such deeds, is called yaj~na-guhyam".
SrI cinmayAnanda explains the nAma as "The most profound truth to be realized in all yaj~na-s". He elaborates: "The Self is the most noble truth to be sought through `offering' all the dravya (objects) into the `consciousness' (fire) in the `body' (kuNDa). This kind of subjective yaj~na is called in the gItA as Knowledge-sacrifice ("j~nAna-yaj~na)". This is also called in the veda-s as Brahma yaj~na".
SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN reinforces the true spirit behind the performance of sacrifices It is for bhagavAn's pleasure alone, and not for any material benefits for the performer, that the yaj~na is to be undertaken, and so He is the secret behind the yaj~na-s tena yaj~nena tasyaiva mukhya uddeSyatvAt yaj~na-guhyam.
om annAya namaH.
The root from which the nAma is derived is ad bhakshaNe to eat. atti = bhakshati iti annam He who consumes or enjoys is `annam'. Alternatively, adyaH iti annam That which is consumed or eaten, is annam.
SrI vAsishTha gives another alternate derivation using the root ana prANane to breathe, to live: anIti iti annam, yadvA anyate = prANyate yena tad annam He Who makes the beings live, or He because of Whom the beings exist. This can refer to the vital air that is necessary for the beings to survive and live.
SrI vAsishTha points out that the word `annam' is used in the Sruti to refer to any offering in a yaj~na that which can be offered as havis, including ghRtam (ghee) etc:
SrI BhaTTar explains the nAma as "bhoktR-SaktibhiH bhujyate iti annam' He Who is enjoyed, or is the Object of enjoyment by those who have been blessed by Him with the power to enjoy Him. In fact, for the true devotee, everything except bhagavAn is not an object of enjoyment, and He is everything for them. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refer us to nammAzhvAr:
uNNum SORu parugu nIr tinnum veRRilai ellAm kaNNan * emperumAn enRenRE kaNgaL nIl malgi maNNiNuL avan SIr vaLam mikkavan Ur vinavi tiNNam en iLa mAn pugumUr tirukkOLUrE. (tiruvAi. 6.7.1)
"To His devotee, all is kRshNa. Food - eaten to satisfy the appetite, water drunk to quench the thirst, and betel leaves consumed after the food, are all kRshNa only in their case. Saying His name, speaking of His qualities, and thinking of Him, His devotee will feel the hunger and the thirst and all other needs satisfied. They will not eat any other food since kRshNa-consciousness is enough food for them. Reciting His name and enquiring everyone on the way "Am I on the right path to tirukkOLUr? How far is it hence? the devotee will proceed without any other need for sustenance. The very thought of His place serves as nourishment for the devotee".
SrI rAmAnujan also refers us the gItA in support:
janmanAm ante j~nAnavAn mAm prapadyate |
"At the end of many births, the man of knowledge finds refuge in Me, realizing that "vAsudeva is all" (annam). It is very hard to find such a great-souled person".
The well-known Sruti vAkya from taittirIya Upanishad:
annam aham annam aham annam |
bhagavAn is annam because He allows Himself to be enjoyed by those who are qualified and endowed with the knowledge to enjoy Him. He in turn enjoys those who thus enjoy Him, and so He is also called annAdaH Enjoyer (next nAma).
SrI vELukkuDi kRshNan refers us to the pASurams of nammAzhvAr where AzhvAr refers to both the aspects of bhagavAn being annam and annAdaH. In the ten pASurams of tiruvAimozhi 5-10, AzhvAr repeatedly refers to both these aspects. We will deal with the references for the nAma annAdaH under the next nAma.
The whole of divya prabandham is nothing but bhagavAn being enjoyed as annam by the different AzhvArs. SrI kRshNan profusely keeps quoting from different AzhvArs. Couple of examples are given below:
pAlAzhi nee kiDakkum paNbai yAm kETTEyum kAl Azhum ne'nju azhiyum kaN Suzhalum * neelAzhic cOdiyAi! AzhiyAi! tol vinai empAl kaDiyum neediyAi! niR-cArndu ninRu. (nammAzhvAr periya tiruvantAdi 34).
"Oh Lord! You have the brilliance of the dark Ocean, and You are the First Cause of all the universes. It is Your nature to remove the blemishes in the likes of me. When I think of You and the beauty of Your reclining in the Milky Ocean, the experience is so profound that my legs are not able to support me any more, my mind is not able to comprehend Your beauty, and my eyes experience the same profoundness".
ERaDarttadum EnamAi nilam kINDadum mun rAmanAi mARaDarttadum maN aLandadum Sollip pADi (perumAL tiru. Of kulaSekhara. 2.3)
"When I sing Your glory Your great feat of destroying the seven mighty bulls, Your lifting the whole Earth in Your varAha incarnation, Your destroying the evil rAvana in your rAma incarnation, tears of joy well into my eyes and overflow like a river ..".
