tejo-vRsho dyut-dharah sarva-Sastra-bhRtAm-varah |
om tejo-vRshAya namah
a) He Who showers His splendor on His devotees in
Om tejo-vRshAya namah.
The two roots applicable to this nAma are given by SrI satyadevo vAsishThaas: tij – niSAne – to whet, or tej – niSAne, pAlane ca – to whet, toprotect, and vRsh – secana – to rain, to shower. tejah also canrefer to tejas – luster, light, brilliance, splendor. varshati itivRshah. Thus, the nAma can mean One who showers brightness,One who showers protection, etc.
a) SrI bhaTTar emphasizes the meaning “protection” in his interpretation:
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan explains the nAma as referring to bhagavAn showering Histejas or Sakti on His devotees in the form of His protection. Theinnocent folks in AyarpADi loved kaNNan with all their hearts, and He showeredHis Grace and protection on them even as the mother cow secretes the milk forits calf with all its heart.
b) The word tejas also refers to water, and SrI Sa’nkara uses this meaningin his interpretation –
SrI ananta kRshNa SAstri elaborates: tejAmsi AdAya Aditya rUpeNavarshati vA.
The dharma carkam writer points out that just as the sea water, which byitself is unusable for most purposes, is converted by the sun into potable andusable water, so also the thought of bhagavAn distills our mind and purifies itfrom bad thoughts. Just as we cannot live without water, we cannot livewithout Him either. Just as the sun keeps functioning behind our consciousthoughts to purify the sea water into a form that is usable by us, so also HisGrace is always functioning to purify our thoughts constantly.
c) The anubhavaam of SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj is that this nAma indicatesthat He showers His luster on everything because of His divine and auspiciousForm – SrI vigrahAt tejasvinah prabhA kiraNAh sarvatah prasaranti. Whatever radiance a living organism has, is a result of a miniscule fraction ofHis tejas.
d) SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN has yet another different interpretation:
He Who possessed a majesty.
Om dyuti-dharAya namah.
We encountered the phrase dyuti-dharah as part of nAma 276 –ojas-tejo-dyuti-dharah (Slokam 30).
SrI bhaTTar gives the interpretation for the nAma as “One Who had theeffulgence or radiance even at a very young age in His kRshNa incarnation, thatcould bedazzle devendra”.
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj describes His unique kAnti – atiSayita kAntisampannah.
SrI Sa’nkara refers to the kAnti in all of bhagavAn’s.limbs as hisinterpretation for this nAma (Recall the Slokam 79 nAma-s: suvarNa-varNahhemA’ngah varA’ngah candanA’ngadI, where the beauty and kAnti of His limbsare described).
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri comments that bhagavAn is called dyuti-dharah becauseHe supports the dyuti that is characteristic of the sun, the moon, all the deva-s,lightning, ratna, etc. In fact, whatever radiance we all possess inus, is but a tiny part of His radiance. SrI cinmayAnanda points out thatit is this kAnti in us that enables us to be aware of all our perceptions,emotions, and thoughts.
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha treats the word dyuti itself as referring to “OneWho possesses effulgence”, and then treats the word dharah as “One Whoprotects”, and thus gives the meaning to the nAma “dyuti-dharah” as “OneWho has Effulgence, and Who protects and everyone and everything” –
The dharma cakram writer comments that the dyuti that is referred to here isnot the physical beauty that one sees in the body, but the radiance thatemanates from the inner AtmA, and is reflected in the same body. Unlike the physical beauty which stirs thoughts of kAmam in the observer’smind, the beauty that is seen in the body because of the dyuti emanating fromthe AtmA, kindles thoughts of bhakti in the observer. Hequotes the famous saying in tamizh:
This nAma signifies to us that every part of bhagavAn’s Form is such thatit evokes extreme devotion on the devotee. One should go through some ofsvAmi deSikan’s stotra-s such as SrI bahgavd-dhyAna sopAnam, SrI devanAyaka pa’ncAsat,etc., to appreciate the truth of this statement as svAmideSikan has the anubhavam of emperumAn.
The Best among those warriors who are armed with all weapons.
Om sarva-Sastra-bhRtAm-varAya namah.
The relevant roots for this nAma are (SrI satya devo vAsishTha):
- Sas – himsAyAm – to cut up, to destroy; based on the pANinisUtra 3.2.182 – dAmnI Sasa yu yuja ….karaNe (shTran), whereby the root Saswith the affix shTran gets the sense of instrument. Thus, the word Sastragets the meaning “a weapon”.
- bhR – dhAraNa poshaNayoh – to hold, to support; bhRt means One Whoholds.
- vR – varaNe – to choose. VarItum arhah varah – One Who is fitto be chosen is varah.
So the nAma means “He Who is Best among all those who hold or carryweapons”. –
a) SrI BhaTTar’s vyAkhyAnam is that He has the nAma indicating that He wasthe foremost among the wielders of weapons in His fight against the asura byname naraka, king jarAsandha, and others. SrI bhaTTar emphasizesthat it was child’s play for the Lord during His incarnations to wield theseweapons against His enemies:
manushya dharma leelasya leelA sA jagat-pateh |
“For the Lord of the world Who was diverting Himself with the activities ofthe human beings it was mere play to discharge different kinds of weaponsagainst His enemies”.
SrI ananta kRshNa SAstry gives the support from bhagavad gItA 10.31:
pavanah pavatAm asmi rAmah Sastra-bhRtAm aham |
“Of moving things, I am the wind.
SrI cinmayAnanda points out that bhagavAn is the “Best” among those Whowield weapons, because He uses them to bring about “constructivedestruction”, as opposed to other weapon-wielders who bring about“destructive destruction”. His words are: “The Lordnever uses His weapon of annihilation indiscriminately – for He is ever just . It is also significant that all destructions in nature are always‘constructive destructions’; therefore, the Lord’s Discus is itselfcalled ‘the auspicious vision’ – su-darSana. In the maturity ofone’s evolution when one becomes fit for one’s own inner unfoldment, slowlybut irresistibly, the seeker can ever detect a secret hand that diligently cutsoff all this connections with the outer world, and compels him to lean more andmore on the higher. Our purANic literature is replete with instances, and,without exception, in all of them SrI nArAyaNa is described as using His weaponto destroy the devilish – and to give him moksha! – “the auspiciousvision” – su-darSana. Others, when they employ their weapons ofdestruction, the result invariably ends in a sad “destructive destruction”,and therefore, to invoke Him as the “the best among those who wield weapons”is most significant for a seeker.”
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha asks the rhetorical question as to why He should beconsidered the “Best among those with weapons”, and answers it by pointingout that it is because He has expressed Himself by equipping every livingcreature with the appropriate weapon for its own protection and for itsenemies’ destruction. On the one hand, He has equipped the differentcreatures with different claw types for those creatures with claws, thedifferent types of teeth for those that protect themselves with their teeth fromtheir enemies, with their fangs, horns, etc. However, it is to be notedthat each creature has only one or two such weapons for its own protection. He is the origin of all these Sastra-s, and so He is rightly known as thesarva-Sastra-bhRtAm-varah. He also reserves for Himself the ability tostrike with all the weapons as necessary and when necessary. Thus, theenormous earthquakes, the great epidemics that strike down masses of people,etc., are weapons that He wields as He deems necessary on a mass scale.
The dharma cakram writer comments that it is because rAma and kRshNa usedtheir weapons for the destruction of evil and for the protection of the good,that they were SreshTha-s or vara-s among wielders of weapons. Those thatused their weapons for committing atrocities only ended up being ruined. The lesson to take from this in these modern days of invention of more and moretechnologically advanced weaponry, is that they should be used for the good ofmankind, and not for their destruction.
Om prgrahAya namah.
pra is an upasarga or prefix, and the root involved in the nAma is grah –upAdAne – to take hold of, to seize. prakarshaNena gRhNAti itipragraphah (SrI satya devo vAsishTha) – He Who controls in a special,excellent, or unique way. The different bhAshya-s differ on what iscontrolled by Him. SrI Sa’nkara uses the meaning “He receives” forthe term grah in his primary interpretation.
a) SrI BhaTTar explains the nAma as referring to Lord kRshNa’s excellentcontrol over arjuna, even though He was only arjuna’s charioteer. Itshould be kept in mind that SrI bhaTTar is continuing the thread ofkRshNAvatAram starting from nAma 697, all the way up to nAma 786. LordkRshNa controlled arjuna like the reins that control the horse. The wordpragraham refers to reins (see kaThopanishad – manah pragrameva ca – mind islike the reins , with AtmA the the master of the chariot, the body is like thechariot, etc. –
b) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha explains the nAma by referring to bhagavAn’sexceptional control of everything in the universe – prakarshaNena gRhNAtiviSvam iti.
c) SrI Sa’nkara uses the meaning “to receive” for the word grah, andgives the interpretation that bhagavAn has the nAma parigrahah because Hereceives offerings such as leaf, fruit, etc., from His devotees – bhaktaihupahRtam patra pushpAdikam pragRhNAti iti pragrahah. SrI cinmayAnandagives a different dimension to this notion – He is pragrahah because He is theultimate recipient of the worship offered by people of all creeds and races, andall animals, men, plants, etc.
d) SrI Sa’nkara gives an alternate interpretation along the lines ofvyAkhyAna-s a, and b also. Here, he refers to the overall control thatbhagavAn exerts on a devotee’s otherwise uncontrolled horse-like sensesroaming over the forest of sense-objects –
e) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj takes the prefix pra as representing prakRshTa– special, exalted, and the word grahah as One Who accepts or receives, andgives the interpretation – prakRTo grahah svIkAro yasya iti pragrahah – OneWhose acceptance (of saraNAgati) is unique, exceptional, special, exalted. His vyAkhyAnam is:
a) The Subduer.
Om nigrahAya namh.
The word nigraha means restraining, keeping in check; nigrahaNa meansholding back or down, suppressing. Thus, the nAma means “One Whorestrains”, “One Who keeps in check”. The differentvyAkhyAna kartA-s give different instances of His restraint as illustrations ofthis nAma.
a) SrI bhaTTar’s vyAkhyAnam is that He has this nAma since He successfullysubdued all the enemies in the mahAbhArata war by His skill as a Charioteer,without expecting the support of arjuna or his valor.
SrI Sa’nkara’s vyAkhyAnam is that the nAma signifies that He controls allthings independently –
SrI stya sandha yati raja alludes to His subduing all the asura-s –nigRhNAti daityAn iti nigrahah.
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives the interpretation – nigRhNAti vipathagAminah iti nigrahah –
SrI bala deva vidyA bhUshaN refers to His control of the enemies of pANDava-sin the form of yama –
b) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives a different interpretation from the above. Taking the upasarga ni, and the root grah – upAdAne – to take hold of,to seize, SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation:
c) SrI cinmayAnanda literally translates the nAma “nigrahah” as “TheKiller”, and points out that such a nAma is justified for bhagavAn in thecontext of His destroying the ego in His devotees. This is like a doctorwho “murders” the diseases in the patients, the sun is the destroyer ofdarkness, etc. The nAma also means “One Who absorbs the devoteesunto Himself”.
a) He Who was very enthusiastic (to destroy the enemies
Om vyagrAya namah.
The root from which the term agrah is derived is agi –gatau. Through the uNAdi sutra 2.28, the addition of the affix ra leads to the wordsagra, which mean “front, first”.
a) SrI bhaTTar’s vyAkhyAnam is that Lord kRshNa took the lead as needed inthe mahAbhArata war, because He could not put up with any delay in putting downthe enemies of arjuna. This is evidenced by His action against bhIshma:
ye yAnti yAntyeva Sini-pravIra! Ye’vasthitA satvaram te’pi yAntu |
“O Sini-pravIra (referring to Satyaki)! Those who have gone, have gone forever. Those who are still left, let them all go at once. You willsee now that bhIshma is thrown from his chariot, and also droNa with hisarmy”.
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan translates the above quote from mahA bhArata slightlydifferently: He describes the scene where the pANDava forces are runningconfused at the intensity of bhIshma’s attack, and then kRshNa declares:
nammAzhvAr beautifully captures this guNa of bhagavan in tiruvAimozhi 9.2.10:
b) SrI Sa’nkara uses the meaning “end” for the word “agram”, andgives the interpretation that because He has no end, He is vyagrah – vigatamagram asya itit vyagrah (agram – antah, vinASah).
c) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the derivation “vividham gamanam yovidhatte sa vyagra ucyate – He Who moves around using many different ways isvyagrah. He points out that everything that is moving is amanifestation of His guNa of vyagra, or movement in various ways.
d) SrI satya sandha yatirAja uses the pATham a-vyagrah for the nAma as hisprimary interpretation. The meaning is “One Who is not confused” –vyagro na bhavati iti a-vyagrah. (In thisinterpreatation, vgagrah means“One who is confused”, and avyagrah is the opposite. vividham agramasya iti vyagrah – One Who is confused, with multiple paths and not knowingwhat to choose – amara koSa vyAkhyAnam).
e) In his alternative interpretation using the pATham “vyagrah”, Srai satya sandha yatirAja gives the explanation:
a) He Who adopted diverse tactics for controlling His devotees’enemies.
Om naika-SR’ngAya namah.
The root involved in the nAma is SRR – himsAyAm – to tear to pieces, tokill, to hurt. The word SR’ngah is derived from this root by theapplication of the uNAdi sUtra 126, SRNAter-hrasvaSca. SrI satyadevovAsishTha gives the meanings – dIpti (radiance), “means ofdestruction”, and “means for protection against obstacles from others”,for the word SR’ngam – SR’ngam iti dIpter nAma, himsA-sAdhanam tathApara-kRta-bAdhA-nivAraNa-sAdhanamapi SR’ngam. The word SR’ngaalso means horn, and SrI Sa’nkara uses this meaning in his interpretation.
