612. SrI dah - The Giver of Glories.
om SrI-dAya namh.
As mentioned in the beginning of the explanation for nAma 608, SrI BhaTTar continues to interpret the nAma-s up to 619 in terms of bhagavAn's inseparable association with pirATTi. For the current nAma, his explanation is that bhagavAn is the Giver of glory to lakshmi in the form of supreme love which is eternal, fresh, and spontaneous. The SrI that He gives lakshmi is makes her declare "agalagillEn iRaiyum" (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan). SrI bhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is: nitya nUtana, nir-vyAja praNaya rasa Sriyam tasyai dadAti iti SrI-dah. That is to say, He is Her life itself. He gives references to SrI vishNu purANam 1.9.144 - vishNoreshA anapAyinI - She is ever inseparable from vishNu; yuddha kANDam 121.19 - ananyA hi mayA sItA bhAskareNa prabhA yathA - (rAma's words) - SitA cannot be without Me even as the Sun and its luster cannot be separated from each other; sundara KANDam 21.15 - (SitA's words) - ananyA rAghaveNAham bhAskareNa prabhA yathA - Just as radiance cannot be separated from the Sun, I cannot be separated from rAma.
If SrI is taken to mean wealth, then the interpretation is that He is the Giver of wealth to His devotees. This is SrI Samkara's vyAkhyAnam - Sriyam dadAti bhaktAnAm iti SrI-dah. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam centralizes this to the case of SrI Herself - He is the One who gives Her the quality of SrI, just as She is the One who gives Him the pUrNatvam. The idea is that the two are One inseparable tattvam.
Since bhagavAn is the Giver of wealth, the question arises: What kind of wealth should we seek? The dharma cakram writer clarifies this. There are two kinds of wealth. One is called preyas and the other is called Sreyas (this has been explained in a previous write-up as well). Preyas is the search for material wealth, and Sreyas is the search for spiritual wealth. This is dealt with in detail in kaThopanishad. We should learn to worship vishNu with the interest in seeking Sreyas, and not preyas, even though bhagavAn will bestow whatever the seeker seeks. The lesson to take from this nAma is that we should seek Sreyas in this life by worshipping vishNu, as the means for attaining mukti.
In summary, the nAma illustrates that He is the Giver of wealth to His devotees, and He is the Giver of the attribute of SrI to lakshmi, just as She is the Giver of pUrNatvam to Him, and thus the two are one inseparable tattvam. PerumAL and pirATTi are like the Sun and its prabhA or luster.
a) He Who is the ISa or Lord of SrI.
b) He Who has SrI as His Ruler.
SrI + ISah = SrI-Sah. Here again the inseparable Oneness of the tattvam of bhagavAn and pirATTi is reflected. SrI BhaTTar gives reference to the description of lakshmi as:
"AdAvAtma guNatvena bhogya rUpeNa vigrahe |
AdhAraka svarUpeNa dAsI bhAvena vA sadA || " "lakshmi is ever with bhagavAn either as His innate qualities in His Transcendental Form, or in a delightful form in His body, or as His support by Her essential nature as a devout servant". SrI v.v. rAmAnujan explains this as: "pirATTi is in the form of His auspicious qualities in His Transcendental Form, as His beauty (saundaryam) in His divya ma'ngala vigraha form, and as His Support as well as servant", as described in the SrI pA'ncarAtra samhitA. She is also His Ruler in that He does not act without consent and approval from Her - SrI ISAh asya sa SrI-Sah.
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan points to the nAma SrI-patih (nAma 610) in this context.
SrI BhaTTar also refers us to SrI sanatkumAra samhitA 113, describing lakshmi as the Ruler of bhagavAn: - "pum pradhAna Isvara IsvarI" - lakshmi is the Ruler of the individual souls, or prakRti, and of the Ruler Himself.
SrI Samkara interprets the nAma as meaning that He is the Lord of wealth - Sriya ISah SrISah.
The nAma can thus be understood as illustrating that bhagavAn is the Lord of all wealth, and He is also the Lord of lakshmi, who in turn is His Ruler as well.
a) The Abode of lakshmi
b) The Support of lakshmi.
c) He who dwells in purified hearts.
d) He who resides where lakshmi resides.
om SrI-nivAsAya namah.
This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 185 (Slokam 20). The gist of the vyAkhyAnam for the nAma in Slokam 20 is included here.
a) In Slokam 20, SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma based on the incident of bhagavAn churning the Milky Ocean. lakshmi emerges from the Ocean and takes Her place on His vaksha-sthalam, with the declaration as captured by nammAzhvAr: "agagillEn iRaiyum enRu alarmEl ma'ngai uRai mArban(tiruvAi mozhi 6.10.10)". SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives several references: paSyatAm deva devAnAm yayau vaksha sthalam hareh (SrI vishNu purANam); en tiru vAzh mArvar (tiruvAimozhi 8.3.7); malindu tiru irunda mArvan (mUnRAm tiruvantAdi 57); tiru ma'ngai ta'ngiya Sir mArban (nAcciyAr tirumozhi 8.4). SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri describes the inseparable oneness of bhagavan and pirATTi in terms of pirATTi being the amRta creeper that surrounds bhagavAn who is like the kalpa vRksham - yato lakshmIs-tato harih.
SrI Samkara bhAshyam for the occurrence of this nAma in Slokam 20 is:
yasya vkashasi anapAyinI SrIh vasati sah SrI-nivAsah - He in whose vaksha-sthalam SrI always resides is SrI-nivAsah.
SrI cinmayAnanda describes SrI as connoting "all Glory and power, faculties and strength, to be good and to perform creative acts of righteousness". She is found to never reside permanently in any bosom, except that of Lord vishNu. Even great sages and saints in recorded history have come to compromise the perfection in them. The only place where imperfections never enter to molest the serene essence is the seat of Eternal Perfection, which is the bosom of nArAyaNa.
Hence mahA vishNu is indicated as SrI-nivAsa - The Permanent Abode of lakshmi.
b) In the current Slokam, SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma in terms of the Oneness of bhagavAn and pirATTi - He is the contiguous support of lakshmi - note the word nitya in the vyAkhyAnam - divya vallyA iva kalpa drumah tasyAh nitya aupaghnah SrI-nivAsah.
c) SrI Samkara bhAshyam in the current instance of the nAma is:
SrImatsu nityam vasati iti SrI-nivAsah - He who dwells in devotees who are endowed with SrI or virtue. SrI cinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that SrI here refers to those who are pure at heart, wherein the passions and lusts have been removed, and peace, joy, devotion, and understanding reside. BhagavAn lives in the hearts of these, who are here referred to as SrImAn's, or those who have SrI in them.
d) SrI anantakRshNa SAstri gives the explanation that bhagavAn resides where SrI resides, which is suggestive of the togetherness of bhagavAn and pirATTi. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri quotes: yato lakshmIs tato harih.
Under Slokam 20, SrI cinmayAnanda explains the nAma as referring to bhagavAn being the Permanent Abode of all auspicious qualities, unlike in the case of everyone else, whom She blesses for a brief period of time with a tiny part of some aspect of auspiciousness. Please see the detailed description under Slokam 20.
The nAma "SrI-nivAsah" thus signifies that
- SrI lives in His vaksha sthalam inseparably (SrI referring to pirATTi),
- He lives in those who are blessed with SrI or virtue (SrI referring to the virtue in the devotees of bhagavAn)
- BhagavAn is the permanent Abode of all auspicious qualities (SrI or virtue residing in Him always in full)
615. SrI-nidhih -
a) He who has lakshmi as His wealth.
b) He in whom all wealth resides.
c) He who is the treasure house for SrI.
a) nidhi means wealth. Ho who has SrI as His wealth is SrI-nidhih. SrI BhaTTar's anubhavam is that SrI has been placed in bhagavAn like a gem-studded jewel in a casket. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri describes that SrI is the personification of all His Sakti, and He treasures her and protects her in His vaksha-sthalam and keeps her protected with His pItAmbaram. She is the incarnation of all Sakti, and He is the resort where all Sakti resides.
b) SrI Samkara gives the interpretation - sarva Saktimaye asmin akhilAh Sriyoh nidhIyanta iti SrI-nidhih - He who is the resort of the entirety of wealth, as He is all-powerful.
c) SrI cinmAyananda interprets the nAma as "He who is the nidhi for SrI", and notes that He is All-Full and Perfect, all glories draw themselves from Him alone. In this sense, SrI also draws her vitality from Him, and He is thus the nidhi of SrI.
The dharma cakram writer explains the meaning behind the nAma as follows: SrI refers to all that is good. As bhagavAn has declared - He takes incarnations to protect the good and destroy the evil - paritrANAya sAdhUnAm vinASAya ca dushkRtAm. This nAma indicates His protecting SrI - the incarnation of all that good and virtuous. This nAma teaches us that just as the good part of the food that is consumed is converted into blood etc. and the bad part is discarded as waste, we should retain what is good around us and discard what is not good. Meditation on this nAma of vishNu with this understanding of the meaning of this nAma will give us this ability.
The nAma SrI-nidhih thus means:
- He has SrI as His treasure
- SrI has Him as her treasure
- He is the resort of all wealth
a) He who owes His greatness to lakshmi.
a) He who bestows greatness on all according to their karma.
b) He who makes lakshmi's fame (vivhavam) known to everyone.
SrI BhaTTar gives the reference to sage vAlmIki - aprameyam hi tat tejah yasya sA janakAtmajA (AraNya. 37.18) - "The tejas or splendor of SrI rAma, who has sItA as His pirATTi, is beyond all measure". These are the words of mArIca to rAvaNa. ANDAL dramatically describes the extent of trouble He went through to get pirATTi - uNNAdu uRa'ngAdu oli kaDalai UdaRuttu peN Akkai AppuNDa SelvanAr (nAcciyAr tirumozhi 11.6). peN here refers to pirATTi who has no one to compare with.
b) SrI Samkara gives the interpretation that He is SrI-vibhAvanah because He gives various forms of prosperity to all according their karma-s - karmAnurUpeNa vividhAh Sriyah sarvabhUtAnAm vibhAvayati iti SrI-vibhAvanah.
c) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the interpretation that He is SrI-vibhAvanah because He spreads the fame of lakshmi by proudly displaying His association with lakshmi, and by bestowing blessings on all devotees through His association with lakshmi.
The dharma cakram writer explains in simple terms the complimentary nature of perumAL and pirATTi. The analogy he gives is that when wealth is in someone's possession who does not use it for anything good, it is wasted. Neither the wealth of this person acquires fame, nor does the possessor of this wealth. The dharma cakram writer gives the example of a poor man who got seven jars of gold, six of them full, and the seventh half full. He was taken by greed that the seventh jar was only half full, and so started living a life with the aim of trying to get the seventh jar filled up, and in the process suffered even more in poverty than before he got the gold jars. This is not the purpose of getting wealth. Instead, there are those who get wealth and then use it to help those in need. They attain fame because of their wealth, and their wealth also becomes famous because it is used for the right purposes. BhagavAn has the wealth in the form of SrI (mahAlakshmi), and He bestows all His devotees with blessings according to their karma, and so He gets His fame. SrI gets the fame since the wealth that He has because of His association with her is being used for protecting dharma. Thus, the mutually complimentary nature of bhagavAn and pirATTi is conveyed in this nAma, as in other nAma-s of this group.
The Bearer of SrI.
Om SrI-dharAya namah.