Sri Sa'nkara explains the nAma as `adyate iti annam' = That which us consumed by all beings is annam. Since He is the sustaining power present in all the food consumed by all beings, He is called annam. SrI cinmayAnanda includes all the sense-objects that satisfy the needs of the sense-organs under scope of annam represented by Him, and explains the nAma as "One Who has Himself become the sense- objects which are the `food' consumed by the sense-organs".
Using the definition atti = bhakshati iti annam he Who eats, both Sri Sa'nkara and SrI cinmyananda give the alternate interpretation that He is called annam One Who eats - atti bhUtAni iti annam He Who consumes everything at the time of pralaya.
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj uses the root ana prANane to breathe, to live, and gives the explanation anyante uapjIvyante bhaktAH yena sva-darSana-dAna dvArA iti annaH BhagavAn sustains the bhakta-s by giving them His darSanam, and so He is the Sustainer annam. The application of the uNAdi sUtra 3.10 adds the affix na after the root an, giving the word annam food.
SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN extends the topic of yaj~nam that has been the subject of the previous nAma-s to the current one as well, and explains the nAma as indicating that at the successful conclusion of the yaj~na by the devotee, when the devotee reaches the ultimate objectives of SrI vaikunTham, bhagavAn presents Himself to the devotee in the forms of the most enjoyable objects in SrI vaikunTham through His sa'nkalpa Sakti, and so He becomes the ultimate annam for the devotee yaj~na labhye parama vyomni yad-divya-rasa- gandhAdikamadanIyam bhogyam.
om annAdAya namaH.
The word annam can be derived from the roots ad � bhaksahNe, or ana � prANane, as indicated in the previous nAma, and one of the meanings is food. To this word, the stem �Ada is added, to get the word annAdaH. This stem itself (Ada) is again derived from the same root ad � bhakshaNe � to eat, literally giving the meaning "The eater of food". In the current context, the meaning is that BhagavAn is the Enjoyer of those who enjoy Him. The previous nAma indicated that He is One who is enjoyed by His devotees as annam, and the current nAma indicates that He in turn enjoys the devotees who enjoy Him � annam atti iti annAdaH.
SrI BhaTTar's words in interpretation are: tAnSca tathA bhu'nkte iti annAdaH � He is annAdaH since He also enjoys them in the same way as they enjoy Him.
He proceeds to explain the significance of the next two words in the Slokam � eva and ca, which are not nAma-s of bhagavAn per se. He explains that the significance of the word eva is that there is no one else like Him � ko anya IdRSaH? iti eva-kAraH. The significance of the word ca is that all that has been described thus far are present perfectly in this one Deity, namely Lord vishNu � `ca' SabdaH sarvamuktam ekatra asmin samuccinoti |.
SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN echoes the same interpretation for the words eva and ca �
na hyetAdRk anyo'sti iti bodhayitum eva-kAraH |
This mutual love of the devotees to BhagavAn (He being annam), and for bhagavAn to His devotees (He being annAdaH), is nicely described by nammAzhvAr in his tiruvAimozhi pASuram 9.7.9, almost like a mutual competition of who enjoys whom most, and is referenced by both SrI v.v. rAmAnujan and by SrI vELukkuDi kRshNan:
koNDu unnai vizhu'nguvan kANil enRu ArvuRRa ennai ozhiya ennil munnam pArittu,
AzhvAr says that he had been just waiting to see bhagavAn, and as soon as He would see Him, his plan was to just swallow Him completely with nothing left for anybody else. But even before that could happen, bhagavAn planned more skillfully, and displayed His extreme sauSIlyam to AzhvAr. This made AzhvAr melt down completely, and bhagavAn just drank him totally in this `dravya' form. AzhvAr exclaims that this tirukkATkaraiappan is an extremely hard nut to crack, and One with whom no one can compete in this kind of game, or in anything else for that matter. AzhvAr wanted to make Him annam, but bhagavAn instead became the annAdan in this case.
SrI Sa'nkara gives the meaning � annam atti iti annAdaH - "The Eater of food" to the nAma, and explains that the nAma signifies that bhagavAn is the eater of the whole world as food. SrI Sa'nkara proceeds to explain the next two words eva and ca as follows:
sarvam jagat annAdi rUpeNa bhoktR-bhogyAtmakam eva iti darSayitum
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri comments that everything in this world can be classified in two categories: food, and the eater of food. Through the nAmas annam and annAdaH for bhagavAn almost near the conclusion of the stotra, SrI bhIshma indicates to dharmaputra that vAsudeva who is seated in front of them is the One that has been described all along through all the nAma-s starting with viSvam, all the way up to the current nAma. In the next Sloka, he states explicitly that Lord vishNu who has been praised in all the previous Sloka-s, is none other devakI-nandana kRshNa Who is seated in front of them.
The concluding section of bhRgu valli in the taittirIya upanishad summarizes that bhagavAn pervades food as well as the eater of food, and so He is both of the form of annam and annAdaH � aham annam annamadantamAdmi.
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj explains the nAma as � annam � svajanopahRtam modakAni atti iti annAdaH � BhagavAn is called annAdaH because He gladly accepts the offerings from His devotees.