udbhavah sundarah sundo ratna-nAbhah su-locanah |
arko vAja-sanih SR'ngI jayantah sarva-vij-jayI ||
om udbhavAya namah
on sundarAya namah
om sundAya namah
om ratna-nAbhAya namah
om su-locanAya namah
om arkAya namah
on vAjasanaye namah
om SR'ngiNe namah
om jayantAya namah
om sarva-vij-jayine namah
a) He Who rose above samsAra.
b) He Who is of a superior birth, taking birth as He
likes, where He likes, when He likes.
c) He from Whom everything originated.
d) He Who resides in an exalted place ( SrI vaikunTham).
e) He Who created the exalted gods and goddesses.
f) He Who is born again and again for the protection
om udbhavAya namah
We had the anubhavam of this nAma in Slokam 41 (nAma 375). SrI BhaTTar's interpretation of nAma 375 was in the context of bhagavAn as para vAsudeva, lakshmI-pati.
ud is an upsarga; the root for bhava is bhU sattAyAm to be, to live, to be born. The term udbhava refers to origin, source, creation etc. The difference in the different interpretations mostly arises from the different ways in which the vyAkhyAna-kartA-s interpret the upasarga "ut" (e.g., udgata rising above, utkRshTa - excellent, uttama best or superior, uccaih high, etc.).
SrI BhaTTar interprets both the instances of the nAma as "udgatah bhavAt iti udgatah" "He Who pulls us out of the cycle of samasAra". He distinguishes between the two instances of the nAma as follows: In Slokam 41, he interprets the nAma in terms of bhagavAn's act of releasing His true devotees from samsAra. In the current instance, his interpretation in terms of the Buddha incarnation is that He misled the asura-s on the path of release from samsAra.
In the context of Slokam 41, SrI BhaTTar points out that by meditating on His being released from the bondage to which He subjected Himself when yaSoDA tied Him to the mortar, we will be released from our bondage of samsAra "dAmodaram bandha haram".
a) SrI BhaTTar's interpretation for the current instance is "muktyupadeSa nATitakena bhavAt udgata iti udbhavah" He was preaching the wrong way to attain salvation, and then pretended that He has indeed achieved the objective of rising above samsAra through these wrong means.
b) SrI Sa'nkara's vyAkhyAnam is "utkRshTam bhavam janma svecchayA bhajati it udbhavah" He Who is of superior birth, being born of His free will, wherever He likes.
SrI Sa'nkara's interpretation for this nAma in Slokam 41 was: 1. bhagavAn is called udbhavah because He is the Origin of the Universe, being its material cause prapa'nca utpatti upAdAna kAraNatvAt udbhavah; Or, 2. udgato bhavAt iti udbhavah He Who is free from birth or worldly existence is udbhavah.
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the interpretation "uttamo bhavo yasya sa ud-bhavah" He Whose birth is superior, which is similar to the above. He gives the support from SrImad bhAgavatam 10.3, which describes child kRshNa's birth to devaki in the prison. His birth is superior because it is unlike any other birth that is known, and is accompanied by wonderful and uncommon events. Unlike other children who are born, His eyes were not closed at birth, but He appeared with beautiful lotus eyes open; He was not connected to His mother through the umbilical cord at birth; He was not covered with the signs of being inside a mother's womb, but appeared with a clean and beautiful body, bearing the conch, the cakra etc.; the waves dashing against the shore sounded like the beautiful beat of the drum as an auspicious sound at the time of His birth; and all kinds of other unusual and auspicious things that happened when this One Who has no birth, "was born" to devaki.
c) An alternate interpretation by SrI Sa'nkara is udgatam apagatam janmA asya, sarva kAraNatvAt He Who has no birth or origin, since everything originated from Him.
SrI satya sandha yatirAja conveys a similar idea. His interpretation is: "bhavAt samsArAt utpatter vA udgata iti ud-bhavah He Who is beyond samsAra, birth etc., is udbhavah.