The inseparable nature of the relationship between SrI and bhagavAn is once again revealed in this nAma. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is: ratnamiva arcisham, pushpamiva surabhim, induriva candirkAm, amRtamiva svAdutAm, autpattikena sambandhena Sriyam dharati iti SrI-dharah - Just as the gem bears its luster, the flower its fragrance, the moon her moonlight, and nectar its sweetness, so also vishNu bears lakshmi in Him by an innate relationship. He also quotes the following support from SrImad rAmAyaNa - na hi hAtumiyam SaktyA kIrtirAtmavato yathA (ayodhyA. 3.29)- It will be impossible for rAma to abandon sItA even as the fame of a virtuous man cannot be abandoned by him.
It is not possible to separate the quality of an object from the object itself. Similarly, it is not possible to separate bhagavan from lakshmi, just as it is not possible separate the heat from the fire, the whiteness from the milk, the prakASam from the Sun, etc., as additional examples.
a) He who makes lakshmi (follow Him in His incarnations)
b) He who confers SrI (spiritual wealth) on the devotees, including moksham (nitya-SrI)
c) He who makes His devotees shine with SrI (glory).
d) He who has taken the hand of SrI (mahA lakshmi).
Om SrI-karAya namah.
Sriyam karoti iti SrI-karah.
SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn makes lakshmi incarnate Herself in a suitable form when He comes down into this world in His incarnations, and thus He is called SrI-karah. 'devatve deva deheyama maushyatve ca mAnushI' is from SrI vishNu purANam (1.9.145) - She assumes the deva deham when He is in daiva lokam, and she assumes a human form when He takes a human form. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan quotes the following support from nammAzhvAr: ezhil malar mAdarum tAnum iv-Ezh-ulagai inbam payakka AlginRa e'ngaL pirAn (tiruvAi. 7.10.1).
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri elaborates on this, and adds that after making lakshmi incarnate in a suitable form with Him, (such as sItA when He came as rAma, rukmiNi when He came as kRshNa etc.)., He spreads her fame, and ensures that she blesses those who worship Him, including nitya-SrI (moksham) to those devotees who have matured to that level.
SrI Samkara vyAkhyAnam is: smaratAm, stuvatAm, arcayatAm ca bhaktAnAm Sriyam karoti iti SrI-karah - He is called SrI-karah since He confers spiritual wealth on His devotees who think about Him, praise Him, and worship Him.
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the interpretation - SriyAm - svajana kIrtInAm karah iti SrI-karah - BhagavAn is SrI-karah because He gives expression to the kIrti or fame of His devotees.
Based on the vyAkhyAnam by SrI Baladeva vidyAbhUshaN, yet another interpretation suggests itself - He is SrI-karah because He has taken SrI's (mahA lakshmi's) hand in marriage.
Thus, the significance of this nAma can be summarized as:
a) bhagavAn is called SrI-karah because He causes lakshmi follow Him in an appropriate form whenever He takes an incarnation
b) He bestows SrI (spiritual wealth) including moksham, on His devotees according to their karma and maturity level in their bhakti
c) He gives expression to the SrI (kIrti) in His devotees.
d) He has taken the hand of mahA lakshmi.
a) He that has lakshmi who is resorted to by devotees for attaining the good.
b) He who is decorated with the exquisitely beautiful wealth of ornaments such as His nUpuram, keyuram, kaTakam, kirITam, etc.
Om SreyaS-SrImate namah.
Here Sreyas or Sreyah refers to the Spiritual Good. In kaThopanishad, yama's description of Sreyas, and its difference from preyas (the material wealth), is nicely presented. In the current nAma, SrI BhaTTar interprets laskhmi as Sreyas-SrI, who bestows the spiritual benefits to those who worship her. BhagavAn is SreyaS-SrImAn, the One who possesses her. Thus, again the inseparable nature of perumAl and pirATTi is brought out. SrI BhaTTar gives the following quotes in support of his interpretation:
praNipAta prasannA hi mythilI janakAtmajA |
alameshA paritrAtum rAkshasyo mahato bhayAt || (sundara.58.92)
"Mythili (sItA), the daughter of Janaka, is surely bent upon showing her grace to those who make their obeisance to Her. O rAkshasis! Sheis capable of protecting us from this danger" - words of trijaTA to rAkshasi-s.
SarIra Arogyam AiSvaryam ari paksha kshayah sukham - (vishNu purANam 1.9.125) - She bestows bodily health, wealth, destruction of enemies, and happiness.
vimukti phala dAyinI - (vishNu purANam 1.9.120) - She is the grantor of the fruit of release from bondage.
yasyAm hiraNyam vindeyam gAmaSvam purushAnaham - (SrI sUktam 2) -
(She) from whom I shall get gold, cows, horses, and sons.
Sriyam loke devajushTAmudArAm (SrIsUktam 5) - lakshmi, who is worshipped by the gods for getting their ends accomplished, or who is loved by nArAyaNa Himself, and who is bounteous in Her gifts.
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the explanation that bhagavAn has the nAma SreyaS-SrImAn because He possesses the most exquisite SrI-s in the form of His ornaments etc. - SreyasI atiSaya SobhamAnA SrIr-vesha racanA nUpura yugala kA'ncI kaTaka keyUra kuNDala kirITAdimatI yasya iti Sreyah SrImAn. He gives the support from amarakoSa - SreyAn-SreshThah pushkalah syAt sattamS-cAtisobhane (3.1.58).
In SrI Samkara vyAkhyAnam, this nAma is treated as two separate nAma-s - Sreyah and SrImAn. In this interpretation, bhagavAn is called Sreyah because He is Salvation, the Ultimate Goal of Eternal Bliss. He is called SrImAn because He is the Possessor of SrI (SrI here meaning His power, splendor, and supreme wisdom). SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri quotes from the kaThopanishad, referenced earlier in this nAma, to explain the significance of the term "Sreyah" -
anyat Sreyah anyadutaiva preyah, ..tayoh Sreya AdadAnasya sAdhu bhavati,
Sreyo hi dhIro'bhi preyo vRNIte" - (extracts from KaThopanishad 2-1and 2).
"Sreyas and preyas take one in two entirely different paths; Sreyas brings good (Spiritual realization) to those who aspire for it. The wise ones chose Sreyas over preyas (sensual and materialistic pleasures)".
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha equates preyas and Sreyas to pravRtti and nivRtti mArga-s respectively, and gives the quote from the Rg veda to indicate how preyas and Sreyas can go together to achieve the final liberation - by acquiring material wealth and using it properly to attain the Higher Spirit -
paricinmartto draviNam mamanyAdRtasya pathA namasA vivAset |
uta svena kratunA sam vadeta SreyAmsam daksham manasA jagRbhyAt || (10.31.2)
a) He Who is the Resort for all three worlds.
b) He who is the substratum for the worlds-of-experiences of waking, dream, and deep sleep.
Om loka-trayASrayAya namah.
trayANAm lokAnAm AsrayatvAt loka-trayASrayah (SrI Samkara) - One who is the refuge for all the three worlds.
SrI BhaTTar: BhagavAn and lakshmi, like father and mother, are the one resort for all beings in all three worlds. SrI BhaTTar gives the reference to indra's words in SrI vishNu purANam - tvam mAtA sarva lokAnAm devadevo harih pitA (1.9.126) - "Thou art the Mother of all the worlds, and Hari, the God of all gods, is the father".
SrI anantakRshNa Sastri interprets the "three worlds" as referring to the earth, the atmosphere, and the heavens. SrI cinmayAnanda interprets the "three worlds" as referring to the three "worlds of experiences", namely, waking, dream, and deep-sleep. Thus, he explains the nAma as referring to bhagavAn being the substratum (ASraya) for these three worlds-of-experiences in every being; without the presence of nArAyaNa in everyone of us, we will not be able to experience anything in any of these states.