Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam - SLOKA 78

om ekAya namah
om naikAya namah
om sAya namah
om vAya namah
om kAya namah
om kime namah
om yate namah
om tate namah
om padaya anuttamAya namah
om loka-bandhave namah
om loka-nAthAya namah
om mA-dhavAya namah
om bhakta-vatsalAya namah

730. ekah -

One Who is Unique and matchless in all respects.

Om ekAya namah.

SrI BhaTTar gives his interpretation of the nAma ekah based on the root iN -gatau - to go, 
with the addition of the affix kat per uNAdi sUtra 326 - iNa bhIkA .kan
with the meanings "one, chief, alone" for the word ekah

SrIsatyadevo vAsishTha explains ekah as "eti - gacchati sarvatra iti ekah"- He Who is present everywhere. 
When we have more than one of anything withsimilar attributes, we refer to them as "two brAhmaNa-s, five kshatriya-s",etc.; however, in the case of bhagavAn, there is no one else to compare to Him,and so He is ekah. 

SrI BhaTTar's actual words are - ukte mahimni sajAtIyasamkhyeya asambhavAt advaitam gacchati iti ekah
With reference to His Supremegreatness, there is no one who can be compared with Him, and so He is calledekah. 
SrI BhaTTar gives the Sruti vAkhyam "eka id-rAjA jagato babhUva (tait.yaju. 4.1.8)" - 
"He was the only King of the whole world" insupport. 

SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the following references:

- dyAvA bhUmI janayan deva ekah - Rg. 10.81.3 - "He, the Sole God,producing earth and heaven ,."; -
yadi no bhagavAn prIta ekah sarva-guNASrayah - bhAga. 9.5.11 - 
"If it istrue that bhagavAn, who is the antaryAmi of all the beings and the abode of allkalyANa guNa-s, is pleased with us, then let this braAhmin be relieved of hissuffering".

nammAzhvAr refers to Him as "oruvan" (One without a second) in manyplaces.
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives the following references:

- arakkarai uruk keDa vALi pozhinda oruvanE (tiruvAi. 8.6.2); -
kaNgaL Sivandu periyavAi, vAyum Sivandu kanindu,..,
oN Sa'ngu gadai vAL AzhiyAn oruvan aDiyEn uLLAnE (tiruvAi. 8.8.1); -
ilanadu uDaiyan idu ena ninaivu ariyavan .an-nalanuDaiya oruvanai . (tiruvAi.1.1.3); . -
j~nAlam uNDu umizhnda endai eka-mUrtikkE (tiruvAi. 1.1.3)

b) SrI Samkara gives the interpretation - 
"paramArthatah sajAtIyavijAtIya sva-gata bheda vinirmuktatvAt ekah -
"The One, being devoid of any distinction such as sajAtIya, vijAtIya, andsvagata". 
The concepts of sajAtIya, vijAtIya, and the svagata bheda areexplained under nAma 706 in Slokam 75. 
BhagavAn is unique in not discriminatingbetween the different members of the same species, 
members of different species,etc., and so He is ekah (Unique). 
SrI Samkara gives the support from chAndogyaupanishad - ekameva a-dvitIyam (6.2) - 
He is One without a second.

c) SrI baladeva vidyAbhUshaN links this nAma to the nAma-s of the previousSlokam, 
and comments that even though He has many forms, many faces, etc., (Sata-Murtih,SatAnanah), 
He is still One and Only One, and so He is referred to as ekah inthis nAma.

d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the analogy of the one father for the manychildren; 
BhagavAn vishNu is the One Father who creates everything in thisUniverse, and so He is called ekah.

In the sahasra nAmAvaLi, the mantra is "Om ekAya namah" accordingto the followers of viSishTAdvaitam and dvaitam, 
and "Om ekasmai namah"according to the adviata sampradAyam. Similar difference exists in many nAma-s: 
viSvAya namah vs. viSvasmai namah (First nAma of SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam); 
naikAya namah vs. naikasmai namah for nAma 731, etc. 
The difference seems toarise as a result of the fundamental difference in the philosophies of thevyAkhyAna kartA-s.

When a word is a pronoun or a sarvanAma, 
(and the words viSvam, ekah etc. aresarvanAma-s when they have their traditional meanings), 
then it is declinedsimilar to the word sarva, and the dative singular is "sarvasmai, viSvasmai,ekasmai etc." 
(pANini sUtra 1.1.27). However, when this same words is nottreated as a pronoun, 
and instead refers to something special, like the specificname of a person (e.g., ekah as a person's actual name), 
then the word isdeclined like an ordinary noun such as narah, and not as a pronoun. 
Then thedative singular is declined as sarvAya, viSvAya, ekAya, etc. 
The example givenin explanation of this sUtra by SrISa Candra Vasu in his "AshTAdhyAyI ofpANini" is 
that of the word "sarva" meaning"everything" (a pronoun) vs. sarva being the name of a person (anordinary noun). 
The former is declined as a pronoun, and the latter is declinedas an ordinary noun like narah. 
The followers of the advaita sampradAyam seem toconsider the different sarvanAma-s 
that occur in SrI vishNu sahasra nAma aspronouns representing Brahman, 
whereas the followers of the viSishTAdvaitasampradAyam seem to treat each of the nAma-s 
as a distinct personification ofbhagavAn in His different Forms, 
and thus each sarvanAma word that occurs as anAma in sahasra nAmam 
is treated as a special nAma of bhagavAn with its ownspecial meaning, 
each a proper noun in its own right, and not treated as apronoun standing for Brahman. 
This seems to explain the difference in thenAmAvaLi, based on grammar 
as well as the difference in the differentphilosophies.

731. naikah-

He Who is not One only.

Om naikAya namah
(om naikasmai namah in Samkara pATham - see nAma 730).

a) SrI BhaTTar explains how He is One (the previous nAma), and also "Notone only" (the current nAma).
He is One in the sense of being unique in having everything in all the Universeas His possession;
but He is not one only, since there are all these other things which are Hisglorious vibhUtis or extensions
which are of a nature different from His. He is the antaryAmi of all that exist.
SrI BhaTTar's words are - vibhUtitayA vijAtIyena sarveNa dvitIyavAneva itinaikah -
Since He has as His glorious possessions all that are of a nature different fromHis, He is not One only.
He quotes from the gItA in support - "nAnto'sti mama divyAnAm vibhUtInAmparamtapa" (11.40) -
"O arjuna, There is no end to the divine glories of Mine
(What I have stated in detail is only a small part of My glories)".

