a) He who does not turn away those who are inclined to comeback to this world.
b) He Who does not turn away from His battles with the asura-s.
c) He Who does not turn away from dharma under any circumstance.
d) He whose creations never turn back in their shape, form etc. till pralaya.
Om a-nivartine namah.
The term nivartana means causing to return, returning, turning back etc.
a) SrI BhaTTar: na nivartayati iti a-nivRtI. For those who areattached to the pravRtti dharma, bhagavAn does not let them turn away from samsAra - (pravRtti dharma nishTargaLai samsArattai viTTu nivarttikkacceiyyAdavar - SrI P. B. aNNa'ngarAcArya svAmi)
b) and c): SrI Samkara gives two alternate interpretations.
1.devAsura samgrAmAt na nivartata iti a-nivartI - He who never turns away in Hisbattles with the asura-s; and 2. VRsha priyAt dharmAt na nivartata iti a-nivartI- He who, being devoted to dharma, never turns away from it.
d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation - na nivartitum SIlam asyaiti a-nivartI - He who does not have the characteristic of coming back. Heelaborates by pointing out that bhagavAn's creations are such that they do notlose their attributes until the end of creation, until pralaya.
In summary, two main interpretations are given: a) SrI BhaTTar - (samsArAt)na nivartayati iti a-nivarti - One who does not let those who observe pravRttidharma turn back from samsAra, and b) SrI Samkara - na nivartata itia-nivartI - One who does not turn away Himself from certain things.
604. nivRttAtmA -
a) He whose Nature is superior to other things.
b) He who is the AtmA of those who practice the nivRtti dharma.
c) He whose nature is that He is free from the bonds of samsAra.
d) He whose mind is turned away from worldly attachments.
e) He whose mind turns away from any feeling of self-glory over His kIrti orfame.
f) He who naturally turns away from the objects of senses.
g) He who does not turn away from anywhere because of He is Omnipresent.
om nivRttAtmane namah.
This nAma is one of the two nAma-s that occur 4 times in SrI BhaTTar'sinterpretation (231 - Slokam 25, 453 - Slokam 48, 604 - Slokam 64, and 780 -Slokam 83). (The other nAma which occurs 4 times in SrI BhaTTar'sinterpretation is prANa-dah). Please see the write-ups under Sloka-s 25and 48. The write-up below supplements the previous write-ups.
nivRtti refers to detachment. SrI BhaTTar uses the word in this sense, asalso with the meaning "superior" - nivRttam - udgatam - superior. His interpretation of the nAma in Slokam 25 uses the meaning"superior", indicating that bhagavAn's Nature rises above all otherthings. The interpretations of the other three instances of the nAma arebased on the meaning "detachment", and correspond to d) for nAma 453, b) for nAma 604, and e) for nAma 780.
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan elaborates on how bhagavAn is the AtmA of those who practice the nivRtti dharma (interpretation b). These are the jIva-s who do not have any interest in pravRtti dharma, and live their lives with the sole objective of doing kaimkaryam to Him. They are not interested in any fruit out of their action except the bhAgyam of doing kaimkaryam to Him. BhagavAn gives them exactly that, namely He gives them His lokam from where there is no return to samsAra - viNNulagam taruvAnAi variaginrAn (tivuvAimozhi 10.6.3). In fact, even though bhagavAn is AtmA of these nivRtti dharma practitioners just as He is the AtmA of all other creations, yet He considers that these nivRtti dharma followers are His soul, that is, He cannot live without them.
SrI rAmAnujan also gives his anubhavam of bhagavAn's detachment from any feelingof self-glory over His greatness (interpretation e). Here He is, creatingthis great wonder with all its innumerable creatures and all the planets and thedifferent worlds. He is the svAmi of all these worlds - vIRRirunduEzhulagum tanik kOl Sella; varambilAda mAyai mAya!. varambilAda kIrtiyAi! (tiruccandaviruttam 96). With all this greatness, one would expect that He should have some attachment of ownership to His wonderful creation, and pride of this great creation of His. Yet, He does not have any of this sense of pride, and is only interested in our welfare instead, in whatever He does. Such is His greatness.
In the four instances where SrI BhaTTar uses the nAma nivRttAtmA as referred toabove, SrI Samkara uses the nAma nivRttAtmA in Sloka-s 25 and 64, the nAmavimuktAtmA in Slokam 48, and gives interpretations using the pATha as a-nivRttAtmAor alternatively as nivRttAtmA in Slokam 83.
His interpretations are:
Slokam 25: "He whose nature is that He is free from the bonds ofsamsAra - samsAra bandhanAt nivRtta AtmA svarUpam asya iti nivRttAtmA".
Slokam 64: "He who naturally turns away from material pleasures -svabhAvatah vishayebhyo nivRtta AtmA manah asya iti nivRttAtmA".
Slokam 48, where Samkara pATham is vimuktAtmA: "He who is the free Self -svabhAvena vimukta AtmA yasya iti vimuktAtmA". Note that He isunbound by the effects of karma, and so by nature He is vimukta AtmA - theunbound Self.
Slokam 83: a-nivRttAtmA: "He who never turns away from anywherebecause He is omnipresent - sarvatra vartamAnatvAt a-nivRttah kuto'pi iti a-nivRttAtmA. If the nAma is taken as nivRttAtmA, SrI Samkara's interpretation is: "By nature He turns away from the objectsof the senses - nivRtta AtmA mano vishayebhyo asya iti vA nivRttAtmA".
SrI cinmayAnanda observes that the significance of the nAma lies in indicatingto us that we have to detach our mind from sense indulgences in order to realizeHim. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri notes that bhagavAn is the only one who canretrieve those who are attached to all kinds of material and sense objects,beause He is the only one who is not attached to anything. Only theone who is not stuck in the mud can retrieve one who is stuck in it.
Summarizing the four instances of this nAma, bhagavAn is called nivRttAtmAbecause His Nature is superior to all other things, He showed how to practice the nivRtti dharma in His incarnation as nara-nArAyaNa, He is the soul of those who practice the nivRtti dharma, His nature is that He turns away from material pleasures, sense objects, etc., and He turns away from any self-glory about His immeasurable greatness and instead does everything only for the pleasure of His devotees.
605. samksheptA -
a) He who constrains or limits (the field of light ofknowledge of those who practice the pravRtti dharma).
b) He who, at the time of cosmic dissolution, contracts the expansive Universeinto a subtle state.
c) He who minimizes the misfortunes of His devotees.
Om samksheptre namah.
The term samkshepa means shortened, abridged, contracted, etc. (e.g., samkshepa-rAmAyaNam). Different vyAkhyAna kartA-s have different anubhava-s ofthis guNa of bhagavAn. a) SrIBhaTTar continues to interpret this nAma in relation to his vyAkhyAna of the previous nAma-s, in terms of pravRtti and nivRtti dharma-s. Thus, his interpretation in the current instance is that bhagavAn constrains the knowledge field of those who observe the pravRtti dharma such that they don't see the light completely, and are born again in samsAra instead of attaining Him. Associated with birth in this world, there is a diminution of the naturalknowledge consistent with the pUrva karma-s.
b) SrI Samkara interpets His constraining act in terms of the contraction of thewhole Universe in His body in a subtle form - vistRtam jagat samhAra samayesUkshma rUpeNa samkshipan - samksheptA.
c) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the interpretation that He is samksheptAbecause He reduces or minimizes the misfortunes of His devotees - samkshipatinyUnayati bhaktAnAm vipattIh iti samksheptA.
d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha's anubhavam of this nAma is that bhagavAn contracts ahuge tree in the form of a small seed, and the same dharma applies to all of Hiscreations in the whole huge Universe.
e) SrI cinmayAnanada and SrI anatakRshNa SAstri point to an alternate pATham,with the nAma being given as a-samksheptA, meaning He who never abandons Hisdevotees.
The dharma cakram writer remarks that the deeper we get involved in this worldlylife, the more we are contracting or constraining our knowledge of Him. The purpose of life properly lived is to expand the knowledge of Him. Those who live a life of involvement in the material and sensual aspects oflife, are living and yet not living (that is, they have not achieved the purposeof this precious life).
The idea to take from the different interpretations is that bhagavAnincorporates different constraints on His creatures as part of theadministration of dharma and as part of the administration of His function ofthe cycle of creation. This is seen in different forms: in the formof limiting the knowledge of the followers of the pravRtti dharma, the form inwhich the huge tree is contained in a small seed, the way in which He assimilates all the innumerable jIva-s into Himself at the time of pralaya, theway in which He minimizes the suffering of His devotees, etc.
606. kshema-kRt -
a) He who does what is good for His devotees.
b) He who protects what has been acquired by His devotees.
Om kshema-kRte namah.
SrI BhaTTar: BhagavAn does what is good for the practitioners of nivRttidharma by removing the obstructions to their knowledge.
