Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam - SLOKA 93

sattva-vAn sAttvikah satyah satya-dahrma-parAyaNah    |
abhiprAyah priyarho_'rhah priya-kRt prIti-vardhanah     ||

om sattva-vate namah
om sAttivkAya namah
om satyAya namah
om satya-dharma-parAyaNAya namah
om abhiprAyAya namah
om priyArhAya namah
om arhAya namah
om priya-kRte namah
om prIti-vardhanAya namah

871. sattva-vAn -

a) He Who controls the sattva guNa that paves the way for liberation.
b) One Who possesses courage, strength etc.
c) One Who is determined to bestow His blessings on His devotees.

Om sattva-vate namah.


The term `sattva' is generally used to refer to the sAttvic quality.
However, the term has other meanings, and these are used in some of the interpretations below.
Among the meanings given are:
quality of goodness, wealth (dravyam), inherent power, determination (vyavasAyah - niScayah), etc.
Here is a list from a commentary on amara koSam:

dravye prANe bale jantau vyavasAya svabhAvayoh |
guNe vitte sato bhAvo sattvam guNini tu trishu ||

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives detailed derivation of the nAma from the basics of grammar: starting from the root as - bhuvi - to be, he derives `sat', and then by pANini sUtra 5.1.119 - tasya bhAvas-tva- talau - tva is added to sat in the sense of `the nature thereof', leading to `sat-tva. Next, use of pANini sUtra 5.2.94 - tat-asya- asmin-asti iti matup - the matup prtyaya, in the sense of `whose it is' or `in whom it is', is added to sat-tva, leading to `sat-tva- mat'; and is substituted for ma by sUtra 8.2.9 - ma At upadhAyAh ca matoh dhah a yavAdhibyah, leading to `sat-tva-vat', which is the basis for `sattva-vAn'. This detail is included here just as one example of the depth to which SrI vAsishTha delves into the etymological derivation of the nAma-s, which he does in this elaborate detail for every single nAma. Another special feature of his vyAkhyAnam is that he gives references from the Sruti-s to support his interpretation. This is a superb piece of work for those who understand samskRt grammar.

Starting from this nAma, up to nAma 880, SrI BhaTTar describes the nAma-s in terms of bhagavAn being the presiding Deity over sattva guNa. SrI BhaTTar notes that of the three guNa-s, sattva, rajas and tamas, the sattva is the guNa that leads to moksha ultimately. sattva guNa has the qualities of luster, lightness and bliss, and is the cause of salvation - parama-prakASa lAghava, sukha-sampadA moksha mUlam sattvam sAkshAt adhishTheyam asya iti sattva-vAn - BhagavAn is called sattva-vAn because He directly presides over the sattva guNa which has the qualities of luster, lightness and bliss, and which therefore is the cause of Salvation. According to the pANini sUtra "tad asya asti asmin iti matup" - 5.3.94, the mat pratyaya or affix follows a word in first case in the sense of "whose it is" or "in whom it is". It is to be noted in passing that this pratyaya is not used for someone who just possesses the object in some small measure (like one having a couple of cows etc.), but to one who has thousands of cows, as an example. Thus, in the current case, the matup pratyaya refers to One Who is full of sattva quality. Here Sri BhaTTar's interpretation is that bhagavAn has leadership of the sattva quality in His devotees.

SrI BhaTTar gives support from the SvetASvatara Upanishad:

mahAn prabhur-vai purushah sattvasya esha pravartakah |
su-nirmalAm imam Santim ISAno jyotir-avyayah || (SvetAS. 3.12)

"This purusha alone is the Great Giver of moksha. This purusha is the propagator of sattva.
Therefore this immutable light is the ruler (ordainer) of this pure peace of the form of moksha" - (SrI N. S. ananta ra'ngAcArya's translation).

SrI BhaTTar also gives support from the varAha purANa:

sattvena mucyate jantuh sattvam nArAyaNAtmakam | (VP 3.7.13)

"A being is released from bondage because of the quality of sattva in him. sattva is indeed nArAyaNa Himself."

