Om sad-gataye namah
Om sat-kRtaye namah
Om sattAyai namah
Om sad-bhUtaye namah
Om sat-parAyaNAya namah
Om SUra-senAya namah
Om yadu-SreshThAya namah
Om san-nivAsAya namah
Om su-yAmunAya namah.
704. sad-gatih -
a) He Who who provides the right path for the good.
b) He Who is Himself the right path for the good.
c) He Who has superior intellect.
d) He Who is attainable by the good.
sat refers to that which is good, or those who are good. gatih means path. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the derivation as -satAm sAttvika-sajjanAnAm gatih iti sad-gatih. We have seen the nAma"muktAnAm paramA gatih" (nAma 12, Slokam 2) earlier, whichconveys that He is the Supreme Goal for all the Released souls. The current nAmadescribes His showing the right path for those who seek the Truth. Theinner significance of the nAma sad-gatih is that He removes the shackles ofsamsAra and liberates His devotees and shows them the right path
a) SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation for the current nAma as "One Whoprovides the right path for the good or virtuous". The"right path" is that which leads to eternal peace and tranquility. SrI BhaTTar gives the example of how even at time of birth of Lord kRshNa, thevirtuous people saw all signs of tranquility all around them. He givessupport from vishNu purANam, 5.3, which elaborately describes the tranquilityand auspicious signs at the time of birth of child kRshNa to devaki. One of theSloka-s from the reference is:
santah santosham adhikam praSamam canDa mArutah |
prasAdam nimagnA yAtA jAyamAne janArdane || (vishNu purA.5.3.4)
"The virtuous experienced new delight, the strong winds subsided, and theriver glided tranquilly, as janArdana was about to be born".
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives additional examples. As soon as Lord kRshNa wasborn to devaki, He unfettered vasudeva from the shackles that held him inprison; Even as a child, and He ridded the asura-s from amongst thegopi-s and gopa-s in nandagopa's place. SrI rAmAnujan observes that inaddition to His being sad-gatih (the path for the good), He is also asad-gatih -The Redeemer of the bad also, like SiSupAla. So He is the gati for asat-salso. nammAzhvAr refers to Him in his tiruvAimozhi pASuram 7.2.7 as "paRRilArpaRRa ninRAn" - He Who is the Refuge for even those such as kAkAsuran.
b) SrI Samkara gives the significance of the nAma as "He Who is the Goal orRefuge for the good". He quotes from taittirIya Upanishad, which saysthat "If a person knows that Brahman exists, then the wise call himgood" - asti brahmeti ced veda, santamenam tato viduh (taitt. 2.6).
c) SrI Samkara also gives an additional interpretation using the meaning"intellect" for the term "gati". Thus the nAma canalso mean "He Who has a superior intellect".- sati gatih, buddhihsamutkRshTA asya iti vA sad-gatih.
d) SrI baladeva vidyAbhUshaN uses the meaning "accessible orattainable" to the term "gatih", and gives the interpretationthat He is accessible to the good, such as bhIshma - satAm bhIshmAdInAmprApyatvAt sad-gatih.
705. sat-kRtih -
He of lovable acts, and full of good actions.
Om sat-kRtaye namah.
a) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the explanation - sati satyA SobhanA ca kRtIracanA yasya iti sat-kRtih. SrI BhaTTar gives the examples of Hisstealing butter, getting tied to the mortar, etc. SrI v.v. rAmAnujanrefers to bhagavAn's own words about His acts - janma karma ca me divyam (gItA4.9), where He Himself describes His karma-s or acts as divine. The merecontemplation of even His acts will release the person who contemplates on thesefrom the bondage of samsAra.
His divine acts do not just stop with the lovable acts in His childhood, butextend to all aspects of creation, protection and destruction. nammAzhvArstarts the description of His leelA-s in 6.4.1, and goes on listing more andmore of His acts in the next 11 pASuram-s, frequently interspersing with "maRRumpala", indicating that they are countless, even though he is listing someexamples (This list reminds one of Lord kRshNa's description ofjust a few examples of His indescribable vibhUti in chapter 10 of the gItA):
- kuravai AicciyarODu kOttadum, kunRam onRu Endiyadum,
uravu nIrp poigai nAgam kAindadum maRRum pala … (6.4.1);
- kEyat tI'nkuzhal UdiRRum nirai mEittadum, keNDai oN kaN
vASap pU'nkuzhal pinnai tOLgaL maNandadum maRRum pala.. (6.4.2);
- nigar il mallaric ceRRadum, nirai mEittadum, nIL neDum kai
Sikara mAkaLiRaTTadum, ivai pOlvanavaum piRavum (6.4.3);
- nOva Aicci uralODu Arkka ira'ngiRRum, va'njap peNNaic
cAvap pAl uNDadum, Ur SakaDamiDac cADiyadum (6.4.4);
- vENDi dEvar irakka vandu piRandadum, vI'ngu iruL vAi
pUNDu anRu annai pulambap pOi a'ngu Or Aikkulam pukkadum,
kANDal inRi vaLarndu ka'njanait tu'nja va'njam Seidadum …(6.4.5);
- igal koL puLLaip piLandadum, imil ERugaL SeRRaduvum,
uyar koL SOlaik kurundu oSittadum uTpaDa maRRum pala …. (6.4.6);
- manap parippODu azhukku mAniDa SAdiyil tAn piRandu
tanakku vENDu uruk koNDu tAn tana SIRRattinai muDikkum
punat tuzhAi muDi mAlai mArban … (6.4.7);
- nInilattoDu vAn viyappa niRai perum pOrgaL Seidu
vANan Ayiram tOL tuNittadum uTpaDa maRRum pala
mANiyAi nilam koNDa mAyan….. (6.4.8);
- kalakka Ezh kaDal Ezh malaiyum ulagam Ezhum kazhiyak kaDAi
ulagat tEr koDu SenRa mAyamum uTpaDa maRRum pala… (6.4.9);
- maN miSaip perum bAram nI'nga Or bhArata mA perum pOr
paNNiya mAya'ngaL Seidu SEnaiyaip pAzh paDa nURRiTTup pOi
viN miSai tan tAmamE puga mEviaya SOdi …. (6.4.10);
- nAyagan muzhu Ezh ulagukkumAi muzhu Ezh ulagum, tan
vAiyagam puga vaittu umizhndu avaiyAi avai allanumAm kESavan…(6.4.11).
In the issue of dharma cakram 48.8, several of kaNNan's sat-kRti-s aredescribed, and the associated lesson that is intended to be taught to us by eachof these acts is also described.
b) SrI cinmayAnanda reminds us that even those acts of His that may seemdestructive (such as His role in the mahA bhArata war, the killing of therAkshasa-s such as rAvaNa etc.), are really for the good of the individual andfor the protection of the world. All His actions are in harmony and aremeant for the establishment of peace. SrI Samkara specifically emphasizesthat His acts are sat-kRti-s because they are meant for protecting theuniverse - sati kRtih, jagad-rakshaNAdi lakshaNA asya yasmAt tena sat-kRtih.
c) SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives the interpretation that He is sat-kRtihbecause at the time of giving up the body by a devotee, if this devotee is notcapable of thinking of bhagavAn as a result of his/her physical condition,bhagavAn takes the responsibility to give this soul moksham.
yadi vAtAdi dosheNa mad-bhakto mAm na ca smaret |
aham smarAmi mad-bhaktam nayAmiparamAm gatim ||
706. sattA -
Om sattAyai namah.
a) The word sat refers to existence. Slokam 17.26 of bhagavad gItA explainsthe meaning of the word sat:
sad-bhAve sAdhu-bhAve ca sad-ityetat prayujyate |
praSaste karmaNi tathA sac-chabdah pArtha yujyate || (gItA 16.26)
"The term sat is used in the sense of existence and goodness. And soalso, O arjuna, the word is applied to an auspicious action".
The addition of the affix tva or tal (ta or tA) to a word in the sixthcase leads to the sense of "the nature thereof" according to pANinisUtra 5.1.119 (tasya bhAvah tva-talau) - SrI satyadevo vAsishTha. Thus,sattA means "He Who is of the nature of Existence".
b) SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that He has this nAma signifying that Heis the very existence of the good and the pious and all other things. Thereis indeed nothing that can exist without Him - sattAdi satAm svayamevaiti sattA | na hi tad-vyatirekeNa ki'ncit syAt. SrI BhaTTar givesreference to the gItA in support:
yac-cApi sarva-bhUtAnAm bIjam tad-aham-arjuna |
na tad-asti vinA yat-syAt mayA bhUtam carAcaram || (gItA 10.39)
"I am also that which is the seed of all beings, O arjuna. Nothing thatmoves or is stationary, exists without Me".
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to tirumazhiSai AzhvAr’s nAnmugan tiruvantAdi (7) –
nanRaganAn unai anRi ilEn kaNDAi,
nAraNanE! nee ennai anRi ilai –
“WithoutYou we do not exist, and as for You, if we are not the ones You protect, thereis nothing else for You to protect”.
b) SrI Samkara gives the meaning "Existence" to the nAma -sajAtIya vijAtIya svagata bheda rahitA anubhUtih sattA. One translatorhas given the meaning as "The state which is devoid of differenceas regards its own species, as well as others" (explained furtherin the next para). SrI Samkara quotes the chAndogya Upanishad insupport: ekam eva advitIyam - chAndogya. 6.2.1 - "He remains everthe same, One without a second".
The dharma cakram writer elaborates on the above vyAkhyAnam of SrI Samkara.He notes that sajAtIya bhedam is the difference that we see between thedifferent members of a given species - such as the difference betweenone human being and another. Seeing this difference externally takes usaway from realizing the truth that we are all His property, and He isour antaryAmi and we are His Sesha-s. True knowledge consists in seeing the unity and servingeveryone as God's creation. BhagavAn does not have this sajAtIya bhedamthat we are subject to.
ThevijAtIya bhedam is the difference that we observe<"Courier New";mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"">between the different species, such as the difference between man and animal.It is because of vijAtIya bhedam that a dog attacks the cat, and onespecies attacks another. One who has true knowledge sees all species asequals, and shows respect and love for all without distinction. Again,bhagavAn is beyond this kind of bhedam as well.
svagatabhedam is the difference we observe in ourselves - such as the<"Courier New";mso-fareast-font-family:"Courier New"">difference in appearance between the different parts of our body. We humansfeel one part of the body is attractive, and another part is not attractive.Seeing these kinds of distinctions only leads us away from realizingthe truth.
BhagavAnis beyond all these bheda-s (the root cause of our not realizing Him. The nature of sat is to see unity ineverything at all levels. When this state is reached, it is the purepersonification of sat or good. Such is bhagavAn, and so He is calledsattA.
c) BhagavAn is also "Existence Incarnate", "One without asecond", and "Pure Existence" in the sense that He isunchanging, never subject to aging, disease, death, etc., to whicheverything else is subjected.
d) SrI vAsishTha gives the interpretation that that the act of protectionor preservation is sattA - sattA hi Atma-dhAraNam. In this sense, onlyHe is sattA, since He alone protects everyone and everything, and noone else is capable of protecting or preserving himself.
707. sad-bhUtih –
a) The wealth, in all forms, for the good.
b) He Who is endowed with rich glories (aiSvaryam)
c) He Who alone truly exists.
d) He Who manifests Himself in infinite forms.
om sad-bhUtaye namah.
The term bhUti can refer to wealth, prosperity or existence (amara koSam) - bhavatyanayA SrImAn iti bhUtih; bhavatAt iti vA.
a) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the derivation -
satAm mahAtmanAm bhUtih sampattih iti sad-bhUtih -
The wealth for the good. SrI BhaTTar points out that for the true devotee, He is the son, friend, messenger, charioteer, and everything else also. SrI aNNan'ngarAcArya svAmi points out that this means that He is their help in all forms.
b) SrI cinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that this nAma means "One Who has Rich Glories". He interprets bhUti as referring to His aiSvaryam - wealth, power, happiness, etc. Alternatively, he gives the interpretation that the nAma refers to "One Who has taken different incarnations", exhibiting in all of them the glories of the Supreme.
c) SrI Samkara gives the meaning bhAsamAnatvam (Effulgence) to the term 'bhUti", and "true existence" to the term sat, and thus gives the interpretation that this nAma of bhagavAn signifies that He alone truly exists, and has the effulgence which is revealed without any other external object. Without Him nothing else exists, and without His Effulgence, nothing else is revealed. One translator has translated SrI Samkara's original vyAkhyAnam as follows: "As the supreme Self is ever-existing as Consciousness and shining, He is unsublated being".
d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses the root bhU - sattAyAm - to be, to live, for the term bhUti, and thus gives the interpretation suggestive of "His truly existing in different forms" (sati = SASvatI, bhUtih = bhavanam = vividha bhAvena pariNAmah, sad-bhUtih). He gives as an illustration the fact that the tree exists in the seed, and the seed exists in the tree, and both are real and true. Time does not destroy this relationship, and this relationship is eternal. This same relationship extends to everything in the universe. Thus, bhagavAn is both the nimitta kAraNam and the upAdAna kAraNam
(tathaiva idam brahma jaDa cetana rUpasya asya viSvasya nimittam kAraNam
na tu upAdAna kAraNam, bIjAnAm vapte ca).
708. sat-parAyaNam -
a) The Support for the good.
b) The supreme Goal for the good.
c) He Who has the good people as His support.
om sat-parAyaNAya namah.
SrI BhaTTar gives two alternate versions for this nAma - sat-parAyaNam or sat-parAyaNah. The first version is in neuter gender, and the second one is in masculine gender. SrI BhaTTar's interpretation corresponds to the meaning "BhagavAn is the supreme support for the good" for the first version, and for the second, he gives the interpretation "The good are His supreme support".
a) sat-parAyaNam: satAm parama ayanam iti sat-parAyaNam (SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj) - "He Who is the Supreme Support for the good". In support of the interpretation of the nAma as "sat-parAyaNam", SrI BhaTTar quotes the mahA-bhArata Slokam 173.24 from droNa parva:
kRshNASrayAh kRshNa balAh kRshNa-nAthASca pANDavAh |
kRshNah parAyaNam teshAm …………………… ||
"The pANDava-s have kRshNa as their resort, kRshNa as their strength, kRshNa as their savior. In short, kRshNa is their great support". So He is their sat-parAyaNam. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan quotes nammAzhvAr's well-known agagillEn pASuram "pugal onRu illA aDiyEn un aDi-kIzh amarndu pugundEnE" (tiruvAi. 6.10.10), as support for SrI BhaTTar's interpretation.
b) Among those who have provided translations for SrI Samkara's vyAkhyAnam, some have used the version "sat-parAyaNah" and some have used "sat-parAyaNam". SrI Samkara's vyAkhyAnam is - satAm tattva vidAm param prakRshTam ayanam iti sat-parAyaNam or sat-parAyaNah, depending on the source. Translators have interpreted the nAma as meaning that He is the supreme Goal for the good people. SrI Samkara elaborates that "satAm" here refers to those who are the knowers of Reality, or the true nature of God - satAm - tattva vidAm.
c) sat-parAyaNah: If the version "sat-parAyaNah" is used, SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation "santoh asya parAyaNam" - The good are His supreme support. For this interpretation, SrI BhaTTar quotes the following in support: mama prANA hi pANDavAh (mahAbhA. Uttara. 90.33) - "The pANDava-s are verily my life-breath"; j~nAni tvAtmaiva me matam (gItA 7.8) - "It is My view that the wise men are my inner soul". tirumazhiSai AzhvAr sings this dependence of bhagavAn on His bhakta-s - "nAraNanE! nee ennai anRi ilai! (nAnmugan tiru. 7), which has been referenced before (e.g., under nAma 706 in this Slokam).
709. SUra-senah –
a) He with a valiant army.
b) He Who keeps everything that moves around, bound together and functioning as a unit.
Om SUra-senAya namah.
a) The word SUra is derived from the root SUra - vikrAntau - to act the hero. The amara koSa vyAkhyAnam for the noun senA is "inena prabhuNA saha vartata iti senA - That which has a powerful, mighty, leader is senA. The term is thus used to refer to an army. The term sUra-senah thus refers to One who has a mighty army. SUrA senA yasya iti SUra-senah (SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj). SrI BhaTTar observes that bhagavAn had a great army of yAdava-s and pANDava-s when He relieved the Earth of her burden by eliminating the wicked kaurava-s. SrI Samkara refers to Lord rAma's great and valiant army consisting of the likes of hanuman –
hanUmat pramukhAh sainikAh SaurySAlino yasyAm
senAyAm sA SUrA senA yasya sah SUra-senah.
nammAzhvAr sings the praise of the SUra-sena aspect of bhagavAn in his tiruvAimozhi pASuram 6.4.10
"Or bhArata mA perum pOr paNNi Senaiyaip pAzh paDa nURRiTTa Sodi nAthan"
(reference - SrI v.v. rAmAnujan; SEnai in the context of this pASuram refers to the army of the opponents).
b) Alternately, SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the word SUra from the root Su - to go, based on the uNAdi sutra - Su si ci mInAm dIrghASca (sutra 185) - the root is elongated and the rak pratyaya is added, leading to SUra. He derives the word senA from the root si - bandhane - to bind. Thus, he gives the interpretation that this nAma indicates that bhagavAn binds the creatures that have the ability to move around such that they function as a unit with all their parts intact. We are given the ability to walk and to run fast, but we do not ever worry about our legs falling apart as we run. We watch a dancer dance, and in the process our eyes move all around, but there is never a thought in us that the eyes will fall out as they move around constantly. This general rule, trivial as it may seem, is an important part of the whole world functioning - when the planets keep moving around, we do not worry about their falling apart, colliding with each other, etc. All this is because of bhagavAn- the SUra-sena, who keeps everything bound in a way that everything functions as a unit and all things co-exist with each other. SrI vAsishTha-s summary of this interpretation is - evameva sakalam carAcara dRSyam adRSyam ca cintayam acintayam ca jagat tasya vishNoh SUra-senatva lakshaNam guNam prakASayan SUra-sena abhidhAnam labhate.
The learned people know and understand that bhagavAn has given us the freedom to move around, and at the same time He is the One who keeps us all together as one unit, and has established the rules for all of us to follow. The mahA-purusha-s understand this simple and universal secret that permeates in everything all around, and praise this SUra-sena and thereby all their sins are removed.
The dharma cakram writer illustrates the significance of this nAma in terms ofthe mhaA bhArata war. In that war, bhagavAn used the pANDava armyconsisting of the good people such as arjuna, and defeated the wicked kaurava-s.When duryodhana enlisted good people such as bhIshma anddroNa on his side, and when arjuna hesitated to kill them for the sake ofdharma, bhagavAn imparted true knowledge to him and made him fight. It was thuswith bhagavAn's help that arjuna could win the war.
We have to constantly fight the Asuric tendencies in us in order to elevate ourselves. For this, we need His help. It is only by removing our association with the materialistic desires, and by strengthening our connection with bhagavAn, that we can succeed in overcoming the Asuric tendencies in us. This is the lesson that we should take from this nAma.
710. yadu-SreshThah –
a) The pre-eminent among the yAdava-s.
b) He Who is Best among those who strive (for the redemption of the jIva-s).
om yadu-SreshThAya namah.
a) yadushu SreshThah iti yadu-SreshThah (SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj) - He Who is the most praise-worthy among the yadu-s; yadUnAm paradhAnatvAt yadu-SreshThah (SrI Samkara) - The Chief of the yadu-s, the clan to which kRshNa belonged. SrI BhaTTar gives support from vishNu purANa (5.20.37):
ayam sa kathyate prAg~jnaih purANArthAvalokibhih |
gopAlo yAdavam vamSam magnam-abhyuddharishyati ||
"This is He who has been foretold by the wise, skilled in the sense of the purANa-s,
as gopAla, who shall exalt the depressed yAdava race".
The depressed state of yAdava kulam was because of kamsa (SrI v.v. rAmAnujan). SrI aNNan'garAcArya refers to yayAti's curse on the yadu kulam as the reason for the depressed state of the yadu clan.
b) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives his interpretation from the root yat - prayatne - to attempt, to strive for, and gives the meaning "One whose nature it is to strive for" (yateh yatuh prayatna-SIlah); SreshThah is explained on the basis of the pANini sUtra "praSasya Srah" (sutra 5.3.60), which states that Sra is substituted for praSasya when followed by the affix "ishThan". The affix ishThan represents the superlative (pANini sutra atiSAyine tamap ishThanau (5.3.54). Thus, SreshThah refers to One who is the most praiseworthy. Thus, the meaning that SrI vAsishTha derives for the nAma yadu-SreshThah is "One who is most praiseworthy among those who strive, or put in effort". He gives the examples of bhagavAn constantly nourishing and sustaining the different life forms in the form of the Sun, and His being the Soul of all the souls in our heart, and constantly driving the function of the heart to sustain life. In fact, even after the body falls, the AtmA continues to live and does not get destroyed. This principle is true of everything else as well (the principle of conservation of energy?). Perhaps the best example of His being "the Best among those who strive - yadu-SreshThah", is in His constantly striving to reach the jIva-s and trying to provide for opportunities for them to re-unite with Him;
He does this by providing the veda-s to us for our guidance, by taking the arcA form so that He is always accessible to us, by providing opportunities again and again for us by giving us a body so that we can use it to reach Him, etc. On a different level, His efforts to bring a reconciliation between the pANDava-s and the kaurava-s by repeatedly trying His very best to impart sense in the kaurava-s to avoid the war, is also an example of His being the best among those who strive hard to achieve the best for everyone.
As with all other nAma-s, the dharma cakram writer relates the significance of the nAma to our day-to-day life. He points out that in the case of Lord kRshNa, because He was born in the yadu kulam, the clan itself became famous, the place He lived - gokulam - became well-known, the day He was born is widely celebrated, and both His natural parents and His adopted parents became famous. Thus, when one is praiseworthy, everything else associated with this individual also becomes praiseworthy. This is how kRshNa's guNa of yadu-SreshThah is to be meditated. TiruvaLLuvar says: "tOnRin pugazhoDu tOnRuga; ahdu ilAdAr tOnRalin tOnRAmai nanRu". We should use this gift of life in a way that our life is praiseworthy; if we don't live such that our life and everything associated with us is praiseworthy, we would have wasted this precious gift of life. The lesson to take from this nAma is that we should meditate on this quality of bhagavAn, and live a life that leads to the mental maturity to constantly meditate on Him and elevate ourselves to be SreshTha-s in our worship of Him.
711. san-nivAsah -
The Abode of the saintly.a) He with the delightful sport in the yAmuna river.
Om san-nivAsAya namah.
The word nivAsah is derived from the root vas - nivAse - to dwell. nivAsarefers to a place of dwelling or a resting place. SrI BhaTTar gives theinterpretation that bhagavAn has this nAma because He is the abode of rest forgreat saints like Sanaka, even though He has assumed the human form and theactions of ordinary human beings. PeriAzhvAr refers to this guNa ofperumAL as "Ayar puttiran allan arum daivam" (peria. tiru. 1.1.7); in tiruvASiriyam (1), nammAzhvAr describes His being worshiped by Sivan, ayan,indiran, etc. - "Sivan, ayan, indiran ivar mudal anaittOr daivak kuZhA'ngaLkai tozhak kiDanda tAmarai undit tanip-perum nAyaka" (references from SrIv.v. rAmAnujan). SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the support from rAmAyaNa,where tArA praises rAma as "nivAsa vRkshah sAdhUnAm ApannAnAm parA gatih"(kishkindA. 15.19). SrI BhaTTar gives the reference from vishNu purANam,where akrUra describes his anubhavam of sanandana and other seers meditatingintensely on bhagavAn:
sanandanAdyair-munibhih siddha yogair-akalmashaih |
samcintyamAnam tatrasthaih nAsAgra nysta-locanaih || (vish. PurA.
"(SrI kRshNa in gokulam) is the object of meditation for sanandana andother seers, who remain there, who are flawless, who have attained perfection inyoga and who do the meditation with their eyes fixed at the tip of theirnose".
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha takes "sat" to mean "those that arepermanent and unchanging" - (satAm - vinASa rahitAnAm, pravAhato nityAnAm,Apralaya sthAyinAm), and gives the interpretation that this nAma indicates thatHe is the dwelling place of all these jIva-s who are eternal, and who do not gothrough the cycle and birth and dealth (the nitya sUri-s), and He also dwells inthem (loka lokAntarANi nija sattAyAm vAsayantam, teshu vA vasantam iti bhAvah).
712. su-yAmunah –
b) He Who is attended by the good yAmuna-s.
c) He Who has beautiful collyrium in His eyes.
d) He Who lifts up and protects the jIva-s during the time of pralaya.
Om su-yAmunAya namah.
The term yAmunah has been interpreted by SrI BhaTTar as "One who isassociated with the river yamunA". YAmunam also means a kind ofcollyrium that is applied to the eye; some interpreters have used thismeaning as the basis for their interpretation.
a) SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation "He with the delightful sport inthe yAmuna river" - Sobhanam pAvanam manoharam yamunAsambandhi jala-krIDApushpAcaya rAsa-krIDAdi yasya iti su-yAmunah - "He is su-yAmunah because ofall of His activities that are connected with yamuna, activities which are pure,auspicious and fascinating like water-sport (in its waters), culling of flowers(on its banks), and dance with the gopis (on its sands)". SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to "tUya peru nIr yamunait turaivan" (tiruppAvai). Because of association with Lord kRshNa, yamunA is considered sacred even now. nAthamunigaL is said to have looked for any left-over from the divine gopi-s onthe banks of the yamunA river.
b) SrI Samkara interprets the term yAmuna to refer to the gopa-s who lived onthe banks of the river yamunA (yamunA sambandhinah yAmunah); sinceLord kRshNa was surrounded by the good yAmuna-s such as devaki, vasudeva, nanda,yasodA, balabhadra, subhadrA, and others, He has this nAma su-yAmunah. SrIcinmayAnanda comments that these yAmuna-s were not just keepers of cows, butwere indeed the keepers of the milk of knowledge of the upanishads. Hequotes from nArAyaNIyam in support:
tAruNyAramya ramyam parama sukha rasa svAda romA'ncitA'ngaih
AvItam nAradAdyaih vilasat upanishad sundarI maNDalaiSca ||
(nArAyaNIyam daSaka 100.1)
"(I behold) the form of a divine boy, attractive with the advent ofadolescence and surrounded by nArada and others with their limbs covered withhairs standing on end at the taste of the Bliss Supreme, and by that bevy ofcharming maidens of the form of shining upanishads".
c) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj uses the meaning "a type of collyrium"for the term yAmunam, and gives the interpretation "sundaram yAmunam nayanaa'njanam yasya iti su-yAmunah" - He Who has beautiful collyrium decoratingHis eyes.
d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses the root yam - uparame - to lift up, as thebasis for his interpretation. He gives the meaning "yacchati,uparamayati - He who lifts up", to the word yAmunah. Hisinterpretation is thus -
Sobhano yAmunah su-yAmuno vishNuh -
One Who lifts up (the souls) in an auspicious way (during the time of pralaya) -
bhagavAn vishNuh mahApralaye svakIyayA vyavasthayA kArya kAraNa
rUpam idam samastam viSvam yacchati, pariNatam uparamayati, Samayati.