a) Of the above, SrI bhaTTar has used the meaning ‘himsA sAdhanam” in hisinterpretation. na + eka + SR’ngah = naika-SR’ngah – He Who hasmultiple means for causing distress to His enemies. SrI BhaTTar elucidateshis interpretation using the instances of mahA bhArata –
nammAzhvAr’s tiruvAimozhi 6.4.10 describes this guNa of His (SrI v.v.rAmAnujan):
maN miSaip perum bhAram nI’nga Or bhArata mA-perum pOr
“To reduce the weight of this world caused by the ahamkAra of people, theLord caused the mahA bhArata war, performed many miracles, as if some mantra wasinvoked for each step, and made sure that His design succeeded”. (nooTriTTu– fabricated, as it were, all these mAya-s).
b) SrI Sa’nkara uses the meaning “horn” for the word SR’ngah, andgives the meaning “He With Many Horns”.
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri explains that just as the animals with horns comeunder control when their horns are seized, bhagavAn comes under control of Hisdevotees through the four veda-s – the four “horns” referred to by SrISa’nkara – catuh SR’ngah naika-SR’ngah.
SrI San’kara gives support from Rg veda – catvAri SR’ngA (RV 4.58.3) -
catvAri SR’ngA tray’sya pAdA dve Sirshe sapta hastAso’sya |
(Ralph T. H. Griffith gives an explanation based on SAyaNa bhAshya for theabove in his translation of the Rg vedic hymns. The four horns refer tothe four veda-s, the three feet refer to the three daily sacrifices, etc.).
c) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives other interpretations from the SAyaNabhAshyam, which includes the four “horns”, namely
d) A thought that comes out of b) is that bhagavAn has the four horns in theform of the four veda-s, that He uses to control the world through dharma.
SrI cinmayAnanda interprets the reference to “the four horns “catvAriSR’ngA” in the Rg vedic quote above (4.58.3) as a reference to the fourStates of Consciousness – the waking, dream, deep-sleep, and Pure Awareness. He interprets the three feet as the three states of gross, subtle and causalbodies respectively.
e) The word SR’ngam also means Lordship, supremacy, etc. SrI kRshNadatta bhAradvAj uses this meaning, and gives the interpretation that the nAmarefers to His many aspects to His Lordship –
f) SrI satya sandha yatirAja gives the interpretation –
f) In his alternate interpretation, he splits the word as nA eka-SR’ngah,and explains the word nA separately as referring to the parama purushatvam ofbhagavAn (parama purshatvAt nA), and then takes eka-SR’ngah as the nAma, andgives the interpretation that it refers to vishNu’s form as the one-hornedvarAha incarnation. He quotes moksha dharma in support –
h) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses the meaning “dIpti” for the word “SR’nga”,and interprets the nAma as referring to One Who has many radiant rays emanatingfrom Him. He also gives two other interpretations –
a) The elder brother of gada.
Om gadAgrajAya namah.
a) SrI bhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that kRshNa is the elder brother of a childnamed gada, born to vasudeva after kRshNa. Gada's mother is sunAmA, one of thewives of vasudeva.
b) SrI Sa'nakra sees the nAma as (ni)gada-agrajah, or born as a result ofmantra (as in the case of Lord rAma who was born as a result of putra kAmeshTiyAgha). He treats ni as lopa (left out, elided) in this interpretation -nigadena mantreNa agre jAyata iti "ni" Sabda lopam kRtvA gadAgrajah. (gadyateiti gadah, referring to mantra-s). He also gives the interpretation "Elderbrother of gada" as his second interpretation.
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri notes that in her letters to kRshNa, rukmiNi calls Himby this name, gadAgrajah.
c) SrI vAsishTha gives a different interpretation: He looks at the nAma asgada + agra + jah. For gada, he derives the meaning from gada vyaktAyAm vAci -to speak; For agra, he derives the meaning from agi - gatau - to go; and he usesthe meaning jAta - anupavishTa - who enters or pervades, for the part jah. Thus,his interpretation for the nAma is "He Who pervades (in the form the soul)those that speak and those that walk or move around. Gadeshu - gadana Seeleshu,agreshu - gamana Seeleshu, anupravishTo jAta iva pratIyamAno gadAgraja itivishNor nAma. SabdAyamAne, gamanaSIle ca jIvita SarIra eva jIvAtmAno'vabhAsahprakASa ityarthah.
d) Another alternate interpretation by SrI vAsishTha is:
e) SrI satya sandha yatirAja, in addition to the interpretation forgadAgrajah as "the elder brother of gada", also considers thealternate pATham agadAgrajah, and sees the nAma as agada + agrajah. Here agadameans healthy, without disease, and agraja refers to brAhmins. Hisinterpretation is: agadA nIrogiNo agrajA brAhmaNA yasmAt iti agadAgrajah - Hebecause of Whose Grace the brAhmaNa-s are healthy. The reference can be tospiritual health because of the vedic chanting.