SrI cinmayAnanda gives the meaning "source or origin" for the word udbhava, and gives his interpretation for the nAma as "The ultimate source" He from Whom everything originated the very spring of Creation. He gives the gItA Slokam 14.4 in support:
sarva yonishu kaunteya mUrtayah sambhavanti yAh |
tAsAm brahma mahad-yonih aham bIja-pradah pitA || (gItA 14.4)
"Whatever forms are produced in any womb, O arjuna, the prakRti is their great womb, and I am the sowing father". The meaning is that bhagavAn is the One who decides the birth of each individual according to each one's karma He decides whether one is born a deva, a gandharva, an animal, etc., according to their karmA.
d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha uses the meaning uccaih for the upasaraga ut ud upasarga uccaih arthe. Using the root bhU sattAyAm, he gives the interpretation uccaih bhavanam yasya sa udbhavah He Whose place of existence is at a high level. SrI vAsishTha gives the example of sun moving around in a high position as a manifestation of bhagavAn being in a high position. The meaning is more enjoyable if we take the reference to the "high place" as SrI vaikunTham.
e) Among the alternate interpretations that are given by SrI satya sandha yatirAja is one which describes this nAma as referring to His being the Creator of exalted beings such as pArvati utkRshTah pArvatyAdibhyo bhavo yena iti udbhavah.
f) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives another interpretation He has this nAma because He is born again and again to protect dharma dharma samsthAnapArthAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge (gItA 4.8).
a) He Who is handsome.
b) He Who has the beautiful conch pA'ncajanyam.
c) He Who killed sunda through upasunda (sunda-rah)
d) He Who is exceedingly well regarded and worshipped
e) He Who has separated or divided the different creatures well in many ways.
Om sundarAya namah.
The word sundara means "handsome". The word dara by itself means "a conch shell". Most interpreters use the former meaning; SrI satya sandha yatirAja uses the second meaning and gives an alternate interpretation.
a) SrI BhaTTar explains that He was handsome in the eyes of the asura- s, and so He is described as sundarah in the context of the Buddha incarnation tad-dRshTi manoharah sundarah. SrI V.N. veDantadeSikan gives the explanation in English as "He Who had a captivating form so as to impress and attract a large following."
SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation that He is of a handsome form, as one of His inherent and natural qualities viSvAtiSayi saubhAgyaSalitvAt sundarah. tiruma'ngai AzhvAr describes this beauty of bhagavAn in periya tirumozhi 9.2.4
"vambu avizhum tuzhAi mAlai tOL mEl;
..accO! oruvar azhagiyavA!" _
"Oh! What a bewitching beauty He is! How can I describe this beauty!".
In fact, in all the ten pASurams under periya tirumozhi 9.2, AzhvAr just keeps wondering about this indescribable beauty of emperumAn. tirumazhiSai AzhvAr describes His beauty as "ari po'ngik kATTum azhagu (nAnmugan tiru. 21) The beauty of nRsimha form looked like beauty bubbling and spilling over because it couldn't be contained anywhere. tiruppAN AzhvAr is unable to contain His exuberance at the beauty of Lord ra'nganAtha, and in two of the total of ten pASuram-s that are attributed to him, he exclaims at His beauty by crying out "aiyO!" What a Beauty! (Seyya vAi aiyO amalanAdipirAn 7; nIla mEni aiyO amalanAdi pirAn 9).
SrI cinmayAnanda relates the term "beauty" here to the mental peace that is derived from meditation and contemplation on SrIman nArAyaNa. He observes that when meditation leads to the joy of ecstasy, the mind feels the peace, and it is at these moments of supreme inner satisfaction that the flashes of beauty-experiences flood the bosom. This is nothing but the manifestation of SrIman nAraAyaNa, and this is why He is referred to as "Peace-Auspiciousness- Beauty" "SAntam Sivam, sundaram" in the upanishads.
b) SrI satya sandha yatirAja gives his first interpretation as "sundarah soundarvAn". Using the meaning "a conch shell" for the word dara, he gives the additional interpretation Sobhanam darah Sa'kho yasya iti sun-darah "He Who the beautiful conch pA'ncajanyam".
c) Another interpretation by SrI santya sandha yatirAja is "sundam upasundena repayati nASayati iti sunda-rah" He Who killed sunda through upasunda". The story related to this incident is given in Apte's dictionary under the meaning for the word sundah". sunda and upasunda were sons of the demon nikumbha, and had managed to get a boon from brahmA that they would be not be killed unless they destroyed each other. They became very oppressive, and ultimately indra had to send a nymph named tilottamA, and while fighting for her between themselves, they killed each other. Since all creation and destruction is because of bhagavAn, and since He made sure that sunda was destroyed through upasunda, He is called sunda-rah the Destroyer of sunda.
d) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives yet another anubhavam sutarAm driyate praSasyata iti sundarah He Who is exceedingly well regarded and worshipped (using the meanings sutarAm exceedingly, dRyate from the root dR to worship, to regard). He gives the support from SrImad bhAgavatam:
prasAdAbhimukham SaSvat prasanna vadanekshaNam |
su-nAsam su-bhruvam cAru-kapolam sura-sundaram || (bhAga. 4.8.45)
"He Who is always interested in bestowing His blessings on His devotees, He with a happy countenance, beautiful eyes, nose, cheeks, He who is the most beautiful of all gods,
should be meditated upon with single-minded devotion."
e) SrI satya devo vAsishTha derives the meaning based on the root dR vidAraNe to tear, to divide. Using su an upasarga meaning "well", he gives the meaning "He Who divides or separates well" for the nAma su = sushTu "nirdosham" vidAraNam yah kurute sa su-darah sanneva varNAgamena sundra ityukto bhavati. His interpretation is in terms of all the parts of the bodies of the different creations being properly divided or separated (such as the two wings of the birds, the branches of the trees, etc. Part of the Slokam that he has composed to explain this nAma is "sa sundaro vishNur-ananta rUpo yonIh samagram vividham dRNAti" vishNu who has many forms, has separated or divided the different creatures in different ways.
a) He Who presents Himself as a very soft person to the asura-s in order to convince them to follow His deceitful methods.
b) He Who is soft to His devotees.
c) He Who bestows joy and happiness on His devotees.
Om sundAya namah.
su is an upasarga. The root involved in the nAma is und kledane to wet, to moisten. sushThu unatti iti sundah He Who softens.
a) SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that He is called sundah because He melted the hearts of the asura-s by His fascinating form, and drew them towards Him. This is true of His mohini incarnation as well as His Buddha incarnation.
b) SrI Sa'nkara's interpretation is "He Who is of a melting nature because of His great compassion". SrI cinmayAnada's words describing His Mercy are: "Whatever be the amount of vAsanA-s hoarded in our personality, because of our ego-centric, extroverted activities, once a devotee turns unto Him in total surrender, all the vAsanA-s are purified, and the devotee moves more and more towards Him". In His infinite mercy, bhagavAn forgives all sins that a person might commit in his ignorance.
c) SrI satya sandha yatirAja's interpretation is that He has this nAma signifying that He is the Bestower of joy and happiness to His devotees sum sukham dadAti iti sum-dah on sundah.
d) SrI satysdevo vAsishTha uses the meaning und kledane to wet, and attributes the nAma to His providing every living being with the requisite amount of water and other fluids, the crops with the requisite amount of rain, etc. yo vRsha karmaNA samyag unatti; loke'pi ca paSyAmah, manushyo jalena kvacit bahu-kRtvah si'ncati, kvacicca alpaSah; esha yo niyamo sa tasyaiva vyApakasyavishNoh, etc.
a) He with a gem-like navel.
b) He Who has the navel from which the gem among men brahmA originated.
c) He Who destroys the asura-s (aratna-nAbhah).
d) He Who has ratna in His navel - in the form of ratna-s in the oceans.
Om ratna-nAbhAya namah.
ratna here represents beauty. The following derivation is given by SrI vAsishTha: The word ratna is derived from the root ramu - krIDAyAm - to play, to rejoice, and the application of the uNAdi sUtra 3.14 - ramesta ca, leading to the wrod ratnam which means gem. The word nAbhi is derived from the root nah - bandhane - to tie, to bind, and the application of the uNAdi sUtra 4.126 - naho bhaSca, leading to the word nAbhI. The siddhAnta kaumudI gives the meaning - "a khshatriya" to the word in the masculine gender, and the meaning "navel" in the feminine gender. The kaumudi also points sout that sometimes the meaning navel is given in the masculine gender as well. The term nAbhah means "one with the nAbhi", and so the meaning "navel" is the one that is relevant here, and the one used by all the vyAkhyAna-kartA-s. He Who has a beautiful navel is ratna- nAbhah.
a) SrI BhaTTar's anubhavam is that He showed off His beautiful navel as a sign of His pANDityam or learning, again to convince the asura-s of His teachings in the Buddha incarnation pANDitya viDambana mRshTodara vyakta ramya nAbhI ratna-nAbhah. From many translations of the above, it appears that one of the external gesticulations of a learned person is to massage the belly (SrI v. n. vedAnta deSikan's translation in English, SrI v. v. rAmAnujnan;s translation in tamizh, etc.). SrI vedAnta deSikan's translation is: "In the form of Buddha, the imposture like a great scholar required certain external gesticulations like massaging the belly, when His navel was displayed as a beautiful gem".
SrI Sa'nkara's vyAkhyAnam is also a reference to the beautiful navel of bhagavAn ratna Sabdena SobhA lakshyate; ratnavat sundarA nAbhih asya iti ratna-nAbhah.
SrI cinmayAnanda describes the significance of the navel as the origination point of the thought process in the devotee who performs meditation. He describes the findings of deep thinkers about the process of origination of thought. According to them, all thoughts arise in their seed form from the Infinite before manifestation. From this womb (origination), they become manifest, and the individual becomes dimly aware of thoughts in their embryo form vague, incomplete, and as yet not fully formed (paSyantee). In the next stage, they get translated into expressions (madhyamA), and in their last and full stage of manifestation, they express themselves as actions in the outer world (vaikharee). In this chain of processes on how the thoughts become manifest for the thinker, the seat of the paSyantee stage is said to be navel region (nAbhI). When one considers the seat of origination of all thoughts of all thinkers, this seat is the ratna-nAbhI of bhagavAn, and hence He is called ratna-nAbhah. SrI cinmayAnanda suggests that this may be significance of the representation that the Creator, brahmA, originates from the lotus from the navel of bhagavAn.
SrI satya sandha yatirAja gives two explanations, both of which are different from the above. These are based on his taking the nAma as ratna-nAbhah or aratna-nAbhah.
b) Taking the nAma as ratna-nAbah, he gives the interpretation - ratnam pum-ratnam catur-mukho nAbahu yasya He Who has the navel from which the gem among men brahmA originated.
c) Taking the nAma as aratna-nAbhah, his interpretation is: aratnAn arat-daityAn nabhati iti a-ratna-nAbhah He Who destroys the asura- s. He uses the root nabha himsAyAm abhAvepi to kill, to hurt, in this interpretation.
d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation - ratnam nAbahu yasya iti ratna-nAbhah - He Who has ratnam in His navel is ratna- nAbhah. He proceeds to interpeet the nAma as indicating that He has endowed the oceans with ratnam, which is like ratnam in His navel - sa ratna-nAbho bhagavAn vareNyo loke samudre vidadhAtiratnam.
a) One with bewitching eyes.
b) He of superior wisdom.
c) One Who has the wisdom and the vision of the Self.
d) He Who gives everyone else the ability to see.om su-locanAya namah.
su is an upasarga. The root involved is loc darSane to see.
a) SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is tathA hRdayAlu-cora-locanah su- locanah He is called su-locanah because (in His Buddha incarnation) He had charming eyes which enticed the tender-hearted. He gives support from vishNu purANa -
- punaSca raktAmbaradhRk mAyA-mohah a-jitekshaNah (VP 3.18.16)
He was clad in crimson robes, and had eyes which were unconquered; and He deluded the minds of all by His mAyA.
As we all know, His beauty is not something that is used by Him only for deluding the asura-s, but also for drawing His devotees closer to Him. ANDAL praises His beauty in many places in her pASuram-s, and SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to one of these instances, in nAcciyAr tirumozhi 11.2
en ara'ngattu in-amudar kuzhal-azhagar vAi-azhaghar, kaN-azhagar,
koppUzhil ezhu-kamalap pU-azhagar em-AnAr
"My sweet nectar who resides in SrI ra'ngam, the One Who has beautiful hair, beautiful mouth, beautiful eyes, One from whose beautiful navel sprouts the beautiful lotus, the One Who has subjugated me as His own by His beauty". One almost senses the exclamation "aiyo" of tiruppANAzhvar here.
The nAlAyiram is full of references to the beauty of His eyes and the beauty of His tirumEni (Sem tAmariak kaNNan, pavala vAi, kamalac ce'nkaN,.. ..), and they are too numerous to list.
b) SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation that He has the nAma because of His beautiful eyes, and alternatively, assigns the meaning "j~nAnam" to the word locanam, and gives the alternate meaning He of superior wisdom Sobhanam locanam nayanam j~nAnam vA asya iti su-locanah.
c) SrI cinmayAnanda points out that in addition to the beauty of His form that is reflected and enhanced by His beautiful eyes, the significance of the term "beauty" here is that His eyes can see constantly the infinite purpose and goal of the entire creation. These eyes of His can simultaneously perceive everything that is happening in all the three worlds all the time, not only the present, but the past and the future as well. Thus, he gives the meaning "One who has the wisdom of the Self", to this nAma.
d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the meaning that He has this nAma because of His beautiful eyes, and in addition, he gives the alternate interpretation that the nAma signifies that because of Him, the rest of the creation is able to see well, in His manifestation as the sun samyag locante prANino yasmin udite sati iti su-locanah sUryah. The sun and the moon are considered His two eyes candra sUryau ca netre.
Thus ends the commentary on the Eight Hundred names of Lord SrI MahA vishNu.
a) He Who is praised.
b) He Who is in the form of the sun.
Om arkAya namah.
The root from which this nAma is derived is arka tapane stavane ca toheat, to praise. arcyate stUyata iti arkah
He Who is praised is arkah.
SrI satya devo vAsishTha points out that the meaning can also be derivedstarting from the root Rc stutau to praise, and from the root arc-pUjAyAm to worship. Based on the meaning arka tapane to heat, arkahalso refers to the sun.
a) SrI BhaTTar gives the meaning that He has an adorable form, and indicatesthat He was praised in His Buddha incarnation by His followers as "aho!mahAtma! ati-dhArmikah!" "Oh! A great soul and a highly virtuousone!".
SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation that He is adored by even the likes ofbrahmA brahmAdibhih pUjyatamairapi arcanIyatvAt arkah. The same idea isgiven by SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj arkyate stUyate brahmAdibhih iti arkah.He gives the support from SrImad bhAgavatam:
yam brahmA varuNendra marutah stuvanti divyaih stavaih (bhA. 12.13.1)
He Who is worshipped through divine adorations by brahmA, varuNa, indra, vAyu,etc.
b) SrI cinmayAnanda interprets the nAma as referring to His being in the formthe Sun, using the meaning "sun" for the word "arkah". TheInfinite Consciouness, SrIman nArAyaNa, is the one source of light and energyillumining and nourishing everything. Once He leaves the body of any creature,the body cannot be maintained.
a) He Who advocated eating a lot (a Preacher of mundane pleasures, likeeating).
b) He Who provides for the nourishment of all His creation.
Om vAja-sanaye namah.
SrI BhaTTar gives the nAma as vAja-sanih, and SrI Sa'nkara's version isvAja-sanah. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives both versions, and points out that"vAja-sanih" is "vaidika pATham". This is probably based onthe fact that this nAma is referred to in the veda-s as "vAja-sanih" for example, (Rg. 9.110.11), (Rg. 3.51.2), (Rg. 10.91.15)
The term vAja refers to annam or food. The root from which sanah or sanih isderived is san sambhaktau, dAne to divide, to give.
a) SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is nAstikya vAdena aihikam annAdikamevasambhajati iti vAja-sanih
By His atheistic teachings He created a taste in them for the enjoyment ofpleasures in this world itself. SrI BhaTTar notes that it is the vow of abuddhist monk that he should consume mouthfuls of curd-rice every day early inthe morning
kshapaNaka vratam hIdam yat prAtah prAtah dadhyodana kabalAn gRhNate iti.
b) SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation vAjam annam arthinAm sanoti dadAti it vAja-sanah He Who gives food to those who pray for it. SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri adds that the nAma signifies that He has made provision forall living beings for their food even before they are born, such as providingfor the milk for the child from the mother's breast even as the child is born.So He plans and provisions for sustenance of all creatures even before Hecreates the world. SrI cinmayAnanda gives the interpretation that the nAmasignifies His being the source or nurturer of the entire world of"emotions-feelings-and-thoughts" for the experiences of the body, mindand intellect of all creatures.
For the interpretation in terms of His being the provided of food to allbeings, SrI cinmayAnanda gives references to the gItA:
gAm-AviSya ca bhUtAni dhArayAmyaham-ojasA |
pushNAmi caushadhIh sarvAh somo bhUtvA rasAtmakah || (gItA 15.13)
"And entering the earth I uphold all beings by My strength. I nourishall herbs, becoming the juicy soma".
a) He Who appears like one having a horn (with a bunch of peacock feathers inhis hand).
b) He Who had a horn in His matsya and varAha inbcrnations.
c) He With the peak of govardhana mountain on His hand.
d) He Who has provided every creature with the means to express its SR'nga orexpression of power.
e) He Who destroys the fear of birth in His devotees.