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives support from nammAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi:

…tIyAi nIrAi nilanAi viSumbAik kAlAi
tAyAit tandaiyAi makkaLAi maRRumAi muRRumAi
nIyAy nI ninRavARu ivai enna niyAya'ngaLE? (tiruvAi. 7.8.1)

"You are the Fire, Water, Earth, Ether, and Air.
To us You are the mother, father, children, other relatives all rolled into one.
You are more; You are the whole Universe. Yet I enjoy You in Your own beautifulForm.
Now pray tell me the secret of all this. I don't understand this high-levelabstract mysticism".

nIrAi nilanAi tIyAi kAlAi neDu vAnAi
SirAr SuDargaL iraNDAi SivanAi ayan AnAi … (tiruvAi. 6.9.1)

"You are Water, Earth, Fire, Air, and Ether, the Sun and the Moon., Sivaand Brahma.
(You are antaryAmi of all of them; You became all of them; You entered into themall)."

Since He is AtmA of all the AtmA-s, He has all of these as His body.
Thus He is not only One, but He is also Many.

SrI Samkara explains the nAma naikah -
He Who is not one only, by attributing His many forms to His mAyA -
mAyayA bahu-rUpatvAt naikah.
In the nAmAvaLi, the advaita pATham is "naikasmai namah".

b) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives a different interpretation -
naikah - dvitAm vindamAnah; mAta-pitR-bhAvanayA SrI-lakshmI-nArAyaNa rUpeNavirAjamAnah | -
He is not One but should be recognized as two - in the form of our Father andMother, in His Form as SrI lakshmI-nArAyaNa.

SrI cinmayAnanda observes that His being One (ekah) is to be realized at the"knowledge" level,
but His being Many is realized at the "Being" level. He is ineverything that exists,
and without Him, nothing exists; so He is Many. However it is He and He alone
who is in everything making everything function, and so He is One.

c) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha's explanation is that He is called naikah
because there is no identity in anything that is created by Him, and everythingis different -
na eko yasmAt iti naikah. (na tasya pratimA asti - yajur. 32.3.).
SrI vAsishTha refers to this as the naikattva dharma of bhagavAn.

732. sah -

a) He Who spreads knowledge.
b) He Who is the final authority on all knowledge.
c) He Who destroys all obstacles to His devotees.
d) He Who is easily accessible, to the point of being pointed out as"He" by the youngsters of AyarpADi.
e) He Who is of the form the soma sacrifice (when the nAma is taken as savah)
f) He Who is the final Knowledge, and Who dwells everywhere (savah)

Om sAya namah.

The root from which the word sah is derived in the interpretation ofthis nAma
is so - antakarmaNi- to destroy, to bring to an end.

a) SrI BhaTTar gives the vyAkhyAnam - sva-vishaya j~nAnam syati iti sah-
He Who spreads knowledge about Him is sah.
The explanation of this interpretation starting from the root so -antakarmaNi,
is given under item ii) under "savah" below (syati = antayati= niScayati sva-vishaya j~nAnam).
SrI BhaTTar gives the example of Lord kRshNa spreading knowledge about Him rightfrom His childhood to everyone.

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives the support from embAr's interpretation forperiAzhvAr's "ap pUcci kATTuginRAn" pASurams -
the reference here is that even as a child, kRshNa reveals His tiru Azhi andtiruc ca`ngu to even the children of AyarpADi
and reveals His greatness to them. nammAzhvAr declares that he has realized thewhole truth about emperumAn
because he has been bestowed with "mayarvaRa madi nalam" by perumAL -
avanE avanum avanum avanum avanE maRRellAmum aRindanamE
(tiruvAi. 9.3.2, and the associated vyAkhyAnam by SrI V. N. VedAnta deSikan).

b) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation that bhagavAn has thisnAma because
He ultimately determines (brings to a conclusion, ends the discussion on) howeverything in this Universe functions etc.
(see the additional explanation under ii) for the nAma interpreted as "savah"below.

c) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the interpretation - syati vinASayatisva-jana vipada iti sah -
He is called sah because He destroys the obstacles of His devotees.

d) SrI aNNa'ngarAcArya svAmi seems to give his interpretation using thedirect meaning of the word sah - He.
His actual words are: "appaDip paTTavar enRu koNDADat takkavar" -
He Who is worthy of being praised as such and such",
where I assume that the reference "appaDip paTTavar" refers to Hisprevious nAma-s such as ekah, naikah, etc.

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives a similar interpretation, and notes that He hasthe nAma sah
because He was such ( a saulabhyan) that the other young and innocent gopa-s inAyarpADi could point to Him
and say "He" is kRshNa.


i) While SrI BhaTTar treats sah (the current nAma) and vah (thenext nAma) as two separate nAma-s,
SrI Samkara treats the two words as forming one nAma - savah (om savAya namah).
is defined in the amarakoSa vyAkhyAna as "sUyate abhishUyatesomah atra iti savah" -
that event in which the soma juice is offered is called savah, namely the somasacrifice.
SrI Samkara's explanation is that He is the soma sacrifice Himself, and so hasthis nAma.

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri notes that the term savah refers to the somayAga
because the juice extracted from the stems of the soma plant (soma latA) is usedin this sacrifice.
He adds that the inner meaning is that bhagavAn is the essence or the finalextract of everything that exists.

ii) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the above interpretation, and also gives analternate interpretation:
savah - yo hi syati = antayati - niScAyayati sva-vishayam j~nAnam, vasati casarvatra, iti savah -
He Who gives the final knowledge about Him to His devotees, and also dwellseverywhere, is savah.

733. vah - The Dweller.

Om vAya namah.

The nAma vah is derived from the root vas - nivAse - vasati iti vah-
He Who dwells as the antaryAmi of everything.
The pANini sUtra anyeshvapi dRSyate (3.2.101) is applied in thederivation of this word from its root ,
similar to jah standing for "one who was born" (e.g., najAyate = a-jah, dvir-jAtah = dvi-jah, etc.).
SrI BhaTTar gives support from SrI vishNu purANam for his interpretation:

vasanti tatra bhUtAni bhUtatmanyakhilAtmani |
sa ca bhUteshvaSeshesu vakArArthas-tato mune || (6.5.76)

"All beings dwell in Him Who is Himself all beings and the Inner Soul ofall.
He also dwells in all of them without exception.
Therefore, O sage, He is signified by the letter 'va'."

(The above Slokam in SrI vishNu purANam occurs in the context where
all the letters of the word "bhagava" is explained).

nammAzhvAr refers to His being everywhere always, in his tiruvAimozhi pASuram2.8.9,
in the context of the description of prahlAda caritram (ref: SrI v.v. rAmAnujan):
e'ngum uLan kaNNan enRa maganaik kAyndu, I'ngu illaiyAl enRu iraNiyan tUNpuDaippa..

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan also gives reference to nammAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi pASuram1.1.10:

paranda taN paravaiyuL nIr torum paranduLan
paranda aNDam idu ena nila viSumbu ozhivaRak
karan Sil iDam toRum iDam tigazh poruL toRum
karandu e'ngum paranduLan ivai uNDa karanE      (tiruvAi.1.1.10)

"He is present in every atom in the cool waters that are widelydistributed everywhere;
He permeates everything everywhere in the land and in the sky in all theUniverses;
He is present in the minutest of things, and also in the AtmA of everything;
He Who swallowed all these things and kept them in His stomach,
is present in everything without their even knowing that".

SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the interpretation
"He Who goes to the abodes of those who sing His praise",
using the meaning vAti = gacchati (vAti gacchati sva janAyojita bhajanabhavanam iti vah.

As pointed out under the previous nAma, vah is not treated as aseparate nAma by SrI Samkara
and those who follow his bhAshyam.

734. kah -

a) He Who shines.
b) He Who is invoked or praised through words by devotees.
c) He Who is the personification of happiness.
d) He Who remains an unanswered Question Mark when approached through"intellection".

Om kAya namayh.

The root from which this nAma is derived is kan - dIpti kAnti gatishu- to shine etc.
The same grammatical rule which applied for vah above (pANini 3.2.101) is usedhere
to derive the nAma kah from kanati - He shines.

a) SrI BhaTTar points out that even though He dwells even in things that aredirty (as the Soul of their soul),
He Himself is ever-resplendent - maleemaseshu vasannapi kanati iti kah.
Even though bhagavAn is the antrayAmi in everything including those that areimpure, sinful, etc.,
their impurity or sin do not affect Him or His luster in any way.

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan adds that in His case, His luster is natural,
unlike in the case of people like us whose appearance is dependent on theclothes we wear,
the talk we talk etc. - vastra AbharaNa vapushA vAcA.

Based on kan - dIpti kAnti gatishu, SrI vAsishTha gives theexplanation
that because He shines everywhere, and He is present everywhere (gati),
and enlightens everything or makes everything shine (dIpti), thus in allsenses He is called kah.
At an individual level, we see that the kAnti that a living being has
is only so long as He is in that body as the Soul of the soul;
when the Soul leaves the body, the luster is gone also. This whole Universeshines because
He is present everywhere and in everything, illuminating all.

b) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj uses the root kai - Sabde - to sound,
and gives the interpretation - kAyate Sabdyate AhUyate bhaktaih iti kah -
He Who is invoked by devotees or praised by them through sound is kah.

c) One of the meanings of the word kam is happiness - kam sukhe'pivijAnIyAt -
(as quoted by A. A. Ramanathan in his title "amarakoSa" - Part 2, p.228, 1978 edition).
SrI Samkara uses this meaning, and gives the interpretation that bhagavAn iscalled kah because
He is the personification of happiness. He gives the support from chAndogyaUpanishad 4.10 -
kam brahma - Happiness is Brahman.

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri adds that the limit of happiness is the tyAga ofahamkAra and mamakAra,
and bhagavAn is One who has realized the limit of this.

The dharma cakram writer points out that there are two kinds of happiness:
the happiness of the body and the happiness of the soul. The first one leads tosorrow,
but this is the happiness that most people go after.
It is only by sacrificing this bodily happiness that the happiness of the soulis achieved, a
nd the latter is achieved only to the extent that the former is sacrificed.
It is the happiness of the soul that should be sought after, and this is thelesson to be learnt from this nAma.

d) SrI cinmayAnanda adds a new interpretation based on the common meaning of kah- "Who?".
His interpretation is that this nAma says that bhagavAn is a Question Mark
with no answer when approached with the human intellect or reasoning alone;
He can only be experienced when one transcends the intellect, and not through"intellection".

735. kim

 a) He about Whom all questions are asked by seekers of Truth 
(such as – Where is He, What is He, Who is He, etc.) 

b) He Whose praise is sung by His devotees 

c) He Who is fit to be enquired about or sought after.

Om kime namah 
(om kasmai namah in Samkara pATham –see explanation under ekAyanamah, nAma 730).

The common usage of the word kim is to represent the question “What?”.The word kim is derived from the root praccha – j~nIpsAyAm –to ask, to seek. Here it is used as a noun, and means “He about Whom allquestions are asked by seekers of Truth”. 

SrI sataydevo vAsishTha comments: 

pRcchati iti kim | pRcchyata iti vA kim |” – 

He who asks is kim, or He about whom questions are asked is also kim.Here bhagavAn is called kim in the context of the latter of the two. Inother words, all questions that are asked by those who want to realize Him, arequestions about Him, since they all lead to Him in the end. 

SrI vAsishTha gives an alternate derivation as well, starting from the root kai– Sabde – to sound, leading to “kAyati iti kim” – He aboutWhom questions are asked, such as “Who is He, What is He, Where is He”,etc., is kim. Those who seek Him start with the enquiry of “What”,and end up with Him after they realize that He is the ultimate answer to everyenquiry.

SrI BhaTTar’s vyAkhyAnam is: 
tat tat sarvepsituh buphutsUnAm nirupAdhika prashTavyatvAt kim – 
He is enquired into by all those who are desirous of knowing the ultimateobjects of their desire without any other motive, and so He is called kim.SrI BhaTTar gives the support from the Sruti -
sa anveshTavyah, sa viji~njAsitavyah – ChAndogya. 8.7.1 – 
He is to be sought after, He is to be known with eagerness.

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to tiruvAimozhi 5.6.2, where nammAzhvArdeclares about perumAL: “kaRkum kalvic cAramum yAnE”. In fact, everyline of each pASuram, starting with 5.6.1 (kaDal j~nAlam SeidEnum yAnE ennum…),all the way up to 5.6.10 (kOlam koL Suvarkkamum yAnE ennum …….), arebeautiful singing of His being everything, line after line.

SrI Samkara’s interpretation is: 
sarva purushArtha rUpatvAt Brahmaiva vicAryam iti Brahma kim” – 
As Brahman is the supreme goal among all aims of life, He is to be inquiredafter, and so is called kim. He refers us to the first Slokam of chapter8 of Bhagavad gItA, where arjuna precisely starts with this question:

kim tad brahma kim adhyAtmam kim karma purushottama | 
adhibhUtam ca kim proktam adhidaivam kim ucyate || (gItA 8.1)

“What is that Brahman? What is adhyAtma? What is karma? What is said to beadhibhUta? 
O Supreme Person, who is said to be adhidaiva?”

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives similar passages from the Rg veda, which asksimilar rhetorical questions about Brahman:

- ambhah kim AsIt gahanam gabhIram (10-129-1) – 
Was water there, unfathomed and deep? - 

kutah AjAtA kuta iyam visRshTih (10-129-6) – 
Whence was it born, and whence comes this creation? - 

yo’syAdhyakshah parame vyoman (10-129-7) – 
(He) whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, orperhaps he knows not.