SrI Samkara: upAttasya kshemam - parirakshaNam karoti iti kshema-kRt. This ha been translated differently by two different translators. SrI T. S. kRshNamUrti gives the translation - He who gives kshema or protectionto those who go to Him. SrI R. anantakRshNa SAstri gives the meaning - Hewho protects what has been acquired by His devotees.
SrI cinmayAnanda notes that bhagavAn not only preserves that which has been attained by His devotees, He also helps them attain what has not been attained so far - ananyAS cintayanto mAm....yoga kshemam vahAmyaham - gItA 9.22. Here yoga refers to what has not been attained yet, and kshema refers to what has been already acquired. tirukkaLLam SrI nRsimha rAghavAcArya svAmiexplains yoga and kshema as follows: a-labdhasyalAbho yogah, labdha rakshaNam kshemah - attaining something that we don't haveis yoga, and preserving what we have is kshema. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAjgives a similar explanation - aprAptasya prApaNam yogah, yogasya rakshaNamkshemah. BhagavAn gives yogam in the form of moksham to the devotee wholongs for it, and then gives kshemam by making sure he does not lose it (kshemam). SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to nammAzhvAr - perum tunbam vEraRa nIkki tantALin kIzh SErttu avan Seyyum SEmattai eNNit teLivuRRE? - tiruvAimozhi 7.5.10. Note that the kshemam referred to here is moksham.
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the meanings: dwelling or residing - nivAsa, goingor in movement - gati, to diminish or extinguish - kshaya, to hurt or cause pain- himsA, etc. to the word kshema, starting from the roots kshi kshaye, kshinivAsa gatayoh, and kshi himsAyAm, in addition to the traditional meaning, tobestow welfare. He thus gives theinterpretation to the nAma as indicating that bhagavAn resides in everyone andeverything (nivAsa), He gives it movement (gati), and in the end He takesaway the soul from the body (kshaya). He knows the beginning, the end, andthe in-between of all the jIva-s. Hence He is kshema-kRt in all thesenses.
The dharma cakram writer gives the analogy of a mother who protects the childwhen the child is in her womb, and then for as long as the child seeks themother's support, she provides this support by loving the child even more thanher own self. That is the way bhagavAn looks after His devotees (bhagavAnbhaktan mIdu pittuk koNDuLLAr).
This nAma should remind us that it is He who protects us, and does whatever is good for us no matter what He does.
a) He who gives auspicious things to His devotees.
b) He who purifies those who meditate on Him.
c) He in whom the whole Universe rests at the time of pralaya.
d) He who resides in everything and every where.
Om SivAya namah.
a) SrI BhaTTar: Sivam karatvAt Sivah - He does what is auspicious for all whether they desire the enjoyment of worldly pleasures or whether they seek moksha - whether the aspirant is a bubhukshu or a mumukshu. SrI BhaTTar refers us to - SrI mahAbhArata - Sivo SivAnAm a-Sivo a-SivAnAm- He does good for the good, and bad for the bad. - SrI vishNu purANam (6.7.62)- samsAra moksha sthiti bandha hetuh - He is the cause of the bondage of worldly existence, also for the release from it.
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to tirumozhi 1.1.9 - aruLoDu peru nilamaLikkum nAraNan, and to tiruvAimozhi 1.5.7 - SeDiyAr Akkai aDiyAraic cErdaltIrkkum tirumAl.
The idea emphasized here is that a) whatever He does is for our good, and b) He does whatever we deserve to get based on our karma.
b) SrI Samkara: He is Sivah because He purifies everyone by the mere remembrance of His name.
c) Both SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj and SrI satyadevo vAsishTha give the alternate interpretation based on the root SI'ng - svapne to sleep. Sete sarvam jagat pralaya velAyAm yasmin iti Sivah - He in whom the whole Universe rests at the time of pralaya is Sivah (SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj).
d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha also gives the alternate interpretation based on theroot Syai - to go, the meaning given being that He is present everywhere, He isin everything - SyAyate sarvam iti prApnoti iti arthah.
Thus, the nAma Sivah indicates that whatever bhagavAn gives us is what is goodfor us, and is meant for our purification and for our reaching Him. Thepunishment He gave to the demons such as rAvaNa, kamsa, etc. were all for theirultimate good. It should be realized that when we encounter somesufferings in life that are obviously given to us by bhagavAn, we should acceptthese as willingly as when He gives us things that make us happy, becausewhatever He does is for our good.
He who has the SrIvatsa mole on Hischest.
Om SrIvatsa vakshase namah.
SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma-s starting from the current one and up to nAma619 as praising His sambandham with pirATTi. The nirukti description forthe current nAma is:
lakshmI-vallabhya saubhAgya cihnam SrIvatsa nAmakam |
SrIvatsa vakshA asya asti vakshasi iti sa tu smRtah ||
The SrIvatsa mark is the unique sign of He who is the lakshmI vallabhan.
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to SrI vishNu purANam where parASara narratesto maitreyi what has been communicated to him by vyAsa, on how vishNu bears thewhole world, abiding in His nature, characterized by ornaments and weapons. In this description, the SrIvatsa mark is described as the pradhAna seated inthe Eternal:
SrIvatsa samsthAna dharam anante ca samASritam (1.22.67)
The glorious Hari wears the pure soul of the world, undefiled, and void ofqualities, as the kaustubha gem. The chief principle of things, (pradhAna)is seated on the Eternal, as the SrI vatsa mark. Intellect abides inmAdhava, in the form of His mace. ..
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers to another passage in SrImad bhAgavatam (12.11.10)where the SrIvatsa mark is described as the reflection of the kaustubha gem thatbhagavAn wears, representing His Atma-jyoti (translated as Suddha jIva caitanyaby a translator):
kaustubha vyapadeSena svAtma jyotih bibharti ajah |
tat-prabhA vyApinI sAkshAt SrIvatsam urasA prabhuh ||
Similar to the description in vishNu purANam, this section of SrImad bhAgavatamgives details of how bhagavAn bears on Him everything that constituteseverything that exists.
SrI cinmayAnanda refers to the story of bhRgu maharshi's testing who among thetrinity was the superior one, and kicking Lord vishNu on His chest. Heindicates that the mark of bhRgu's foot is the SrIvatsa mark on the Lord'schest, since the Lord offered to bear the mark of bhRgu's foot as an indicationof how He values the touch of the feet of His
devotee. He gives the reference to the story of bhRgu maharshi in SrImadbhAgavatam (10-89), wherein bhagavAn says that mahAlakshmi will henceforthreside in His vaksha sthalam because it has now been purified by the touch ofthe sage's foot -
adyAham bhagavan lakshmyA Asam ekAnta bhAjanam |
vatsyati urasi me bhUtih bhavat pAda hatAmhasah || (10.89.12)
SrI cinmayAnanda interprets this to mean that the SrIvatsa mark itself is themark of SrI on His chest ("bhagavAn says - He will ever bear the mark ofthe sage's foot as SrI on His chest".).
The SrIvatsam mark on bhagavAn's chest is thus the representation of pradhAna asbeing supported by Him, as the unique of Him who is the SrI vallabhan, as thereflection of the kaustubha gem that bhagavAn wears, and as the symbol of how Hevalues His devotee as reflected by the incident involving bhRgu maharshi.
The Abode of lakshmi.
Om SrI-vAsAya namah.
SrI BhaTTar gives reference to SrImad rAmAyaNam - yuddha kANDam 114.15 -referring to Lord as nitya SrIh. He is like the garden consisting ofkalpaka trees, and She is kalpaka valli, who freely roams around as She pleasesin the kalpaka tree garden. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan quotes "agalagillEniRaiyum enRu alarmEl ma'ngai uRai mARban" - tiruvAimozhi 6.10.10.
SrI Samkara's vyAkhyAnam is "asya vakshasi SrIh anapAyinI vasati itiSrI-vAsah" - One on whose chest SrIdevi dwells uninterruptedly.
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj adds - "SobhA soundarya sampannah" as hisexplanation for the nAma - He who is always full of eternal luster and beauty. SrI cinmAyananda gives a similar interpretation - SrI vasati asminiti SrI-vasah - SrI - all glory and riches, ever dwell in His bosom of love andbeauty.
The dharma cakram writer refers to different kinds of wealth, which all can begrouped under the six categories - SrI, kIrti, aiSvarya, j~nAna, vIrya, andvairAgya. The term "bhagavAn" refers to One who has all thesesix kinds of wealth. In the case of others, if theys how the slightestsign of having any one of these in some measure, we talk of his having beenblessed with "lakshmI kaTAksham". The more one devotes one'slife in the thought and service of bhagavAn, the more these qualities startdemonstrating themselves in the individual. This should be the purpose oflife correctly lived - Meditation on Him and association with Him will lead toour acquiring these traits, just as
"poovODu Sernda nArum maNam peRum".
SrI vAsah thus refers to Him who has SrI in the form of lakshmi with Him alwayson His vaksha sthalam, as well as One who has all the SrI's (kIrti-s) in fullmeasure with Him always, undiminished, undiluted, and uninterrupted.
a)The Consort of lakshmi.
b) The Master of the Supreme Cosmic Power.
Om SrI-pataye namah.
BhagavAn is the Eternal and suitable Consort of lakshmi in all the incarnations,and She accompanies Him whatever form He takes in His incarnation. SrI BhaTTargives reference to SrIsUktam - asyeSAnA jagato vishNupatnI - She is the Ruler ofthis Universe and the Consort of vishNu, and to sundara kANDam 16.5 - RAghavo'rhati vaidehIm tam ceyam asitekshaNA - OnlyLord rAma is fit for sItA, and only sItA is fit for rAghava.
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives references to divyaprabandham - tiruvin maNALan (tivuvAimozhi1.9.1); tiruvukkum tiruvAgiya SelvanE! (peria tirumozhi 7.7.1) - He who isthe Wealth (Consort) of One who bestows wealth on all; kOla malarp pAvaikuanbAgiya en anbEyO! - You who are LOVE personified to mahAlakshmi, and who isLOVE itself for me (tiruvAimozhi 10.10.7).
SrI Samkara refers to the incident of the churning of the Milky Ocean, whereinmahAlakshmi appears from the Ocean, and chooses mahAvishNu as Her consort, fromamong all the deva-s who are present - amRta mathane sarvAn surAn asurAdInvihAya SrIh enam patitvena varayAmAsa iti SrI-patih. SrI Samkaragives an alternate interpretation as well: SrI means Supreme Cosmic Power, and bhgavAn is the Master of this Power,and so He is SrI-patih.
Thus, SrI patih refers to Him who is the Consort of mahA lakshmi, theMaster of the Supreme Cosmic Power, and the Master and Bestower of all that isauspicious.
a) The Best Among those who possess affluence.
b) The Best among those who possess knowledge of the veda-s.
Om srImatAm-varAya namah.
a) SrI BhaTTar refers to the incident of the churning of the Milky Ocean for theinterpretation of this nAma. Goddess lakshmi chose by Him among all thedeva-s that were assembled, and He is the Object of her full and loving glancesalways; after being seated in His vaksha-sthalam (chest), she blesses thedeva-s such as brahma by her casual glances or blessings occasionally. Thus, He is the best among those who receive lakshmi's kaTAksham. SrI BhaTTar gives reference to SrI vishNu purANam (1.9.106-107), describing theabove.
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan elaborates further by pointing that bhagavAn is the Only Onewho is SrImAn of Possessor of all wealths; the others can be qualified asSrImAn because they may possess some wealth in some specific area for some breifperiod of time. He gives references to nacciyAr tirumozhi 10.10 - nAgaNaimiSai nam parar Selvar periyar; nammAzhvAr's tiruvASiriyam 1 - Sivan ayanindiran ivar maudal anaittOr deivak kuZhA'ngaL kai tozhak kiDanda tAami undittanip peru nAyakan.
b) SrI Samkara interprets the term "SrI" here as a reference to theveda-s, and his anubhavam of this nAma is that bhagavAn is the Best among thosewho have the knowledge of the veda-s. He gives reference to the Sruti -Rcah sAmAni yajUgmshi | sA hi SrIamRtA satAm (taitt. BrAhmaNam 1.2.1) -The Rg, yajus, and sAman are the imperishable SrI or welath of the wise. SrI Samkara'sd interpretation is: Rg yajus sAma lakshaNA SrIh; yeshAm teshAm sarveshAm SrImatAm virincyAdInAm varah pradhAna bhUtah SrImatAmvarah.
SrI cinmayAnanda builds on the above, and gives another interpretation: varahmeans blessing; so the nAma can also mean that He is the Blessing that issought by those who are the students of the veda-s.
The nAma can also be interpreted to mean that He is worshipped as the ChiefDeity by those who have the veda-s as their wealth.
To summarize, the nAma means that bhagavAn is the wealthiest of all those whopossess wealth, He is the One who possesses all the wealth all the time, Hiswealth is permanent and ever-existent unlike all the others whose wealth is onlytransient and temporary, He is the One sought by those who are proficient in theveda-s, He is the Chief Diety that is praised by the veda-s, etc.