Om SR'ngiNe namah.
The word SR'ngam refers to a horn. It also refers to the top of a mountain,sovereignty, etc. The root and the different meanings and interpretations forthe word SR'gan have been covered previously in nAma 540, Slokam 57 -mahA-SR'ngah; and nAma 869, Slokam 81 - naika-SR'ngah.
a) SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma as One who has a horn, and associates itwith His carrying a bunch of peacock feathers in his hand in His incarnation todelude the asura-s, as a symbol of his doctrine of ahimsA. He gives support fromvishNu purANam:
tato digambaro muNDo barhi-patra-dharo dvija |
mAyA moho'surAn SlakshNam idam vacanam abravIt || (VP 18.2)
"Approaching the daitya-s engaged in ascetic penances, He approachedthem in the semblance of a naked mendicant, with his head shaven, and carrying abunch of peacock's feathers, and addressed them in gentle accents thus". H.H. Wilson adds a footnote in his translation, that "a bunch of peacockfeathers is still an ordinary accompaniment of a Jain mendicant. According tothe Hindi poem, the pRthu rAi caritra, it was borne by the Buddhist amara sinha".
b) SrI Sa'nkara interprets the nAma in terms of the matsya incarnation, wherebhagavAn had a horn with which He guided the boat with satya vrata in it pralaya ambhasi SR'ngavAn matsya viSesha rUpah SR'ngI He Who is horned,during pralaya when He assumes the form a special fish.
SrI ananta kRshNa SAstry comments that the nAma can also be a reference toHis varAha incarnation, where He supported the earth at the tip of His horn.(see nAma 542, Slokam 58 mahA-varAhah).
c) SrI satya sandha yatirAja uses the meaning "summit of amountain" for the word SR'nga, and gives the interpretation that the nAmais a reference to His carrying the govardhana mountain SR'ngANi govardhanaSR'gANi asya santi iti SR'ngI.
d) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets the term SR'nga as meaning a ray oremanation, or any kind of energy, and gives the interpretation that the nAmasignifies that bhagavAn has enabled all beings with different ways of givingexpression to their energy, and so He is SR'ngI the fangs of a serpent arethe SR'nga-s of the serpent, and the tail of a scorpion is the SR'nga of thescorpion, as examples.
e) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj interprets SR'nga as "destroying",(The root is SR himsAyAm to hurt, to kill), and gives the interpretationfor the nama as "He Who destroys the fear of re-birth in His devotees" SRNAti bhava-bhayam iti SR'ngam avicintya- sAmarthyam; tad-asya asti itiSR'ngI.
Om jayantAya namah.
The root from which the nAma is derived is jI jaye to conquer.jitavAn iti jayantah.
a) SrI BhaTTar continues with the elucidation of the point that just as thegood things that exist in this universe are because of Him, the negative thingsthat exist are also caused by Him, with a purpose. Thus, the creation of themAyA SAstra-s etc., are also part of His leelA. His interpretation here is thatthis nAma indicates that He conquered the advocates of theism among the asura-sby means of His false doctrines that the world is an illusion, and that the soulis nothing but knowledge Astikya-vAdinah samvidAtmatva- prapa'ncamithyAtva-mithyA vAsaih jitavAn iti jayantah. The reason for His doing thisshould be clearly understood to be because there were, among the asura-s somewho believed in practicing theism just to get the powers, which they wouldthen misuse for causing harm to His devotees (the case of SukrAcArya, the guruof the asura-s, and rAvaNa, who was a great expert in the veda-s, areexamples.) The reference here is not to the theists who worship Him withthe desire to attain Him. In this latter case, bhagavAn only helps them more toattain Him the more they wish it.
b) SrI Sa'nkara's interpretation is that the nAma signifies that He is theConquerer of enemies, or is the cause of the victory of the deva-s over theasura-s arIn atiSayena jayati, jaya-hetur-vA jayantah.
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points to His help to the pANDava-s to gain victoryover the kaurava-s.
SrI cinmayAnanda points out that it is His jayantah guNa that helps us"to conquer our lower impulses, our endless desires for the sensuous and our craving for the cruel pleasures of indulgence", because it is the"grace of the mind and intellect, in attunement with the Self" thathelps us achieve this.
c) SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN's anubhavam is more along the lines of theenjoyment of kRshNa as a youth He is jayantah because He always won in handcombat as well as verbal combat with His friends jayati sakhAn bAhu-yuddhevAg-yuddhe vA iti jayantah.
d) SrI vAsishTha captures the spirit of the nAma thus yo ho sarvadAjayati, na kadAcit parAjayam labhata iti jayanatah He Who is alwaysvictorious, and can never be defeated under any circumstances by anyone at anytime, is jayantah.
SrI vAsishTha explains the nAma in terms of bhagavAn being victorious overall the beings of the Universe, and keeping everything under His control.Wherever there is His blessing, there victory is guaranteed irrespective of theother conditions that surround the situation. He summarizes his interpretationin the following words:
evam hi yo vetti jayantamagRyam vishNum sa sarvam jayatIti bodhyam |
yasyAsti savye bhagavAn jayantah kim Satravas-tasya narasya kuryuh ||
No amount of powerful weapons or anything else can prevent the victory of onewho has His support and blessings.
One is reminded of the words of vedAnta deSika in SrI kAmAsikAshTakam (6):
tvayi rakshati rakshakaih kim ananyaih
tvayi cArakshati rakshakaih kim ananyaih |
"When you are the Protector, where is the need for other protectors,
and when You have decided not to protect, what is the use of any other"protector"?"
Again in abhIti stavam, svAmi deSikan points out that for His devotee, thereis no fear ever, from anywhere, under any circumstance kadAcana kutaScanakvacana tasya na syAt bhayam (abhIti. 5).
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the following references to Sruti where thenAma jayantah occurs:
- jayantam tvam anumade soma (Rg. 1.91.21)
- devasenAnAm abhibha'njatInAm jayantInAm maruto yantvagram | ( Rg. 10.103.8)
a) The Conqueror of those who had learnt all things.
b) He Who is Omniscient and Victorious.
c) He Who had won over the hearts of the all-knowing sages.
Om sarva-vij-jayine namah.
The nAma consists of sarva + vid + jayI. (sarva means "all" sarati iti sarvah; vid j~nAne to know, or vid vicAraNe todiscuss; ji jaye - to conquer).
a) SrI BhaTTar's interpretation is that He won over the learned people (amongthe asura-s who were believers in the efficacy of following vedic proceduresetc. for acquiring special powers, which then were misused to harm the followersof dharma) by His sweet words and convincing arguments.
b) SrI Sa'nkara treats the nAma as "One Who is sarva-vit", and"One Who is "jayI". His explanation for the nAma is that bhagavAnis Omniscient (sarva-vit) and Victorious (jayI)
sarva-vishayam j~nAnam asya iti sarva-vit;
AbhyantarAn bAhyAn hiraNyAkshAdInSca dur-jayAn jetum Seelam asya iti jayI
(He Who is complete in knowledge, and He Who overcomes the internal foes such asdesire,
and also the mighty external foes such as the demon hiraNyAksha).
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives reference to the Sruti for the nAma sarva-vit:
yah savar~jnah, sarva-vit (muNDa. 1.1.9, 2.2.7).
He also provides the link between the two part of the nAma
because He is sarva-vit, He is able to conquer the inner enemies such as kAmaand krodha.
SrI vAsishTha comments that it is by knowing the inner secrets of one's enemythat one can be assured of victory over the enemy. Since bhagavAn is the Knowerof everything sarva-vid, He is the Conqueror under all circumstances jayI.
A different anubhavam is given by SrI cinmayAnanda: Even those who boast oftheir wisdom " Prattlers of wisdom, however eloquent in theirdiscussions, must become utterly silent in their moments of samAdhi, in thepresence of the Self, SrI nArAyaNa" So He is sarva- vij-jayI.
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj interprets the term sarva-vit as a reference tothe all-knowing brahmA and the like, and since He is above them all because ofHis Supreme and perfect knowledge, He is sarva-vi-jayI
sarvam vidanti iti sarva-vido brahmAdayah;
tAnapi niratiSaya sarva~jnatayA jayati iti sarva-vij-jayI.
c) SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives the same meaning for the term sarva-vid all-knowing, as the other interpreters have given, but interprets the wordjayI not in the sense of victory over an adversary, but as One Who is held in aposition of respect and esteem by very learned people His interpretation isthat the Lord had a distinct position of eminence and glory with the all-learnedpeople such as vasishTha, vAmadeva, etc.
sarva-vitsu vasishTha vAmadevAdishu jayo mahotkarsho'sya nityam asti itisarva-vij-jayI.