Recently, asmad AcAryan SrImad SrImushNam ANDavan quoted several references from svAmi deSikan's stotra ratna vyAkhyAnam for Slokam 12 of stotra ratnam, where bhagavAn's sattva aspect is emphasized:

- In li'nga purANam, ch. 14, we have: hiraNyagarbho rajasA tamasA Sa'nkarah svayam | sattvena sarvago vishNuh sarvAtmA sadasanmayah ||

- In ch. 24 of the above, we have: tvat-kopa sambhavo rudraha tamasA ca samAvRtah | tvat-prasAdAt jagat-dhAtA rajasA ca pitAmahah || tvat-svarUpAt svayam vishNuh sattvena purushottamah ||

- In the very next chapter, nandikeSvara declares:
paramAtmAnam ISAnam tamasA rudra rUpiNam |
rajasA sarva-lokAnAm sarga-leelA pravartakam ||
sattvena sarva-bhUtAnAm sthApakam parameSvaram |
sarvAtmAnam mahAtmAnam paramAtmAnam ISvaram ||
te dRshTvA prAha vai brahmA bhagavantam janArdanam ||

- In bhagavac-chAstra (pA'ncarAtra) we have:
sAttvikaih sevyate vishNuh tAmasaireva Sa'nkarah |
rAjasaih sevyate brahmA sa'nkIrNais-tu sarasvatI ||

SrI raghunAtha tIrtha, based on bRhatI sahasram, gives the interpretation -
satah samIcInasya bhAvah sattvam viSishTa prakRshTa AnandAdi guNa jAtam, tat asya asti iti sattva-vAn -
Possessor of special supreme qualities such as Bliss.

b) SrI Sa'nkara uses the meaning `power, courage', etc. for the term `sattava' -
Saurya, vIryAdikam sattvam asya asti iti sattva-vAn - "One Who possesses courage, strength, etc., is sattva-vAn".
(The term simha-sattva refers to the `strength' of the lion).

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri elaborates that this quality is associated with the ability to remain fearless in war, to be unperturbed in situations which might otherwise cause one to be disturbed and lose balance, etc.

c) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj uses the meaning vyavasAyah -
niScayah for the term sattva, and gives the interpretation -
sattvam vyavasAyah - niScayah bhaktAnugraha sUcako vartate yasmin sah sattva- vAn -
Since bhagavAn is determined to bestow His Blessings on His devotees, He is called sattv-vAn.

872. sAttvikah –

a) He Who confers the fruits of sattva guNa.
b) One Who is essentially established in sattva guNa.

Om sAttvikAya namah.

The same root from which the previous nAma was derived is used for the derivation of this nAma.  The taddhita affix ik is added to the word sattva in the sense of "who deserves that" -  "tad-arhati"  pANini 5.1.63). 

a) SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation -
dharma j~nAna vairAgya  aiSvarya rUpa phala niyamanena ca sattvam arhati iti sAttivikah - He  dispenses the fruits of dharma, knowledge, non-attachment and riches,  and so He is called sAttvikah. 

SrI vAsishTha gives the explanation -
tathA ca sarva manushyAdi  vanaspatyAdi vargaSca
sattva-yuktah, sattva-arhah, sattva-sambandhI  vA -
He bestows the sattva aspect on people, on the plants etc., as  they deserve. 

Essentially the same idea is echoed in SrI raghunAtha tIrtha's  interpretation in his tattva tIkA -
sattva-guNa janyatvAt sAttvam -  j~nAnam, tad-vAn sAttvI,
sva-bhaktam sAttvinam karoti iti sAttvikah -  
Makes His devotees possessors of sacred divine knowledge. 

b) SrI Sa'nkara vyAkhyAnam is -
sattve guNe prAdhAnyena sthita iti  sAttvikah -
One Who is essentially established in sattva guNa.

873. satyah –

a) One Who is well-disposed towards pious souls.
b) One Who is good in a supreme way.
c) He Who is established in Truth.
d) He Who is Real, and who alone exists ( Sri Sa'nkara).
e) He Who is in the form of prANa, anna, and sUrya.

Om satyAya namah.

This nAma has been visited earlier in Sloka-s 12 (nAma 107) and 23  (nAma 213).  The addition of the taddhita affix (pratyaya) `yat' to  the word `sat' leads to the word satya.  The pANini sUtra "tatra  sAdhuh" (4.4.98) is used - "The affix yat comes after a word in the  locative construction in the sense of `excellent in regard thereto'"  (SrI vAsishTha). 

SrI vAsishTha refers us to the Sloka-s in bhagavad gItA (17.26 and  17.27) for a definition of 'sat' in Lord KRshNa's words:

sad bhAve sAdhu bhAve ca sadityetat prayujyate |
praSaste karmaNi tathA sac-chabdah pArtha ucyate ||

ya~jne tapasi dAne ca sthitih saditi cocyate |
karma caiva tadarthIyam sadityevAbhidIyate || (gItA 17.26 and 27)

The word 'sat' thus refers to existence, goodness, good acts, devotion to sacrifice, austerities, and gifts, and any acts for such  purposes. One who is excellent in all these, or One who is excellent  to (i.e., supports) those who do acts along these lines, is satya.

a) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 12, SrI BhaTTar takes `sat'  to refer to the `pious souls',
and gives the explanation that the  nAma means- teshu satsu sAdhuh - "One Who is well-disposed towards  the pious souls". 

b) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 25, SrI BhaTTar ues the  meaning `good' for the term sat, and interprets the nAma as
"One Who  is good in a supreme way", or "One Who is exceptionally good",
and  gives the example of His being good to those who seek His help,
such  as Manu who sought refuge in Him - manvAdishu tat-kAla samASriteshu  satsu sAdhuh".

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi pASuram-s  9.10.6 and 9.10.7:

.......nALum tan meyyarikku meyyanE (tiruvAi. 9.10.6) 

"He is always true to His devotees, and He will never abandon them".

meyyan Agum virumbit tozhuvArkkellAm poiyan Agum puRamE tozhuvArkkellAm ..   (tiruvAi. 9.10.7)

"To those who are sincerely devoted to Him without looking for any  benefits as a result, He is always true.  In other words, to those  who desire only kainkaryam to Him, and do not worship Him just for  some small benefit to them, He always delivers.  For those others who  may worship Him with desire for small benefits, He may give them the  benefit, but then He will leave them, and there won't be any bond  between Him and them."  (extract from SrI v. n. vedAnta deSikan).

c) For the current instance of the nAma, SrI BhaTTar explains the  nAma as "He Who is Truth Himself" -
sAttvika SAstra-pratipAdyatayA  yathArthavaibhavah satyah -
"The Lord is delineated by the sAttvika  SAstra-s, and all the greatness attributed to Him is true, and He  stands fully established in Truth". 
He gives reference to mahA  bhArata in support:

satye pratisThitah kRshNah satyam asmin pratihThitam    |
sattAsatte ca govindah tasmAt satyah satAm matah   ||    (udyoga. 69.12)

"Lord kRshNa is rooted in satya, and the Truth (satya) is rooted in  Lord kRshNa. 
Existence and non-existence are both established on  Lord Govinda.  Hence He is called `satya' or "Truth". 
These are the  words of sa'njaya to dhRtarAshtra on why kRshNa is called vAsudeva,  satya, etc.

SrI v.v. rAmnujan notes that bhagavAn's tiru nAmam in the divya  kshetram by name tirumeyyam, is "satya mUrti".  He also refers us to periya tirumozhi 5.6.9, where tiruma'ngai AzhvAr  declares that bhagavAn truly reveals Himself to those who seek Him  with sincerity.

poi vaNNam manattu agaRRi,
pulan aindum Sela vaittu
mei vaNNan ninRavarkku mein-ninRa vittaganai .      (periya  tirumozhi 5.6.9)

"He Who reveals His True Nature to those who sincerely seek Him by  forsaking the pursuit of the impermanent object of this world,
and by  desisting from acts of the five senses..".

d) e) SrI Sa'nkara gives several alternate interpretations, some of  which are directed towards a reinforcement of his advaita  philosophy.  This conclusion is made based on the English  elaborations by scholars, of the vyAkhyAna-s in samskRt that SrI  Sa'nkara gives.  Among his interpretations are:

- He is called satyah because He is the Real, Not False -  avitatha rUpatvAt. 
He refers to taitt. upanishad 2.1 - (satyam,  j~nAnam, anantam brahma) -in support.  -
He, Who alone exists as manifest and unmanifest - sat ca tyat  ca abahavat (He is all that exists in the manifest and unmanifest  conditions).  -
He Who is in the form of prANa, anna, and sUrya; or He Who is  the Origin of prANa, anna and sUrya -
saditi prANAstItyannam  yamityasAvAdityah (taitt. AraN. 1.3). 
SrI vAsishTha gives additional  reference to atharva veda for this interpretation: 

satyenottabhitA bhUmih sUryeNottabhitA ca dyauh    |
Rtena AdityAs-tishThanti divi somo adhiSritah   || (atharva. 14.1.1)

"Truth (satya) is the Base that bears the earth; by sUrya are the  heavens upheld; By Law the Aditya-s stand secure, and Soma holds his  place in heaven".   - He Who is good towards the good - satsu sAdhutvAt. 

SrI  annatakRshNa SAstri translates this as:  "He Who is in the form of  virtue in holy men".   - He Who is embodied as the virtue of the truth-speaking, or,  He Who is the Embodiment of Truth since He speaks the Truth, or, He  Whose words always come true, depending on the different translators -  satya vacana dharma rUpatvAt satyah.  He gives reference to the  Sruti - tasmAt satyam paramam vadanti (mahAnArayaNa. 221.) -  (Therefore, they say that Truth is Supreme).  - satyasya satyam - The Truth of truths.  He quotes  bRhadAraNyaka Upanishad (2.1.20) in support - "satyasya satyam iti  prANA vai satyam, teshAm esha satyam" (The prANA-s are true and He is  the Truth of those).

One of SrI satya sandha tIrtha's interpretations is: sadbhAvam  yApayati iti satyah -
He Who directs His devotees towards good  qualities is satyah.

For the current instance of the nAma, SrI vAsishTha gives the  explanation -
satsu -sAdhusvabhAveshu paramahita kAritvena  mahApurusha pUjyah nitya-paramahitakArI ca ityarthah -
He Who is best  among those endowed with sAttvic quality because of His disposition  to help others, and Who is worshipped by the great souls. 

SrI T. S. Raghavendran has assembled and presented 34 different  interpretations or pramANa-s for the nAma.  We will look at some of  these.

- tat-satyam-ityAcakshase (taitt. upa. 3.6) - Therefore Brahman  is called "one of good deeds" (SrI ananta ra'ngAcArya's translation).

- He of all auspicious qualities as stated in the following  Sloka from Aditya purANA:

satyeSam satyasankalpam satyam satyavratam harim   |
satyacaryam satyayonim satyaSIrsham aham bahaje   ||   (Aditya. 3.5)

- SrI madhvAcArya in his bhAgavata tAtparya describes bhagavAn  as:

satyam nir-duhkha nitya niratiSaya Ananda anubhava svarUpam (1.1.1)

 "He Whose Nature is Truth, One without any trace of  sorrow, Eternal, of Extreme Splendor, Eternally Blissful.".

- Another quote from SrI madhvAcArya - satyo hi bhagavAn  vishNuh sad-guNatvAt prakIrtitah -
"vishNu is called satya because of  His infinite auspicious attributes.

- SrI jayatIrtha in his `karma nirNaya TIkA' gives the  interpretation - satyah - svatantrah - He Who is Independent.

- The atharvaNa Upanishad mantra that follows, declares  bhagavAn as `satyah':

"satyameva jayati nAnRtam, satyena kathAh vitato devayAnah   |   
yanAkramanti Rshayo hyAptakAmAh yatra tat-satyasya paramam  nidhAnam  ||  (athar. Upa. 2.6)

- chAndogya upanishad mantra 7.16.1:

esha tu ativadati  | yah saytena tivadati  | so'ham bhagavah  satyenAvadAnIti  |  satyam tveva viji~jnAsitavyam iti  |  satyam  bhagavo vijij~jnAsa iti   ||

- aitareya Upanishad mantra 2.1.7:

tat satyam  | sat iti prANah  | ti iti  annam   |  yam iti asau  Adityam  |  tad etat tri-vRt  | .. | ya evam etat satyasya satyattvam  veda   ||

"That Brahman-vishNu is called satyam.  He is sarvottama and hence he  is called sat. 
ti - tanu vistAre - vishNu is complete and full by  deSa, kAla, and guNa-s. 
He is perfectly full and complete, and so is  called as `ti'. 
Yam - yeti j~nAnam samuddishTam  | He is sarvaj~nA.   All these denote one Person:  sat, ti, yam".  (translation from SrI  Raghavendran's book).