Thus, He is called “kim- What” because He is the Ultimate answerto all the questions.

b) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj uses the root ku~ng – Sabde – tosound, and the uNAdi sutra kAyater dimih (siddhAnta kaumudi, uNAdisutra 600) to derive the word kim, and gives the definition – 
kUyate – AhUyate svajanaih bhajamAnaih iti kim
He Whose praise is sung by His devotees is kim.

c) SrI aNNa’ngarAcArya gives the interpretation that this nAma means thatHe is One who is worth being sought after; One Who is described as anveshTavyahin the Upanishads: 
sa anveshTavyah, sa viji~njAsitavyah – ChAndogya. 8.7.1 – 
He is to be sought after, and He is to be known with eagerness.

The dharma cakram writer elaborates that bhagavAn is called kim – HeWhose Nature is contemplated on by those who seek the Truth, because it is byknowing this Truth that everything there is to be known is known. That which isbeyond time, space, etc., that which never changes and is eternal, that which isbeyond the reach of the senses and is only reached by true devotion andmeditation, that which is in everything and everywhere, is the Ultimate answerto all questions asked by those who seek the Truth.

736. yat – 

a) He Who takes efforts. 
b) That Which already exists. 
c) That from Which everything in this Universe came about.

om yate namah 
(om yasmai namah in Samkara pATham, when yat is interpreted as asarvanAma or pronoun).

SrI BhaTTar derives the interpretation from the root yat – prayatne– to attempt. to strive after, etc. His vyAkhyAnam is: 
teshAm rakshAyai yatate iti yat” – 
He Who takes all efforts for the protection of His devotees. 

SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj elaborates further on the same concept: 
yatate prayatate sva-samkalpa mAtreNa svajana Apat nivAraNAya iti yat

SrI BhaTTar quotes the following words of bhagavAn:

kRshNa kRshNeti kRshNeti yo mAm smarati nityaSah | 
jalam bhitvA yathA padmam narakAt uddharAmyaham ||

“Whoever remembers Me always repeating the name “kRshNa, kRshNa, kRshNa”, 
I lift him up from naraka just as one takes a lotus free from water by brushingaside the water”.

- aham smarAmi mad bhaktam nayAmi paramAm gatim | (varAha caram Slokam)- 
“I remember My devotee and take him to the Supreme abode”. Even if thedevotee in his final state is unable to think of bhagavAn, bhagavAn thinks ofthe devotee, and takes him to His abode.

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to nammAzhvAr’s tiruvAimozhi 5.8.9 – 
iSaivittu ennai un tAL iNaik kIzh iruttum ammAnE” – 
nammAzhvAr says that bhagavAn took the effort to impart Atma j~nAna to even himwho was unrelenting, sensually disposed, haughty enough to be an incorrigiblesoul-thief, etc. (nammAzhvAr’s naicya bhaAvam is what is reflectedhere).

b) SrI Samkara interprets the nAma using the conventional meaning “Which”for the word yat. His interpretation is: 
yat Sabdena svatah siddha vastu uddeSa vAcinA brahma nirdiSyata iti brahmayat – 
The word yat indicates a self-sustaining entity, can only denote Brahman,who is by nature always existing. He quotes the taittirIya Upanishad in support– 
yato vA imAni bhUtAni jAyante (3.1) – From which all these beings comeout….

c) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri uses the above Sruti vAkyam and gives theinterpretation that yat refers to “That from Which all the other thingsin the Universe came into existence”.

SrI cinmayAnanda quotes another similar usage: 
yato vAco nivartante aprApya manasA sah
(tiatt. Up. 2.9.1) – 
That from which words retire, along with the mind, unable to reach.

737. tat – 

a) He Who increases (the j~nAnam and bhakti about Him in the devotees). 
b) He Who increases the kIrti (fame) of His devotees 
c) He Who expands the Universe from its subtle form to its visible form 
d) He Who is not seen by senses etc.

om tate namah (om tasmai namah in Samkara pATham).

The root from which the nAma is derived is tanu – vistAre – to spread, togo (tanoti – vistRNAti – expands). 
SrI BhaTTar’s bhAshyam is “sva j~nAna bahktim tanoti iti tat” – He Whoincreases the j~nAnam and bhakti in His devotees. He gives the support fromtaittirIya nArAyaNIyam (27) – tat savitur vareNIyam – That superior lusterof the Lord, the cause of the Universe.

The term tat is given another meaning in the gItA. The term refers tothe veda-s. and to the acts of sacrifice that are undertaken without anyexpectation of a benefit, as prescribed in the veda-s.

om-tat-sat iti nirdeSo brahmaNah tri-vidhah smRtah | 
brAhamaNAs-tena vedASca ya~jnASca vihitAh purA || (gItA 17.23)

“Brahman (the veda) is denoted by the three-fold expression: Om, tat,sat. 
Associated with these, the BrAhamaNas, the Vedas, and sacrifices were ordainedin the past”.

In Slokam 7.25, the term tat is explained further:

tad-iti anabhisandhAya phalam ya~jna tapah kriyAh | 
dAna-kriyASca vividhAh kriyante moksha kA’nkshibhih ||

“Acts of sacrifice, austerity and various gifts are performed 
without aiming at reward by those who seek release (moksha), after pronouncing tat”.

In our samkalpam for many religious rites, we start with “Harir-om tat”. 
Bhagavad rAmAnuja explains in his vyAkhyAnam for gItA Slokam 7.25, that whateveracts such as the study of the Vedas, sacrifices, austerities and gifts are donewithout aiming at results by those of the first three stations, seeking onlyfinal release – these are designated by the term tat, referring to Brahman,since they constitute the means for attainment of Brahman. He also refers inthis context to the current Slokam (78) of SrI vishNu sahasra nAmam, andobserves that it is thus well-known that the term tat refers to Brahman- 
“sa vah kah kim yat tat padam anuttamam iti tat-Sabdo hi brahma vAcIprasiddhah. 
In the context of the above gItA Slokam, SrI rAmAnuja interprets the term tatas referring to Brahman, 
or to the means of attaining Brahman such as the study of the Vedas etc.

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan links the previous nAma (yatate – takes special effortsto protect us), with the current nAma (tanoti – increases the bhakti in ustowards Him as part of that effort.

While SrI Samkara’s vyAkhyAnam is also “tanoti iti tat”, in thenAmAvalI, the mantra is “om tasmai namah”, 
signifying that the nAma is treated again as a sarva nAma or pronoun, meaning“That”, the term standing for Brahman.

b) The beauty of the diverse anubhavam-s of the great vyAkhyAna kartA-s isseen in the diverse ways in which they interpret the same explanation “tanoti– vistRNAti – expands”. We already saw SrI BhaTTar’s interpretation,that He expands the j~nAnam and bhakti in His devotees. SrI kRshNa dattabhAradvAj gives the interpretation “tanoti vistArayati sva-janAnAm kIrtim ititat” – “He is called tat because He spread the kIrti or fame of Hisdevotees”. 

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri explains the action of bhagavAn in His guNa of tat as“spreading and pervading into everything”, which is yet another way that Heenables the jIva to function in this world to attain Him. 

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation that this nAma signifiesthat He expands the sUkshma jIva-s into the visible world forms and shapes (seed below) Whether it is in the form of increasing our j~nAnam and bhakti aboutHim so that we can reach Him, or it is in the form of His spreading the fame andkIrti of His devotees so that others learn from this and follow the correct pathfor their attainment of Him, or it is in the form of His spreading into everyoneas their antaryAmi and supporting and guiding them, in the end everything thatHe does is for the sake of His devotees

c) SrI vAsishTha gives the interpretation – tanoti viSvam iti tat – HeWho expands the Universe. His explanation is that bhagavAn is called tatbecause He expands the Universe that is inside Him in the sUkshsma state, into aUniverse that is in the sthUla and visible state, just as the mother givesexpression to a child which is contained in her in an unseen state.

d) satya sandha yatirAja, an AcArya from the madhva sampradAyam, explains thenAma tat as referring to “that which is not seen” – paroksham vastutat Sabda vAcyam, haristu pratyakshAt avedyatvena mukhyto vedaika gamyatvAt vAguNaih tatatvAd-vA tat iti ucyate.

738. padam anuttamam – 

a) The Supreme Goal. 
b) The Unexcelled Protector of His devotees.

Om padAya anuttamAya namah.

The root from which the word padam is derived is pad – gatau – to go, toattain. 
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the meanings – padyate = gamyate, j~nAyate,prApyate, yatyate vA tat padam, and summarizes the meaning of the word padam tomean “that for the attainment of which, or the knowledge of which, effort isto be undertaken”. 
na uttamam yasmAt iti anuttamam
– That which is not surpassed by anythingelse is anuttamam. Padam anuttamam thus refers to “That which is unsurpassedby anything else, and for whose attainment knowledge and effort deserve to beundertaken”.

SrI BhaTTar’s bhAshyam is “teshAm parama prApyatvAt – padam anuttamam”- He is the Supreme Goal for His devotees.

 SrI aNNa’ngarAcArya summarizes this in tamizh as “tamakku mElprApaymAnadu onRillAda paDi parama prApayamAnavar”. 

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives support from nammAzhvAr’s tiruvAimozhi, whereAzhvAr declares that he does not want even SrI vaikunTham, but he only wants tohave the Lotus Feet of bhagavAn on his head. In other words, His Lotus Feet arethe Supreme Goal: 
nin SemmA pAda paRput talai Serttu ollai … ammA aDiyEn vENDuvadu ihdE”(5.9.1).

In tiruvAimozhi 3.7.6, nammAzhvar declares that bhagavAn is the Supreme,unexcelled rakshakan (padam anuttamam):

……… oLi koNDa Sodiyai uLLattuk koLLum avar kaNDIr

b) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj uses the meaning “trANam – rakshaNam –protection” to the word padam, based on amara koSam: padam vyavasiti trANasthAna lakshmA’nghri vastushu (3.3.93), and gives the interpretation to thisnAma as 
“padam trANam | anuttamam sarvottamam iti padam anuttamam | 
arthAt sarvottamo rakshakah SrI bahagavAneva sarvottmas-trAtA sva-janAnAm|”- 
The Unexcelled Protector of His devotees.

c) SrI cinmayAnanda’s interpretation is: “Lord VishNu has this nAmabecause He is the way (pada), the goal (pada), and the pilgrimage (pada)”. Hegives support from the gItA Slokam 7.18, where bhagavAn declares that He isanuttama gati (Supreme path, Supreme Goal):

udArAh sarva evaite j~nAnI tvAtmaiva me matam | 
Asthitah sa hi yuktAtmA mAmeva anuttamAm gatim ||

“All these are indeed generous, but I deem the man of knowledge to be Myvery self; 
for he, integrated, is devoted to Me alone as the Supreme end”.

739. loka-bandhuh – 

a) The Relative of the World. 
b) One to Whom everything is bound since He is their Support 
c) One to Whom everything is related since He is their Best Friend – theirFather 
d) One Who provides instructions as a kinsman on what is right and what is wrongthrough the SAstra-s. 
e) One Who limits everything through things such as limited life etc.

Om loka-bandhave namah.

The mutual and inseparable relation between us and bhagavAn is what isrevealed in this nAma.

a) SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that bhagavAn has this nAma becauseHe is the Relative of everyone in this world without exception, and blesses allwithout exception – 
evam a-viSesheNa a-Sesha anugrahe a-varjanIyam bAndhavam nibandhanam Aha –loka bandhuh. 
He gives the following in support:

- mAtA pitA bhrAtA nivAsah SaraNam suhRt gatih nArAyaNah (subAlaopanishad 6)– 
nArAyaNa is the mother, father, brother, abode, refuge, friend, and the finalgoal”.

pitA aham asya jagato mAtA dhAtA pitAmahah | 
vedyam pavitram om-kAram Rk sAma yajureva ca || (gItA 9.17)

“I am the father, mother, creator, and grandfather of the universe. 
I am the purifier. I am the syllable Om and also Rk, sAma, and yajus”.

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to gItA 9.29, which conveys the very samethoughts that SrI BhaTTar has given in his bhAshyam:

samo’ham sarva bhUteshu na me dveshyo’sti na priyah | 
ye bhajanti tu mAm bhaktyA mayi te teshu cApyaham || (gItA 9.29)

“I treat everyone in creation the same way. There is none whom I like moreor dislike more. 
But those who worship Me with devotion abide in Me and I abide in them.”

Other references given by SrI v.v. rAmAnujan to emphasize this point are:

o un tannODu uRavEl namkku I’ngu ozhikka ozhiyAdu” – (tiruppAvai 28)– 
The relationship between You on the one hand, and all of on the other, ispermanent, and never alterable. 
o nAn unnai anRi ilEn kaNDAi nAraNanE nI ennai anRi ilai – (nAnmugan tiru. 7)– 
I have no refuge other than Yu, and You have no one who is more worthy anddeserving of protection than me”. 
o ….. ennap peRRa at-tAyAyt-tandaiyAy aRiyAdana aRivitta attA (tiruvAi. 2.3.2)– 
You are my Father, my Mother, my AcArya. 
o ….tAyAit tandaiyAi makkaLAi maRRumAi muRRumAi nIyAi nI ninRavu ivai ennaniyAya’ngaLE?…..(tiruvAi. 7.8.1) –
You are the Mother, Father, Children, other relatives all rolled into one. Youdo all that a father does, a mother does, children do (to the parent at thelatter’s old age). You are more. You re the whole Universe; yet I enjoy You inyour own beautiful Form. Now pray tell me what is the secret of all this. I don’tunderstand this abstract high-level mysticism!

b), c) & d) SrI Samkara gives three alternate interpretations: 
i) All the worlds are bound to Him since He is the support of all – AdhArabhUte’smin sakalA lokA badhyanta iti lokAnAm bandhuh lokabandhuh; 
ii) He is the relative of all, since He is the Creator of all and so He isrelated to all and there is no greater friend than the father – lokAnAmjanakatvAt janakopamo bandhur-nAstIti vA; 
iii) He instructs the world as a kinsman in right and wrong, through Sruti andsmRti – lokAnAm bandhukRtyam hitAhitpadeSam Sruti smRti lakshaNam kRtavAn itivA.

SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj uses the root bandh – to bind, and gives theanubhavam that He is loka-bandhuh because He binds His devotees with Hisaffection – badhnAti prema –pASena iti bandhuh | lokAnAm bandhuh iti lokabandhuh.

e) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the explanation for the nAma starting withthe roots lok – darSane, to see, to perceive, and bandh – to bind, toattract, etc. One interpretation he gives is that bhagavaAn has this nAmabecause He binds all things that are seen, for instance with limited life etc.– badhnAti iti bandhuh. 
Another interpretation that SrI VasishTha gives is that He binds all the jIva-sto their karma without a rope or such things, and so also He is calledloka-bandhuh. Or, He binds the dealings between the people of this world throughHis vedic teachings, and so also He is loka-bandhuh.

The dharma cakram writer elaborates on the guNa of loka-bandhu of bhagavAn.BhagavAn gives whatever a devotee prays for; but the devotee can pray either forworldly comfort or for the attainment of true Realization. Most people prefer toask Him for the worldly comforts (the kaThopanishad describes the two aspects– preyas or pleasant, and Sreyas or the good) BhagavAn acts inthe role of the worldly relatives and bestows preyas or pleasure in the form ofwife, children, father, mother, etc., or He bestows Sreyas in the form of theguru when we seek Sreyas. The dharma cakram writer comments that the lesson totake from this nAma is to realize that He is our bandhu either way, and we needto realize what is truly good for us, and seek that from Him.

740. loka-nAthah – 

a) The Protector of the world. 
b) He Who bestows aiSvaryam on all as a result of His unlimited aiSvaryam 
c) He Who is sought after or prayed by all 
d) He Who shines in the world, or He Who regulates the world by energizing 
e) He Who comforts or blesses the world 
f) He Who rules over the world 
g) He Who gives troubles as needed to those who need to be disciplined.

Om loka-nAthAya namah.

The roots involved in the nAma are: 
lok – darSane – to see, to perceive, or lok – bhAshAyAm dIptau ca – tobehold, to shine, to know, to seek; 
and nAth – yAc, upatApaih, aiSvaryASIhshu – to ask, to be master, toharass. 
Based on these, the word lokam signifies the world, and the word nAthais interpreted in the sense of nAthyate – One Who is sought, or nAthate –One Who seeks. In the former sense, He is One Who is sought by the people of theworld, and the latter sense, He seeks His devotees and blesses them. Thedifferent interpretations below are combinations of the above meanings.

a) SrI BhaTTar’s vyAkhyAnam is that He is addressed as loka nAthah becauseof His unique relationship to all the creatures, which is the cause of Hisattachment which is natural to Him, as their Master – 
tan-mUlam asAdhAraNam svAbhAvikam ca sambandham Aha – loka nAthah. 
His interpretation is that through this nAma, the specific relationship betweenbhagavAn and us, that is the cause of His natural attachment to us, isdelineated – He is our svAmI or Master, and we are His belongings, andso He is naturally attached to us.

 SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives references from prabandham, that reflect thisconcept:

- iv Ezh ulagai inbam payakka iniduDan vIRRirundu AlginRa e’ngaL pirAn (tiruvAi.7.10.1) – 
BhagavAn is seated together with pirATTi in all the divya deSam-s only to ensurethat His creations in all the seven worlds are happy. 
- j~nAlattUDE naDandum ninRum kiDandu irundum SAlap pala nAL ugandu Or uyirgaLkAppAnE – (tiruvAi. 6.9.3) – 
“You have appeared in various Forms in this world at various times only forthe protection of the all the creatures in Your creation”. 
- “ulagam mUnRu uDaiyAi! ennai AlvAnE” (tiruvAi. 6.10.10) – 
You Who is My Lord, and Who owns the three worlds (the three types of cetanas–baddha, nity, mukta, and the three types of acetana-s – time, prakRti,Suddha sattva).

b) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the following interpretation: 
lokam nAthati – sva aiSvarya yogena aiSvaryavantam karoti iti loka nAthah – 
He Who bestows aiSvaryam on all as a result of His unlimited aiSvaryam, is lokanAthah.

SrI Samkara gives four explanations for the nAma (b, c, d, e):

c) lokaih nAthyate yAcyate – He Who is sought after or prayed by all; 
(SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives a similar explanation – that they pray toHim for dharma, artha, kAma, and moksha – lokhaih nAthyate yAcyate dharmaartha kAma mokshAn iti loka nAthah); 
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the explanation – lokaih prANibhihsvartha-siddhaye nAthyate prArthyata iti loka nAthah – He Whose favor issought by the beings of the world for the fulfillment of their desires is lokanAthah.

d) lokAn upatapati – One Who shines in the world, or Who regulates theworld by energizing;

e) ASAste – One Who comforts or blesses the world; or

f) lokAnAm IshTa – One Who rules over the whole world.

g) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri interprets upatapati (see c above for SrI Samkara)as “One Who gives punishments as needed”, and gives the meaning that thisnAma can be interpreted as “One Who gives punishments as needed anddisciplines the world (ulagai vATTi nal vazhi paDuttubavar).

The dharma cakram writer weaves all the above explanations under the generalconcept that bhagavAn is the Lord of the world. In this role, He ensures thatthe evil is destroyed and good is established. He ensures that all thecreatures, who are His belongings, attain Him ultimately. If anyone transgressesdharma, He ensures that they are adequately disciplined and brought back to theproper way of life. Those who follow dharma always live in peace, and those whofollow a-dharma live a life of unrest. This is the constant rule in His role asloka-nAthah.

741. mAdhavah – 

The Consort of Lakshmi.

Om mAdhavAya namah.

a) The Consort of MA or Lakshmi 
b) The Bestower or Propounder of Knowledge about Himself. 
c) One Who is attained through the madhu vidyA. 
d) One Who is attained through mauna, dhyAna and yoga 
e) One Who is born in the race of madhu, a yAdhava 
f) The nAma that reveals the eternal relationship of the Mother and Father withthe rest of the Universe. 
g) One for whom there is no Lord above

The nAma mAdhavah occurs three times (nAma-s 73, 169, and 741). Thedescription below extends the description given under nAma 73, with additionalinformation included.

a) mAyAh dhavah mA-dhavah – The Lord or consort of MA or Lakshmi.

The concept here is that BhagavAn and SrI are eternally and constantlyassociated with each other, and inseparable. As if to emphasize this, SrIBhaTTar gives a very detailed explanation for the qualities of MA or Lakshmiunder this nAma, rather than dwell on the guNa-s of bhagavAn. In the end, heconcludes with one sentence: “The secret about the true nature of SrI is thatLord VishNu gets His Lordship because of His association with Lakshmi”. Allthis detailed explanation is provided by Sri BhaTTar under the very firstoccurrence of the nAma, in Slokam 8.

SrI BhaTTar gives reference to the Sruti vAkhya-s which establish theinterpretation for a start:

- hrIScsa te lakshmISca patnyau (purusha sUktam) – 
Bhumi and Lakshmi are Thy spouses - 
asyeSAnA jagato vishNu-patnI (nIlA sUktam) – 
Lakshmi, who is the Ruler of this universe the spouse of VishNu.

Then he proceeds to explain the qualities of Lakshmi in the following words:

AsyAh svarUpavat nitya-nirmala-rUpatvam, nirupAdhika paramaiSvaryAdi,jagan-mAtRtvam, 
autpattiko bhagavat-sambandho nitya anapAyaSca ityAdi tattvapareshu SastreshuamaryAdam | 
vedeshu tAvat SrI-sUktam, medhA sUktam, uttara nArAyaNam, kaushItakI brAhamaNamityAdau.

“The essential Nature of Lakshmi is described in the Sastras dealing withthe Supreme Reality as follows: Her From is eternal and spotless; Her SupremeRulership is not restricted by any limiting adjunct; Her universal Motherhood,Her natural association with bhagavAn, are all delineated in great detail in theSAstra-s. In vedic literature, the SrI sUkta, SraddhA sUkta, medhA sUkta, uttaranArAyaNa, kaushItakI brAhamaNa and others deal with this subject”.

Then SrI BhaTTar gives several references from the purANa-s etc., that speakof the Supremacy of pirATTi, starting with the following reference from SrIvishNu purANa:

nityaiva eshA vishNoh SrIr-anapAyinI | yathA sarvagato vishNuh tathaiveyamdvijottama || (vishNu purANa 1.8.17)

“This Lakshmi is eternal, the universal Mother, and is ever in union withVishNu. Just as VishNu pervades all things, she also does, O best of Brahmins”.

In Brahma PurANa, we have

tat Saktih durjayA bhImA vishNu-Saktih iti smRtA | 
sarva bhUta hRdabjasthA nAnArUpa dharA parA || 
prANAkhyA mantra-mAtA ca viSvasya jananI dhruvA | 
devI bhinnA’njana SyAmA nirguNA vyoma eva hi ||

"Her power is invincible and awe-inspiring and She is considered thepower of VishNu Himself. She is the Supreme Being who lives in the lotus-likehearts of all beings of the universe and She is endowed with diverse forms. Hername is prANa or life. She is the Mother of all mantras, and is the eternalMother of the Universe”.

tathaivaikA parASaktih SrIh tasya karuNASrayA | 
j~nAnAdi shADguNya mayI yA proktA prakRtih parA || 
ekaiva Saktih SrIh tasya dvitIyA parivartate | 
parAvareNa rUpeNa sarvAkArA sanAtanI || 

ananta nAmadeyA ca Sakti-cakrasya nAyikA | 
jagat carAcaram idam sarvam vyApya vyavasthitA ||

“Likewise, Lakshmi is His Supreme Power, and She is endowed with thequality of Mercy. She is called the Supreme prakRti and possesses the sixqualities, knowledge and others. Lakshmi is the supreme, unique, and eternalSakti of BhagavAn; She is His second and transforms Herself into diverse forms,high and low. She has innumerable names, and is the head of the Sakti-cakra –the wheel of powers. She stands steady, pervading the entire universe, movingand non-moving”.

In SrI LahsmI sahasra nAmam, She is described as follows:

mahA-vibhUteh sampUrNa shad-guNya vapushah prabhoh | 
bhagavad-vAsudevasya nityaiva esha anapAyinI || 
ekaiva vartate bhinnA jyotsneva hima dIdhiteh | 
sarva SaktyAtmikA caiva viSvam vyApya vyavasthitA || 
sarvaiSvarya guNopetA nityam tad-dharma dharmiNI | 
prANa Saktih parA hyeshA sarveshAm prANinAm bhuvi || 
SaktInAm caiva sarvAsAm yoni-bhUtA parA kalA ||

“She is eternal and inseparably associated with BhagavAn vAsudeva, who isthe Master of great glory, who is endowed with the six qualities, and who is allpowerful. She is like the moon-light of the cool-rayed moon; She is one withHim, yet remains distinct. She pervades the Universe, and is the very embodimentof all Sakti-s.

She is endowed with all glory and qualities, and is eternal. Her dharma isthe same as that BhagavAn. She is the life-giving Sakti of all beings on earth.She is the source of all Sakti-s and is the sublime element in all”.

yasmAt lakshmyamSa sambhUtAh Saktayo viSvagAh sadA | 
kAraNyatvena tishThanti jagatyasmin tadAj~nayA || 
tasmAt prItA jaganmAtA SrIh yasya acyuta-vallabhA | 
suprItAh Saktayah tasya siddhim ishTAm diSanti ca ||

“All the Saktis that have emanated from Lakshmi are always pervading theentire Universe. They remain, under the command of SrI, as the cause. Therefore,when Lakshmi, the Mother of the Universe and the beloved consort of BhagavanAcyuta is pleased with someone, these Saktis themselves highly pleased, bestowprosperity which one desires.”

After this detailed description of Lakshmi’s qualities, SrI BhaTTar pointsout that this subject is more fully dealt with in vaishNava smRti and otherdharma SAstra-s.

rAmAyaNa also declares the greatness of Lakshmi in the Sloka in bAla kANDam(4.7):

- kAvyam rAmAyaNam kRtsnam sItAyAh caritam mahat – 
"The entire epic poem of rAmAyaNa is but the glorious story of sItA”.

SrI BhaTTar concludes his vyAkhyAnam for the nAma mAdhava in its firstoccurrence in Slokam 8 (nAma 73), by elaborately dwelling on the qualities ofLakshmi, and then ending with one line for mA-dahva, where he attributes thegreatness of mAdhava to His association with SrI: “SraddhayA devo devatvamaSnute – Lord VishNu gets His Lordship because of His association with Lakshmi.This is the secret about the true nature of SrI”.

Under nAma-s 169 and 741, SrI BhaTTar gives alternate explanations for thenAma mA-dhavah, but these a couple of sentences each in length, compared to thevery elaborate description above that he has given for the first occurrence ofthe nAma in Slokam 8 (nAma 73). It is clear that SrI BhaTTar’s thoughts areabout our Mother SrI in his anubhavam of the nAma mA-dhava for the Lord.

b) The Bestower of Knowledge (mA – The vidyA or knowledge of Hari; dhava– Lord, Preceptor, Propounder)

For the nAma mA-dhava in Slokam 18 (nAma 169), both SrI Samkara and SrIBhaTTar give the interpretation in terms of His being the Propounder (dhavah) ofthe mA vidyA – the knowledge of Hari. They both quote the support from theharivamSa:

mA vidyA ca hareh proktA tasyA Iso yato bhavAn | 
tasmAt mA-dhava nAmAsi dhavah svAmIti Sabditah || (3.69.4)

“The knowledge about of Hari is called mA. Thou art the Master of thatknowledge. 
Therefore Thou art known as mAdhava. It has been stated that dhava means “Lord””.

SrI cinmayAnanda elaborates further on the above. 
He Who helps introspection and meditation in the seeker is Madhava.

SrI BhaTTar gives additional support from the mahAbhArata:

madhu vidyA avabodhatvAt dhAvatvAt-vA Sriyo’niSam | 
maunAd-dhyAnAcca yogAcca viddhi bhArata mAdhavam || (mahA. 3.69.4)

There are three explanations that are given in the above Sloka for the nAmamAdhavah.

c) first is that since He is cognized through madhu vidyA, 
He is called mAdhavah (madhu vidyA is referenced in chAndogya Upanishad 3.1,bRhadAraNya upanishad 2.5);

the second explanation is that He is the Lord of SrI (the explanationdiscussed in detail under a) for this nAma);

d) and the third one is that because He is recognized through dhyAna, mauna,and yoga, He is called mA-dhavah.

The dharma cakram writer explains mauna, dhyAna, and yoga further. 
Mauna results in the control of the indriya-s; 
dhyAna focuses the mind in the thought of the Atma tattvam, 
and yoga solidifies and consolidates this thought on a permanent basis.

e) Under the current nAma, both SrI Samkara and SrI BhaTTar give theinterpretation that He is a scion of the Race of the Madhus, and therefore hasthe name mAdhavah (madhu kulodhbahavAt mAdhavah, or madhu kule jAtatvAt mAdhavah).

f) Another explanation given by SrI BhaTTar for the nAma is that this nAma isan illustration of the togetherness of SrI and BhagavAn as Mother and Father ofall of us. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan comments the importance of this specialrelationship of bhagavAn and pirATTi to the world, and their togethernessalways, in the protection of the jIva-s. It is of because of the Mother’snearness that bhagavAn forgives the countless apacAra-s committed by the cetana-s.It is in this sense that it is important for all of us that He is “agalagillEniRaiyum enRu alrmEl ma’ngai uRai mArban” (tiruvAi. 6.10.10), and She isalways with Him.

g) SrI tirukkaLLam nRsimha rAghavAcArya in his gItA bhAshya, has givenanother interpretation – 
mA dhavah yasya sa mAdhavah – He for Whom there is no Master. 
Since there is no one above Him in any sense, 
and since He is the Lord of everyone and every thing in all the universes, 
He is called mA-dhavah.

742. bhakta-vatsalah – 

a) Affectionate towards the devotees. 
b) He Who goes to the devotees who makes offerings to Him through yaj~na 
c) He Who takes the devotees to Him, who are dear to Him like a calf to the cow

om bhakta-vatsalAya namah.

The term bhakta is derived from the root bhaj – sevAyAm – to serve, tohonor (bhajati bhajate sevate iti bhaktah - kASakRtsna dhAtu vyAkhyAna 1.695,referenced by SrI satyadevo vAsishTha). Thus, one who serves, honors, praises,etc., is a bhakta. The word vatsalah is derived from the word vatsa, which byitself means calf. However, by pANini sutra 5.2.98, the addition of the affixlac after the word vatsa gives it the meaning “love” – vatsa amsAbhyAmkAma bale. Thus, the word vatsala means kAmavat, snehavat, etc. – one who isin love, one who is friendly. Bhakta vatsalan in thus One Who is affectionatetowards His devotees.

a) SrI BhaTTar’s anubhavam is that this nAma brings out the specialattitude of BhagavAn towards His devotees, who are eager to cultivate therelationship with Him as Master and kinsman (i.e., as bhakta-s towards Him). SrIBhaTTar comments that His joy of having attained His bhakta-s is so great, thatHe forgets all other desires – tal-lAbha sambhrama vismRta anya-kAmah.

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan elaborates on the term vatsalah, or vAtsalyam of BhagavAntowards His devotees. As mention earlier, vatsa refers to a calf. Vatsalah alsorefers to affection, of the kind that a cow shows towards its calf. The cowlicks and removes any dirt or other material that may be found on the body ofthe calf, on in other words, it treats even the blemishes on its calf as bhogyamfor itself. BhagavAn’s love towards His devotees is similarly one of ignoringtheir faults, and enjoying their devotion instead. SrI rAmAnujan gives twoexamples.

- When Vidura was offering worship to kRshNa at his house, he was totallyimmersed in looking at Lord kRshNa with devotion and affection, and he waspeeling off the outer layer of the banana, and giving the peeled skin to kRshNafor eating instead of giving the peeled fruit by mistake. Lord kRshNa was soimmersed in His devotee that He did not also realize that the skin was what Hewas being given, and He also ate the skin as a bhogya vastu, because it had beenoffered with the utmost devotion. - When BhIshma was lying on the death-bed ofarrows and meditating on Lord kRshNa, the Lord just informed the fellow pANDava-s:“The Lion of men is lying there, just thinking of Me and meditating on Me”,and having said that, He Himself was lost on the thought of His bhakta andforgot Himself and His surroundings.

b) In addition to giving the above interpretation (bhakteshu vAtsalyavAn),SrI satya sandha yatirAja gives two other interpretations for the nAma. One ofthese is based on the meaning “cooked rice or food” for the term bhakta (seethe explanation for bhakta vilocanan in the nAcciyAr tirumozhi posting forpASuram 12.6). In this interpretation, SrI satya sandha yatirAja looks at thenAma as bhaktavat-salah, and gives the interpretation: 
“bhaktam annam yeshAm asti iti bhaktavanto yaj~na kartAro brAhmaNAn, tAn pratisalati gacchati iti bhaktavat-salah” – 
He Who goes to the devotees who make offerings to Him through yaj~na (the rootsal – to go, to move is used for the interpretation of the second part, salah).

c) The other interpretation given by SrI satya sandha yatirAja is 
“bhaktA eva vatsAh, tAn lAti iti bhaktavatsa-lah” – 
He Who takes the devotees to Him, who are dear to Him like a calf to the cow”. 
(The root lA – AdAne dAne ca – to take, to obtain, is used in thisinterpretation).

The dharma cakram writer compares the relationship between BhagavAn and us tothat between the mother and the child. The mother has selfless affection to thechild, and the child trusts the mother solely and exclusively for its survival.A true devotee will be like the child towards the mother, and BhagavAn is ofcourse like the Mother towards all.

-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan