SrI BhaTTar has described His worship through body and mind in the previous fuew nAma-s. He interprets the next few nAma-s in terms of His worship through word.684. stavyah
a) He Who is worthy of praise.
b) He Who is praised by all, but who does not have to praise anyone else.
Om stavyAya namah.
The root from which the word stavyah is derived is stu - to praise. The affix yat is added in the sense of "he deserves praise" (SrI BhaTTar).
a) stavam arhati iti stavyah. SrI BhaTTar explains that only Lord vishNu is endowed with the innumerable auspicious qualities which are eternal, boundless and flawless, and thus He is worthy of praise over any other god. Praising Him will lead to the release of bondage from samsAra. He refers us to the following in support:
AdareNa yathA stauti dhanavantam dhanecchayA |
evam cet viSva-kartAram ko na mucyeta bandhanAt || (bRhaspati samhitA)
"If one praises the Creator of the Universe the same way one praises a rich man just to get some wealth from him, is there any doubt that he will be relieved from the bondage of samsAra by praising the Creator?".
Such is the power of His praise.
In the phala-Sruti for SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam, bhIshma tells yudhisThira:
itIdam kIrtanIyasya keSavasya mahAtmanah |
nAmnAm sahasram divyAnAm aSesheNa prakIrtitam ||
"Thus the thousand divine names of bhagavAn keSava, the Supreme Being, Who is worthy of being praised, have been sung in their entirety". Here the choice of the word keSava signifies that He is the Creator of Siva and brahma; mahatmA refers to His being the Supreme Person; the term divya signifies that these thousand nAma-s are worthy of being recited both in this world and in parama-padam; and the word kIrtanIyasya emphasizes that He is worthy of being praised.
SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to nammAzhvAr (tiruvAimizhi 3.9.1), where he declares that bhagavAn is the Only One who is worthy of praise with his words, and no one else.
SonnAl virodham idu, Agilum Solluvan kENminO
en nAvil in kavi yAn oruvarkkum koDukkilEn
en Anai en appan emperumAn uLan AgavE (tiruvAi. 3.9.1)
"Even though it is unpleasant for you (those of you who waste your time worshipping other deities) to hear this, I am going to say it, and please listen (for your own good): I will not waste my sweet words of praise on anyone except My Lord who stands like an elephant in tiruvE'nkaTa malai."
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives an interpretation similar to that of SrI BhaTTar - stotum yogyah sarvottamatvAt iti stavyah - Because He is Supreme in all respects, He is fit to be worshiped.
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri notes that bhagavAn's divya guNa-s are infinite, and no matter for how many thousands and thousands of years we sing His praise, we will still be not be done, and can keep praising Him; such are His natural guNa-s. He gives reference to the SvetASvatara upanishad: "tam ISAnam varadam devam IDyam (4.11) - "He Who is the Lord of all, benevolent, divine, and worthy of praise"; tam viSva rUpam bhava-bhUtam IDyam" (6.4) - He Who has the Universe as His form, He who is the cause of all origin and existence, and who is praiseworthy".
b) SrI Samkara's interpretation is: sarvaih stUyate, na stotA kasyacit iti stavyah - He who is praised by everyone, but who does not need to praise anyone. SrI cinmayAnanda adds that "all the jIva-s invoke Him, but He does not invoke the jIva-s".
SrI bala deva vidyA bhUshaN comments that He is stavyah or worthy of praise because it is easy to praise His infinite kalyANa guNa-s through mere use of words - vAg-vyApAreNaiva samArAdhyatvAt nitya kalyANa guNakatayA stotum arhah stavyah.
The dharma cakram writer gives some examples of the way the AzhvAr-s have praised Him: uyarvaRa uyar nalam uDaiyavan, mayrvaRa madi nalam aruLbavan, amarargaL adipati, nalam tarum Sollai nAn kaNDu koNDEn nArAyaNA ernnum nAmam, acyutA amarar Eru, Ayar tam kozhundu,
etc. But He is not fully described by any of these; these are just some limited ways through which His true devotees have enjoyed Him. Knowing the inner meaning of songs in praise of Him and singing them, nAma japam, meditating on Him, dedicating all that we do to Him, etc., are among the different ways in which He can be praised.685. stava-priyah
He Who is pleased by the praise in whatever form it is offered.
om stava-priyAya namah.
In his interpretation, SrI BhaTTar points out that when anyone praises Him in any manner (even in a negative manner!), in any language (even if it contains errors in diction or meaning), even if it is adverse to His splendor, bhagavAn accepts it as praise. SrI BahTTar's exact words are: yathA katha'ncit (in whatever manner), yayA kayAcit bhAshayA (in whatever language - even in negative language), yena kenApi (by anyone - even including those who denigrate Him), tejaskarah tiraskaropi vA (either in praise of His qualities or in negative terms), stavah priyatamah asya iti stava-priyah (He accepts them as praise of Him - because these actions are done while thinking of Him). SrI BhaTTar gives an example of this guNa of bhagavAn by referring us to the incident of ghaNTAkarNa, who did not like to hear even the name of vishNu being uttered by anyone even casually. So he suspended two bells from his ears, and at the very utterance of the name of vishNu, he will shake his head violently, so that these words won't fall in his ears. But in order to ensure that he shake his head at the mere mention of the name of vishNu, he had to always be thinking of vishNu, and watching for even a casual mention of the name of vishNu. The Lord took this as constant meditation on Him, and gave salvation to ghaNTAkarNa for this constant meditation on Him. This is an example of how He takes even the negative thought about him as praise of Him.
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan adds to this the example of SiSUpAlan, who got moksham even though all he was doing was using abusive language to talk about Lord kRshNa at every possible opportunity - "kETpAr Sevi SuDu kIzhmai vaSavugaLaiyE vaiyum pazham pagaivan SiSupAlan". nammAzhvAr concludes one of his dacads in tiruvAimozhi by pointing out that no matter how we say His name - knowing the meaning or not knowing the meaning, etc., - the final outcome is that it will always lead to good for us - "e'nganE Sollinum inbam payakkumE" (7-9-11).
SrI rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi pASuram 5.1.1, which supports the interpretation that SrI BhaTTar has given for this nAma - perumAL is stava-priyah because His Grace is such that even if we don't mean to praise Him, as long as we say something about Him, even without sincerity, He will accept it as praise, in order to help us reach Him - such is the destiny of the jIva:
kaiyAr Sakkarattu en karu mANikkamE enRenRu
poyyE kaimmai Sollip puRamE puRamEyADi
meyyE peRRozhindEn vidi vAikkinRu kAppAr Ar?
AiyO! KaNNa pirAn! aRaiyO inip pOnAlE (tiruvAi. 5.1.1)
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri observes that bhagavAn's pleasure when He is praised is not because He is happy that people are praising His qualities, but because He is pleased that the jIva-s are putting to appropriate use the indriya-s that He has given to the jIva-s. When the thought, word, and deed are all directed appropriately for His praise, He is all the more happy. By praising Him, we are getting closer to Him, and this is exactly what He wants of the jIvAtmA-s, and this makes Him happy. The dharma cakram writer gives the analogy of the parents who feel happy when the child does well in the school. The body and the indriya-s that He has given us are for serving Him, and, just like the parents who feel happy when the child does well in the school, He is happy when we do well with the facilities He has given us.686. stotram
The Eulogy Incarnate.
Om stotrAya namah.
The word stotram is derived from the root stu - to praise, through the addition of the affix shTran, which gives the sense of instrument (i.e, means of praise), according to pANini sUtra 3.2.182. The nAma means that bhagavAn is stotram incarnate.
SrI BhaTTar's interpretation is that bhagavAn is the cause or the instrument of the stotram or praise, because it is only by His anugraham that the devotee praises Him. SrI BhaTTar gives the example of child dhruva who was spell-bound when bhagavAn appeared before Him, and could not utter even a word. Then bhagavAn gently touched dhruva's cheek with His conch, and immediately words of praise of bhagavAn started pouring out form dhruva's mouth. Thus, bhagavAn was the true instrument for His praise in this case. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers to the following words of dhruva:
yo antah praviSya mam vAcam imam prasuptAm
sa'njIvayatyakhila Sakti dharah sva dhAmnA |
anyAmSca hasta caraNa SravaNa tvagAdIn
prANAn namo bhagavate purushAya tubhyam ||
"I worship that Lord who entered into me,
gave life to my words which were more or less dead, and
with His unique Sakti, rejuvenated my hands, legs, ears, skins, etc.,
and gave movement to them".
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to tiruvAimozhi 10.7.5,
where nammAzhvAr echoes this same sentiment:
paNNAr pADal in kavigaL yAnAit tannait tAn pADi
where nammAzhvAr says that bhagavAn sang His own praise by Himself
through tiruvAimozhi using nammAzhvAr as the vehicle or means.
SrI Samkara's interpretation is that bhagavAn is Himself the Hymn. SrI cinmayAnanda explains this by pointing out that when a glorious hymn, praising His Divine Nature, is sung with full devotion and ardent aspiration to realize Him, this praise lifts the devotee into the experience of the Nature of Truth. Thus, the nAma (praise here) and the nAmee are one and the same in experience. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri observes that words that praise Him are by their very nature good words, and so they are His manifestation (Note that Lord kRshNa declares in the gItA that all that are best in this world are but His manifestations).
The dharma cakram writer explains that the great Rshi-s to whom bhagavAn has revealed Himself, have a mind which is pure and where He resides. When these sages reveal their experience of Him through words to others, this becomes the mantra or the word of praise or stotram. Thus the stotram or the mantra becomes the representation of Him. This is what AzhvAr declares when he says:
"nalam tarum Sollai nAn kaNDu koNDEn nArAyaNA ennum nAmam".
One is reminded of the incident of draupadi being saved by invoking the nAma of kRshNa which saved her even before kRshNa could personally come and save her. In this sense, the nAma or the stotram is even more powerful than Him.
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets stotram in the current context to refer to veda -
stUyate anena iti stotram vedah - that by which bhagavAn is praised, is veda.
Since bhagavAn is the object of praise of the veda-s, He is stotram Himself:
vedasya pradhAna vishayatvA brahmApi stotram.
687. stutah -
He Who is praised.
Om stutAya namah.
SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn is called stutah because He is praised by everyone including the nitya sUri-s for the attainment of their respective desires. This includes the thousand-hooded AdiSesha, garuDa who is the embodiment of the three-fold veda-s, brahma and other gods, and also byhuman beings like ourselves
sahasra-phaNa trayI-mayAdibhih anantaih brahmAdibhih
asmadAdibhiSca tat-tad-abhilAsha siddhaye stuta iti
SrI BhaTTar gives reference to the Sruti
"dhAtA purastAt yamudAjahAra
Sakrah pravidvAn pradiSaS-catasrah" - purusha sUktam -
"At first, brahma, the creator, praised Him, then indra of great knowledge extolled Him, and then the four directions". The reference to the four directions indicates that He is the Object of praise by all beings like ourselves. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to nammAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi 3.3.5, which conveys this idea - "SodiyAgi ellA ulagum tozhum Adi mUrti enRAl aLavAgumO?".
SrI Samkara pATham for this nAma is stuthih - the act of praise. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri observes that with SrI Samkara's version, the previous nAma refers to the words of praise, and the current nAma will refer to the act of praise. With SrI BhaTTar's version (stutah), the previous nAma says that He is the instrument for His praise (including the words and the acts), and the current nAma indicates that He is the object of these words and acts of praise. The dharma cakram writer notes that it is only when we have a mind that is clean, and is occupied by Him, that meaningful and proper stuti comes out through our words. It is then that the greatness of bhagavAn takes shape in the form of words and comes out as stuti. Thus, it is He who causes the stuti to occur, and hence He is called stutih.
a) He Who praises those who extol Him.
b) He Who is also the form of the Eulogizer of bhagavAn.
Om stotre namah.
SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is "sva-stotAram stotum Seelam asya iti stotA"- He Whose nature it is to praise those who praise Him is stotA. He quotesfrom vishNu dharma in support:
"yam stuvan stavyatAmeti vandamAnaSca vandyatAm" (75.55) -
"He Who praises bhagavAn is praised by bhagavAn Himself,
and he who adores bhagavAn becomes an object of adoration for Him".
SrI BhaTTar gives the example of bhagavAn's kailAsa yAtra in His kRshNaincarnation. The incident referred to is Lord kRshNa's praise ofSiva in the form of a hymn during the kailAsa yAtra. Siva constantlymeditates on bhagavAn through the tAraka mantra, and so He becomes an object ofstuti by bhagavAn, as He says in hari vamSa - "One who praises Me becomespraiseworthy". SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the sameinterpretation as SrI BhaTTar - stauti sva-janAn iti stotA. SrI baladevavidyAbhUshan gives the reason for bhagavAn praising His devotee - He wants tobring out the greatness of such a devotee. He quotes from the gItA -j~nAnI tvAtmaiva me matam (7.18). Slokam 7.17 of the gItA also conveysthis idea:
teshAm j~nAni nitya-yukta eka-bhaktir viSishyate; |
priyo hi j~nAnino'tyartham aham sa ca mama priyah ||
where Lord kRshNa declares that the devotee who has exclusive devotion to Him isextremely dear to Him. SrI cinmayAnanda refers us to the gItA Slokam 12.14-
mayyarpita mano-buddhir yo mad-bhaktah sa me priyah.
The dharma cakram writer elaborates on the attributes or qualities of thedevotee whom bhagavAn praises. This devotee shows kindness to all, hasovercome anger, considers pleasure and pain as equal, is pure in thought, wordand deed, dedicates all his actions to bhagavAn, is neither happy when heobtains objects of pleasure nor unhappy when he is faced with objects ofdispleasure, is neither positively influenced by praise nor negativelyinfluenced by unkind words, etc. Lord kRshNa describes such a devotee in Chapter16 of the gItA among other places.
b) SrI Samkara's vyAkhyAnam is - stotA api sa eva, sarva AtmakatvAt - so He isthe Eulogizer as well. SrI cinmayAnanda obsrves that the true devotee whosings the divine hymns of the Lord dissolves in the Lord (becomes one with theLord), and is in at-one-ment with Him.
689. raNa-priyah -
a) He Who delights in battle.
b) He Who delights in the auspicious sounds in places of worship.
c) He Who moves around happily in the form of the Sun etc.
Om raNa-priyAya namah.
The word raNa has two meanings - raNa gatau, raNa Sabda arthah- it can meanmotion or sound. The different interpretations draw on these two differentmeanings.
Generically, raNa-priyah thus means one who delights in moving around,accompanied by sound. Thus, the term raNa is used to refer tobattle, where a vIra purusha moves around with joy in confronting his enemies. SrISamkara and SrI BhaTTar use this meaning (battle) in their interpretations. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses the meaning "movement", while SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAj uses the meaning "sound".
He is raNa-priyah when it comes to dealing with the enemies of those who havesurrendered to Him and sought His protection. He delights in battle forthe purposes of protection of those who seek refuge in Him, and for protectionof righteousness. The fight against rAvaNa in His rAma incarnation, andthe destruction of duryodhana and other demons in His kRshNa incarnation areamong the widely known examples of His guNa of raNa-priyah. These are forthe protection of the good and the destruction of the evil -
paritrANAyasAdhUnAm vinASAya ca dushkRtAm
dharma smasthApaNArthAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge.
SrI BhaTTar quotes sage vAlmIki in yuddha kANDa:
tatah sakAmam sugrIvam a'ngadam ca mahA-balam |
cakAra rAghavah prIto hatvA rAvaNamAhave || (yuddha.111.31)
"Sri rAma killed rAvaNa in the fight and felt happy that
He fulfilled thedesires of the powerful sugrIva and a'ngada".
SrI Samkara refers to His carrying the great pa'ncAyudha-s ever ready for theprotection of the world - yatah pa'nca mahAyudhAni dhatte satatam lokarakshaNArtham ato raNa-priyah.
b) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives an interpretation which is different fromthe other vyAkyAna kartA-s:
raNo ravah mandireshu ma'ngala dhvanih;
sa priyo yasya iti raNa-priyah -
The auspicious sound in the temples is called raNah or ravah;
since these arepleasant to Him, He is referred to as raNa-priyah.
c) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses the meaning of movement for raNa, and gives theinterpretation that He is called raNa-priyah because He delights in movingaround in the hearts of everyone and removing the darkness in them andenlightening them, or He delights in moving around in the form of the Sun andremoving the darkness in the world.
The dharma cakram writer points out that life intrinsically is a struggle of onething vs. another. For one life to live, some other life or some aspect ofanother life is destroyed. For us to be relieved from evil influences, wehave to fight to overcome the evil. bhagavAn has the big task of fighting against the evils of theworld, and this is what He signifies by carrying the pa'ncAyudha-s. ThisnAma of bhagavAn should remind us that our life is a big struggle and a fight tokeep the bad from us, and to constantly assert the good in us.
He Who is complete.
Om pUrNAya namah.
The root from which the nAma is derived is pUrI - ApyAyane - to fill, tosatisfy.
SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that since He is avApta-samasta-kAman (OneWho has all His desires fulfilled, and has nothing else to wish for), He ispUrNah. SrI BhaTTar notes that this is why it is easy to please Him withjust words of praise, with no expenditure of any kind involved, no physicalstrain, and no need for elaborate worship. nammAzhvAr sings His pURNattvamin tiruvAimozhi (4.5.7, 4.510) - ellA ulagum uDaiyAn tannai, tanadEulagena ninRAn tannai (references from SrI v.v. rAmAnujan). SrIcinmayAnanda points out that He is lakshmI-pati, and there is nothing that Hedoes not have.
SrI Samkara comments that He has all objects of desire, and all Sakti-s orenergies, and so He is pUrNah - sakalaih kAmaih, sakalAbhih SaktibhiSca sampannaiti pUrNah. Thus, He not only has all that is desired, but also has all thepowers to fulfill all that is desired. He is also pUrNah in the sense that He is everywhere, andpermeates and pervades everything (SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri). Sinceeverything is part of Him, and there is nothing that is not part of Him, thereis nothing for Him to desire. SrI SAstri refers us to the well-knownupanishadic passage
pUrNamadah pUrNamidam pUrNAt pUrNamudacyate;
pUrNasya pUrNamAdAya pUrNamevAvaSishyate
(SAnti pATha of ISAvAsya uapnishad, bRhadA. 5.1.1) -
He is complete in all respects; whatever emanates from Himis complete; His fullness is such that even though many things emanate from Himthat are complete, He remains complete in all respects. Otherupanishadic references he gives are: pUrNam apravarti (bRhaDA. 2.1.5),and tadetat pUrNam apravarti (chAndoygya. 3.12).
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj adds additional anubhavam for this nAma - a) He isfilled with infinite kalyANa guNa-s, and so He is pUrNah - pUryate ApyAyate smakalyANa guNaih iti pUrNah; b) He is easily fulfilled and satisfied withthe simple offerings from His devotees, such as flowers, fruits, etc. -bhaktArpitaih phala kusumAdibhih tarpita iti pUrNah.
SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN builds on his vyAkhyAnam for the previous nAma, andinterprets the current nAma to mean that He is perfect in the sense of finishingoff His enemies once for all without trace.
Thus, among the different anubhavam-s for this nAma are: a) He is full, with alldesires fulfilled; b) He is complete with all the kalyANa guNa-s; c) He iseasily satisfied and fulfilled with the simple offerings of His devotees; d) Heis filled with all the Sakti-s that are needed to fulfill any possible desire;e) He permeates and pervades everything, and there is nothing that is not partof Him.
The dharma cakram writer discusses the implications of this nAma to our dailylife. PUrNa is the fulfilled or completely satisfied state. Thegeneral observation in our lives is that as we succeed more in our materiallife, we become more and more dissatisfied, because our needs and wants keepgrowing more. The modern day education only helps grow this material need. The term 'kalvi' signifies 'kalludal', digging into. The true purpose ofkalvi should be to bring out the good in us and to develop the desire to seekHim. But the modern day education only digs out more desire, more wants,and helps us lose whatever little good we might have had to start with. Webecome even more of pleasure seekers and wealth seekers as we get the moderneducation. The more devices wediscover to defend ourselves, the more the fear in us increases of possibleattacks. Lack of trust and faith in Him is the general result of theeducation we receive nowadays. The significance of this nAma for us shouldbe to realize that the joy we are seeking externally is really within us, and torealize our true nature and become fulfilled through this realization of thetrue nature of our selves.
The Fulfiller of the desires of His devotees.
Om pUrayitre namah.
bhagavAn has the nAma pUrayitA because He bestows anything that anyone desiresdepending on their merit - dharma, artha, kAma or moksha. SrI BhaTTargives the interpretation that He has this nAma because He fulfillsthe desire of the devotees to sing His praise. In other words, bhagavAn ispUrayitA by becoming a stava-priyah (nAma 685) for the sake of His devotees, andfulfilling their desire to praise Him, even through He is a pUrNah (previousnAma), and thus does not need the praise of the devotees. His truedevotees would only seek the chance to do kaimkaryam to Him by pleasing Himthrough praise etc., and this is what He fulfills, as signified by the nAmapUrayitA.
SrI Samkara continues on his interpretation for the previous nAma, and pointsout that bhagavAn is not just fulfilled Himself (pUrNah), but He makes othersfulfilled as well (pUrayitA) at the appropriate time, by bestowing whatever theyseek.
The dharma cakram writer gives some instances of the unique ways in whichbhagavAn fulfils the desires of those who seek His help, all the time upholdingdharma. The story of arjuna and duryodhana seeking help from Lord kRshNafor the mahAbhArata war is interesting. Lord kRshNa bestowed both arjuna'sand duryodhana's wishes, though ultimately He made sure that dharma won. BhIshma, the great devotee of kRshNa, declared to duryodhana that he will fightso ferociously that he will make kRshNa break His vow and take to arms duringthe war. BhagavAn fulfilled bhIshma's promise, because it was the wish ofa devotee. By fulfilling His devotees' wishes, all He is doing isfulfilling His own wishes, since He wants to ensure that His devotees' words aretrue. The reason that bhagavAnalways fulfills His devotees' wishes is because their wish is never contrary toHis wish under any circumstance. In the mahAbhArata war, even thoughbhIshma was on duryodhana's side, he blessed yudhisThira that he should win thewar, which was the same as bhagavAn's wish.
a) The Purifier.
b) He Who is excellent in performing pious activities.
Om puNyAya namah.
This nAma occurs again as nAma 925 in Slokam 98.
There are two ways the derivation of the word "puNyah" has beenapproached - one from the root pU - pavane - to purify, and the other puN- Subha karmaNi - to be pious. The details will be seen below under therespective authors.
SrI BhaTTar gives the definition - punAti iti puNyah - He who purifies is puNyah, which is derived from the root pU - pavane to purify. SrI BhaTTarpoints out that bhagavAn has this nAma because He purifies even theworst of the sinners and makes them fit for extolling Him. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan observes that the nAma "puNyan" for bhagavAn in tamizhis a favorite of the AzhvArs. Among the references he gives are from tirumazhiSaiAzhvAr - "anantan mEl kiDanda em puNNiyA!" (tiruccanda viruttam45), and from tiruma'ngai AzhvAr - "un aDiyEn manam pugunda appulava! puNNiyanE!" (periya tirumozhi 3.5.7).>
SrI Samkara interprets this nAma to mean that He is a Purifier because thoughtabout Him purifies the person who thinks about Him - smRtimAtreNakalmashANi kshapayati iti puNyah. The dharma cakram writer explainsthat just as the thoughts of indriya-sukham are thoughts that are notconducive to His realization, the thoughts about Him produce the puritythat leads to His realization.
Under nAma 925, SrI BhaTTar gives the above as his second interpretationfor this nAma - that by the mere contemplation of His kIrti pertainingto His helping His devotees, we become pure. He gives the example ofbhagavAn's protection of gajendra, and observes that the meditation ofHis kIrti through acts such as this will purify us. This sameinterpretation and example are presented by SrI baladeva vidyAbhUshaNfor this nAma under Slokam 98.
For the occurrence of this nAma in Slokam 98, SrI Samkara gives the interpretationthat bhagavAn has the nAma puNyah because He enables all to berighteous by His teachings through the Sruti-s and smRti-s - sarveshAmSruti smRti lakshaNayA vAcA puNyam AcashTa iti vA puNyah.
Under the current Slokam, SrI baladeva vidyAbhUshaN comments that bhagavAnis a Purifier of this world in the sense of eliminating or removing thewicked (such as kamsa).
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the nAma starting from the root pU - pavane- to purify, and gives the derivation - pavata iti, pUyate vA anena itipuNyah - pavitrah pApAnaviddhah Subho vA - He who purifies, or One bywhom things are purified is puNyah; or, One who is pure, devoid of anysin, auspicious, etc. He gives the example of bhagavAn in the form ofthe Sun purifying all objects in the universe, in addition to beingpure Himself.
In addition to the above derivation and interpretation,both SrI satyadevovAsishTha and SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj also give the alternativederivation of the nAma starting from the root puN - Subha karmaNi - tobe pious. SrI bhAradvAj gives the derivation as "puNati Subhamkarma Acarati iti puNyah - One Who observes pious activities is puNyah.By the grammatical rule "tatra sAdhuh" (ashTAdyAyI 4.4.98), withthe addition the yat pratyaya to puNa, the term puNyah means "One whois excellent in observing the pious activities", and not just in thesense of being good. BhagavAn sets the example to His devotees on performingpious acts by performing them Himself. He leads by example.
Thus, bhagavAn is puNyah (the Purifier) because a) He purifies even the worst of sinners by making them think of Him; b) He purifies this world by eliminating the wicked from our midst during His incarnations; c) Histhought is a purifier for those who meditate on Him; d) He purifies everythingin the form of the Sun; e) He guides us to be righteous through theSruti and smRti.
Alternatively, He is puNyah (One who excels in observing pious activities)because He excels in the practice of pious activities so that He setsan example for others to follow.
He Whose kIrti or praise is also purifying (in addition toHim being the Purifier).
Om puNya-kIrtaye namah.
SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma as signifying that His kIrti is purifying whenit is sung by His devotees; in other words, nAma samkIrtanama by Hisdevotees, which involves singing His kIrti, purifies the devotee, and so He iscalled puNya-kIrtih. SrI BhaTTar gives several references thatindicate the purifying nature of His praise.
nAma samkIrtanam pumsAm vilAyanam anuttamam |
maitreya! aSesha pApAnAm dhAtUnAmiva pAvakah || (vishNu purA.6.8.20)
"Maitreya! Just as fire purifies the metals, the unequalled recitation ofthe names of bhagavAn, which have unsurpassed greatness, destroys all sinsof man".
avaSenA'pi yan-nAmni kIrtite sarva-pAtakaih |
pumAn vimucyate sadyah simha-trataih mRgairiva || (vishNu.PurANam. 6.8.19)
"Those who, even without being aware of it, pronounce the name of bhagavAnare freed from their sins the same way a deer is freed from the attack of thebeasts when they run away on hearing the roar of a lion nearby".
dhyAyan kRte yajan ya~jnais-tretAyAm dvApare'rcayan |
yadApnoti tadApnoti kalau samkIrtya keSavam || (vishNuPurANam. 6.2.17)
"By the mere mention of the name of bhagavAn, a man in kali yuga attainsthe same fruits that one obtained in the kRta yuga by abstract meditation, inthe tretA by sacrifice, and in the dvApara yuga by adoration".
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to ANDAL's tiruppAvai pASuram "mAyanai"
vAyinAl pADi manttinAl Sinndikka pOya pizhaiyum pugutaruvAnninRanavum tIyinil tUSAgum
(pizhai here refers to our sins or pApam).
The dharma cakram writer gives the additional reference to
"nalam tarum Sollai nAn kaNDu koNDEn nArAyaNA ennum nAmam".
SrI Samkara also gives the interpretation that this nAma signifies that He haskIrti which brings purity to people- puNyam Avahati asya kIrtih nRNAm itipuNya-kIrtih. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri seems to draw a connection betweenthe previous nAma and the current nAma. SrI Samkara interprets theprevious nAma as referring to His being a puNyah or Purifier in the sensethat mere thoughts about Him by the devotee lead to the purification of thedevotee - smRtimAtreNa kalmashANi kshapayati iti puNyah. Inorder to have this smRti of Him, one should first realize His greatness. The current nAma provides this basis, namely His fame, which induces thoughtsabout Him in the devotee, which then leads to the smRti of bhagavAn. Thus,His kIrti has the effect of being a purifier (this nAma), just as His smRti is(the previous nAma).
SrI cinmayAnanda explains that whoever glorifies Him becomes holy, and so inthis sense His glory is purifying.
694. an-Amayah -
a) He Who removes the disease of samsAra.
b) He Who is beyond pain or suffering - internal, external, karma-related, etc.
om an-AmayAya namah.
The root from which this nAma is derived is mI - himsAyAm, to die, to perish. The term Amayah refers to disease or sickness. He Who is beyond disease orsickness is an-Amayah.
a) SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that He is called an-Amayah because Heis the adversary for the worst Amayah, namely the disease of samsAra, in Hisdevotees - samsAra mahA-vyAdhi virodhI. samsAra is considered adisease because it is an obstacle to the power of enjoyment of the glory ofbhagavAn. SrI BhaTTar quotes from chAndogyopanishad and indicatesthat those who have realized the true nature of samsAra declare that "theyare full of disease" - "vyAdhibhih paripUrNo'smi (chAn. 4.10.3). nammAzhvAr refers to Him as "vani tIr marundu" (tiruvAi. 7.1.4) -reference from SrI v.v. rAmAnujan.
b) SrI samkara gives the interpretation that He is called an-Amayah because Heis free from all ills produced by karma - internal or external. SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAj gives the derivation - na Amayo rogo yasya iti anAmayahdivya-ma'ngala vigrahah - His divya ma'ngala vigraham is beyond any kind ofdisease or illness. His Nature is of pure unstained divine essence,and He is thus beyond the mental restlessness or physical pangs that constantlyhaunt us because of our karma (SrI cinmayAnanda).
The following summary from dharma cakram is educational and informative:
"Disease is whatever causes discomfort to the bodyor mind. The body is sthUla and the mind is sUkshma. When the sthUlabody feels suffering, it impacts the sUkhsma mind, and the reverse is also true. Since jIvan is associated with the body and mind, the pain felt by either isfelt by the jIvan or soul also. BhagavAn is beyond all these, and so He isan-Amayah".