SrI Raghavendran has collected an extensive list of supporting  references from the brahma sUtra-s etc. as well. 
The interested  reader is referred to his book for details.

874. satya-dharma-parAyaNah –

a) He Who is pleased with the true dharma practiced by His devotees.
b) He Who is ever devoted to, and established in, Truth and in righteousness.
c) He Who provides the support to, and Who shows the path for, those who follow the superior path of dharma.
d) Refuge of devotees such as yadu, turvaSa, etc., who take interest in discharging virtuous duties.

Om satya-dharma-parAyaNaya namah.

SrI vAsishTha derives the word parAyaNa from the roots pRR - to  refresh, to fill, and ay - to go. 
The meaning is "One Who conducts  Himself according to the satya dharma, or Who is the Abode of satya  dharma -
satyaSca asau dharmah satya-dharmah saccidAnana lakshaNah,  
sa eva parah ayanam = Asrayah svarUpam vA sa satya-dharma- parAyaNah.  

a) SrI BhaTTar interprets the term satya-dharma as referring to "the  true dharma as laid down in the SAstra-s, namely the nivRtti dharma  that is practiced by pious men without any expectation of benefit  etc., and parAyaNam as "parama prINanam" - that which gives the most  happiness to bhagavAn.  BhagavAn is `satya-dharma-parAyaNah'  because  He is most pleased with the practice of the dharma that is practiced  by pious men with no expectation of any benefit, as laid down in the  sAttvika SAstra-s.  All actions by us should be undertaken in the  spirit of "SrI bhagavad Aj~nayA SrIman nArAyaNa prItyartham" -  all  actions we undertake should be in the spirit that these are His  commands (we only should do what is prescribed in the SAstra-s, which  are His commands), and for His pleasure only.

SrI cinmyAnanda points to the definition for dharma
- kartavya,  akartavya vidhreva dharmah -
The rules of do's and don'ts (as per the  SAstra-s) is dharma.

b) SrI Sa'nkara's vyAkhyAnam is: "satye yathAbhUtArtha kathane dharma  ca, codanA lakshaNe niyata iti satya-dharma-parAyaNah" -
He Who is  ever devoted to, and established in, Truth and in righteousness  (i.e., acting according to scriptural injunctions of do's and don'ts).

c) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj explains the nAma as:
satyah samIcIno  dharma AcAro yeshAm te satya dharmANah  | 
teshAm param paramam  ayanam gatih AdhAro vA yah sa satya-dharma-parAyaNah  || -
He Who  provides the support to, and Who shows the path for, those who follow  the superior path of dharma, is satya-dharma-parAyaNah.

d) SrI raghunAtha tIrtha gives the derivation -
satsu bhavah satyah,  sa ca asau dharmaSca satya-dharmah  | 
satya-dharmeshu sAttvika- dharmeshu param tAtparyam
yeshAm te satya-dharma-parAh, yadu, turvaSa  Adi bhkta-janAh  | 
teshAm ayanam Asrayah iti satya-dharma-parAyaNah  | -
"Refuge of devotees such as yadu, turvaSa, etc., who take interest  in discharging virtuous duties". 
He refers us to another related  nAma - sat-parAyaNah, in Slokam 75 (nAma 708).

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to two other nAma-s that are  similar, and that we have studied earlier: 
satya dharma parAkramah -  Slokam 31 - 290; 
satya dharmA - Slokam 56 (nAma 532).

875. abhiprAyah –

a) He Who is the object of choice.
b) He to Whom all beings go (praiti) directly (abhi)  during pralaya.
c) He Who exclusively directs the activities of all  others.

Om abhiprAyAya namah.

`abhiprAya' as is commonly used, means `aim, purpose, intention,  wish, desire' etc.

SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj explains the nAma as: 
abhiprIyate -  kAmayate svajana hito yena iti abhiprAyah -
He Who desires the  welfare of His devotees is `abhiprAyah". 
He derives the meaning from  abhi + prI - tarpaNe kAntau ca - to please, to take delight in.

a) SrI BhaTTar enjoys the nAma as a reference to "One Who is the aim  or object of the devotees".  His interpretation is:
satyadharma  nishThena svacchena nirupAdhika uddeSyatayA abhipretah iti  abhiprAyah
- He is the Highest Goal sought after by His devotees who  are pure by nature, practice the sAttvika dharma, and are not seeking  lower pleasures. 
The niukti author explains - sacchena dharma  nishThena yo abhitah preyate punah
- He Who is decidedly the highest  goal sought after by His devotees who are pure at heart..". 

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan illustrates the spirit of the interpretation with  a reference to AzhvArs' pASuram-s:    
- vizhumiya munivar vizhu'ngum kOdalin kani (periya tirumozhi  2.3.2)
-The delightful fruit with no residual fiber whatsoever, that  is relished by the excellent sages.

- vizhumiya amarar munivar vizhu'ngum kannaR-kani     (tiruvAi.  3.6.7) - He is the sugar block for the  discerning devas and sages.

b) SrI Sa'nkara gives the explanation -
abhipreyate purushArtha  ka'nkshibhih -
He Who is sought after by those who seek the four  purshArtha-s (dharma, artha, kAma and moksha).

Alternatively, he gives the interpretation -
Abhimukhyena pralaye  asmin praiti jagat iti vA abhiprAyah
-He to Whom all beings go  (praiti) directly (abhi) during pralaya, is abhiprAyah.  . 
This  interpretation is based on `abhi', used as a prefix, meaning `to,  towards', and prAya meaning `going away, departing'.

c) SrI raghunAtha tIrtha interprets the nAma in his tattva sAra as -  
`abhi abhitah prakarsheNa prAyah preraNAdikriyA yasya iti  abhiprAyah -
He Who exclusively directs the activities of all others.

876. priyArhah –

a) He Who is rightly the object of love.
b) He Who deserves to be offered our most beloved  offerings.

Om priyArhAya namah.

The roots involved in the nAma are: prI - tarpaNe, kAntau ca - to  please, to take delight in,
and arh - pUjAyAm yogyatve ca - to  worship, to deserve. 
SrI vAsishTha gives two alternate derivations:

- priyam arhati iti priayArhah - He Who deserves love.
- priyeshu arhah = yogyah, priyArhah - He Who is most fitting  among objects of love.

a) SrI BhaTTar comments that bhagavAn is rightly the object of love  from the devotees, since He loves and respects the devotees  intensely.  He is worthy of love from His devotees because of His  attitude towards them - bhagavAn feels that His devotees  are `benevolent' to Him because they have chosen to seek Him for  their needs.  By giving their devotion to Him, bhagvAn feels that His  devotees have benevolently given Him all their belongings:

udArAh sarva evaite j~nAnI tvAtmaiva me matam    |
Asthitah sa hi uktAtmA mAmemAnuttamAm gatim   ||    (gItA  7.18)

"All these devotees are indeed generous (udArAh), but I deem the man  of knowledge to be My very self;  for he, integrated, is devoted to  Me alone as the highest end".   BhagavAn considers that by  worshipping Him and seeking His help, they have already contributed  everything they have to Him, and so He considers them benevolent and  generous.  Such is His respect to His devotees, and so he is  deserving of extreme love from these devotees.

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to nammAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi  7.5.11:

teLivuRRu vIvinRi ninRavarkku inbak kadi Seyyum teLivuRRa kaNNan..

"bhagavAn kaNNan bestows the constant thought of His Divine Feet to  those devotees who surrender to Him with unswerving devotion, but  even after that, He feels that He has not done enough to His  devotee"  (SrI v. n. vedAnta deSikan).  The way that Lord kRshNa felt  about His not having done enough to help draupadi even at time He  returned to SrI vaikunTham, comes to mind.

b) SrI San'kara interprets the term `priya' as a reference to `things  that are dear to oneself', and explains the nAma as signifying that  Lord vishNu deserves to be offered our most precious and beloved  things.  He quotes the vishNu dharmottara in support:

yad-yat ishTa-tamam loke yaccAsya dayitam gRhe    |
tat-tat gRNavate deyam tadeva akshayam icchatA        ||    (mahA. 13.58.7, V.D. 55.3)

"By those that desire the imperishable (Brahman), the most beloved  things in the world and the choicest things in the house should be  offered to a meritorious person".  (This will become a choice  offering to God).

In elaboration of the above, SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers to a  mantra from bRhadAraNyaka Upanishad -
Atmanastu kAmAya sarvam priyam  bhavati",
and notes that of all the things that are dear to one, the  self is the dearest. 
This would support the great concept of Atma- samarpaNam or prapatti that is dear to SrI vaishNavas in particular.

Another anubhavam is provided by SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj - priyANi  srak-candanAdIni arhati iti priyArhah - He Who deserves to be  worshipped with a wreath or garland of flowers, sandal, etc.

SrI vAsishTha refers to the yajur vedic mantra in support: 
priyANAm  tvA priyapatim havAmahe    |  (yajur. 23.19)

877. arhah - The fitting Lord to be worshipped.

Om arhAya namah.

Arhyate - prAptum yujyata iti arhah -
He Who is fit to be attained. 

SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is -
"ananya-spRhANAm teshAmapi ayameva  yogya iti arhah -
He is the right Deity to be sought after by devotees  who have no other desire in life (other than moksha). 
SrI BhaTTar  refers us to Lord kRshNa's words in the gItA:

Asthitah sa hi yuktAtmA mAmeva anuttamAm gatim   |    (gItA  7.18)

SrI Sa'nkara explains the nAma as referring to "One Who is deserving  of worship" -
svAgata Asana, praSamsA, arghya, pAdya, stuti namaskAra  Adibhih pUjA sAdhanaih pUjanIya iti arhah -
"He should be worshipped  by such things as words of welcome, offering of a seat, praise,  arghya or offering of water, milk, etc., pAdya or water for washing  His Feet, glorification, prostrations, etc.  One is reminded of the  SrI vaishNava ArAdhanam for perumAl in the form of sAlagrAma in the  houses.  

SrI vAsishTha very nicely captures the spirit of the nAma in the  following words: 

sarvAntargatAn sarvAn bhogAn vihAya,
SreyorthinAm vidushAm sarva prakAraih sAdhanaih,
sopakaraNaih pUjA vidhAnaih,
sarva karmArpaNena nishkAma karmabhiSca sa eva prAptum
yogya iti arthah. 

"Giving up interest in all external pleasures, and desiring only the  ultimate bliss, the learned direct all their efforts , spiritual  practices, different ways of worship, and all the resultant benefits  from these actions, to that One bhagavAn - vishNu, and therefore He  is arhah - Fit to be worshipped".    The point to note is that He is  fit to be sought by those who have no interest in anything else.

He points out that there are several instances where the  term `arhate' occurs in the veda-s, and gives just one example:

imam stomam arhate jAtavedase rathamiva sam mahemA  manIshayA   |
bhadrA hi nah pramatirasya samsadyagne sakhye mA rishAmA  vayam tava  || (Rg. 1.94.1)

SrI vAsishTha notes that we are all arha-s (fit) in some sense or the other only because He reflects His arhattvam in all of us in some  tiny measure. 

SrI raghunAtha tIrtha uses a different pATham from the others by treating the nAma as "arhapriya-kRt" -
He Who bestows affection and  blessings on the devotees who are deserving -
arhebhyah -yogyebhyah bhaktebhyah,
priyam karoti - rakshaNAdi karoti iti arhapriya-kRt.

878. priya-kRt –

He Who does what is wanted by others.

om priya-kRte namah.

SrI BhaTTar's interpretation for the nAma is that bhagavAn does fulfill the wishes of those who desire other, lesser, pleasures from Him as well (that is, in addition to bestowing moksha), as long as  they are His devotees.   He does not look at their deficiencies, but only considers the fact that they are His devotees.  SrI v.v.  rAmAnujan refers us to divya prabandham -

"un aDiyArkku en Seyvan enrE irutti nI". 

This way, He pleases them and thereby converts them over time to be solely interested in attaining Him –

anya parAnapi bhajatah tac- chandAnuvartanena priyAn karoti iti priya-kRt. 

SrI Sa'nkara notes that He is not only worthy of being pleased   priyArhah  – (see nAma 876), but He is also One Who pleases His  devotees  priya-kRt   by fulfilling the desires of those who  worship Him by means of hymns, etc.  -  

na kevalam priyArha eva,  kim tu stutyAdibhih bhajatAm priyam karoti it priya-kRt   .

SrI vAsishTha observes that when vedic mantra-s are invoked in  offerings, such as the following, bhagavAn is pleased and bestows the  desired benefits on the devotee, and so He is called priya-kRt:

vashaT te vishNavAsa akRNomi tan me jushasva SipivishTa  havyam   ||
vardhantu tvA sushTutayo giro me yUyam pAta vastibhih sadA  nah   ||   (Rg. 7.99.7)

(May these my songs of eulogy exalt thee. Preserve us ever more with  blessings).

agne naya supathA rAye asmAn viSvAni deva vayunAni vidvAn   |
yuyodhyasmad-juhurANameno bhUyishThAm te nama uktim  vidhema    ||   (Rg. 1.189.1)

(By goodly paths, lead us to riches.  Remove the sins that make us  stray and wander;  We will bring the most ample adoration to you).

tat savitur vareNyam bhargo devasya dImahi   |
dhiyo yo nah pracodayAt                  (Rg. 3.62.10)    

(We meditate on the adorable effulgence of the Lord who creates  everything, so that it may energize our consciousness).

SrI raghunAtha tIrtha uses the nAma as `arha-priya-kRt', and gives  the interpretation as
"One Who bestows protection and affection to  the deserving devotees". 

879. prIti-vardhanah-

a) Who increases the joy of His devotees.
b) He Who fulfills the love of His devotees.

Om prIti-vardhanAya namah.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha notes that the word `vardhanah' can be  derived from either of the two roots -
vRd - vRddhau - to grow, or  vardh - pUraNa - to fill. 
The two different meanings could then be:  
a) He Who grows the love of the devotees towards Him, or
b) He Who  fulfills the love of the devotee. 

a) SrI BhaTTar comments that by manifesting His qualities more and  more, He increases the joy of His devotees, and so He called prIti- vardhanah.  He quotes the gItA in support:

teshAm satata yuktAnAm bhajatAm prIti pUrvakam   |
dadAmi buddhi yogam tam yena mAm upayAnti te    ||   (gItA  10.10)    

"To those who are constantly united with Me and who worship Me with  immense love,
I lovingly grant that mental disposition (buddhi yoga)  by which they attain Me".

tirumazhaippirAn refers to emperumAn as "bhakti uzhavan" - He who  cultivates bhakti in the devotees like a peasant. 

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan also refers us to bhagavd rAmAnuja's introductory  section for his gItA bhAshya, where he says of bhagavAn  kRshNa: 

"niratiSaya saundarya sauSIlyAdi guNa gaNa AvishkareNa  akrUra mAlAkArAdIn parama bhAgavatAn kRtvA." -
"He Who made akrUra,  mAlakAra, and others His most ardent devotees
by the manifestation of  His unsurpassed qualities such as beauty and loving compassion".   
This is what the nAma "prIti-vardhanah" refers to. 

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan also refers us to nAmmAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi  pASuram 1.10.10,
where AzhvAr recounts that bhagavAn has lodged  Himself into namAzhvAr's heart with the beauty of His lotus eyes,  
lest AzhvAr may forget Him accidentally:

maRakkum enRu Sen-tAmaraik kaNNoDu maRappaRa ennuLLE manninAn tannai .   (tiruvAi. 1.10.10)    

SrI cinmayAnanda's explanation is: 
"The sense of drunken joy that  arises in one's bosom when one loves deeply and truly is called  prIti.” 
"One Who increases the prIti in the devotee's heart is SrI  nArAyaNa. 
The more He is contemplated upon, the more His glories are  appreciated, the more our prIti in Him increases".

SrI satya sandha tIrtha's explanation for the nAma is: 
”prItim  bhakteshu vardhayati prItyA bhaktAn vardhayati iti vA prIti- vardhanah" -
He Who grows the love in the devotees, or He Who grows  the devotees through love, is prIti-vardhanah.

b) Using the root vardh - chedana pUraNayoH - to cut,. to fill, SrI  vAsishTha gives an alternate interpretation also -
prItim vardhayati  =  pUrayati it prIti-vardhanah - He Who fulfills the love of the  devotees.

 -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan