Audio

Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam - SLOKA 94



vihAyasa-gatir_jyotir_su-rucir_huta-bhug-vibhuh   |
ravir_iorocanah sUryah savitA ravi-locanah   ||

om vihAyasa-gataye namah
om jyotishe namah
om su-rucaye namah
om huta-bhug-vibhave namah
om ravaye namah
om virocanAya namah
om sUryAya namah
om savitre namah
om ravi-locanAya namah

SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma-s of this Sloka and the beginning  nAma-s of the next Sloka
in terms the different steps that the mukta  jIva takes in reaching Brahman. 
These steps are described  differently in different upanishad-s . 

chAndogya Upanishad lists  seven steps -
arcis -agni, ahaH -day, Sukala paksha, uttrAyana,  samvatsara - year, Aditya - ravi, candra - moon, vidyut - lightning.   

The kaushItaki Upanishad lists six steps -
agni loka, vAyu loka,  varuNa loka, Aditya loka, indra loka, and prajApati loka. 

The  bRhadAraNyaka Upanishad lists the following -
arcis, ahah, Sukla  paksha, uttarAyaNa, deva loka, Aditya, and vaidyuta. 

The relevant  references are:
chAndogya upanishad 4.15.5, 4.15.6,  5.10.1 and  5.10.2,
kaushItaki upanishad 1.21,
bRhadAraNyaka Upanishad 8.2.15,  7.10.1. 

The chAndogya Upanishad mantra-s are given below:

tadya ittham viduH; ye ceme'raNye SraddhA tapa itupAsate - te'rcisham
abhisambhavanti, arcisho'haH, ahna ApUryamANa paksham, ApUryamANa
pakshAt yAn shaDuda'n'neti mAsAnstAn   ||   (chAnd. 5.10.1)  

"Those who know the nature of the five fires - pancAgni thus,
and  those who practice in the forest meditating upon Brahman with faith,  will unite with agni. 
From agni to the deity of the day and from  there to the deity of the bright half of the month
and thereon he  comes upon the deity of the half year while the sun moves towards the  north."

mAsebhyah samvatsaram samvatsarAt Adityam,AdityAt candramasam,
candramaso vidyutam  |  tat-purusho amAnavaH |  sa enAn brahma
gamayati esha deva patho brahma pathah etena pratipadyamAnA imam
mAnavam Avartam nAvartante nAvartante || (chAn. 5.10.2) 

"From that half year he reaches the year - samvatsara.  From  samvatsara he comes to the sun. 
From the sun to the moon, from the  moon to vidyut, and from there that amAnava, super human, takes him  to parabrahman. 
This is known as the path of the gods or the path to  Brahman.  Those who go by this path never again return to this world  of samsAra".

The other upanishadic passages are not given here, but these are  discussed in detail in bhagavad rAmAnuja's SrI bhAshya (sUtra 4.3.1).

Bhagavad rAmAnuja points out that all the paths described in the  three Upanishad-s refer to the same arcirAdi mArga with the same  steps,
and that consistency is to obtained by consolidating the  details from the different descriptions,
since they all list the same  path in the final analysis, but do not list all the steps. 
Thus, we  end up with the arcirAdi mArga with the following twelve steps:

1.  arcis or agni,
2.  ahas or day,
3.  pUrva paksha or Sukla paksha,
4.  uttarAyaNa,  
5.  samvatsara or year,
6.  vAyu,
7.  Aditya,
8.  candra,
9.  vaidyuta,
10 varuNa,
11 indra and  
12 prajApati. 

The sequence of these steps and their relative arrangements is not  arbitrary in any sense, but is based  on intense analysis of the  different upaniahad-s, and coming up with a sequence that is  consistent between the different upanishadic declarations.  A  detailed discussion of the sequencing is given in bhagavad rAmAnuja  SrI bhAshyam - brahma sUtra 4.3.2.  These twelve are the deities that  are established by bhagavAn to lead the mukta in his ascent to  paramapadam from this world.  They are also called AtivAhika-s  or `those that lead the way'. 

The mapping between the different nAma-s by SrI BhaTTar, and the  different steps of arcirAdi mArga as outlined in the upanishads, is  given below:

vihAyasa gatiH - The summary statement that He is the One who leads the mukta jIva to Himself.
jyotiH - agni
suruciH - deity of the day
huta-bhug-vibhuH - deity of the bright half of the month
raviH - the deity of the half year while the sun moves towards the north
virocanaH - the year, samvatsara
sUrya - vAyu
savitA - the sun
ravi-locanaH - a reference to the moon, the lightning, and varuNa
ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA - indra loka, and prajApati loka

It is an entirely delightful experience to delve into nammAzhvAr's  description of the ascent of the jIva to SrI vaikunTham in his  pASurams, and their interpretations by our AcArya-s in particular.   We get a different dimension of the function of these AtivAhika-s as  the mukta jIva is received and led on his way to bhagavAn.   BhagavAn's deep love for his devotee who is arriving, is expressed by  AzhvAr in his delightful devotional outpouring. 

Here, vaidyuta comes  first, and announces with joy the arrival of the mukta to the rest of  the AtivAhika-s with his thunder (Suzh viSumbaNi mugil tUriyam  muzhakkina - tiruvAi. 10.9.1).  VaruNa fills the sky with water-laden  clouds, as if with golden pots - pUraNa pork-kuDam (10.9.2).  The  oceans are dancing with joy with their rising and falling waves  constantly - neer aNi kadalgaL ninRu Arttana.  Not just the 12  AtivAhika-s listed above, but everyone in the AtivAhika lokam come  out and stand in line and offer their obeisance to the arriving  mukta, including the usually meditating and silent sages (10.9.3).   

BhagavAn is decorating Himself with tulasi garlands, and is waiting  along with pirATTi to receive His long-lost devotee (10.9.4).  The  deva-s in all the worlds on the way of the mukta jIva are setting up  delightfully decorated huts for the temporary stay of the mukta jIva  to take rest on the way.  VaruNa, indra, and prajApati are eagerly  waiting at the entrance to their regions to welcome and receive the  mukta, with a request to the mukta to bless them by passing through  their regions - emadu iDam puguduga (10.9.5).  The likes of sanaka,  nArada, etc., are chanting veda-s with great delight to welcome the  mukta jIva. 

A big festive atmosphere is prevalent everywhere on the  way.  High-sounding musical instruments are being played all the way  along.  As the mukta jIva nears the limits of parama padam, the nitya  sUri-s, who are supreme in their Seshattvam, welcome the mukta to  their world (10.9.8).  Even the Lord is shining brilliantly in  anticipation of this special occasion. 

The nitya sUri-s are  rejoicing that at last a jIva has realized his Permanent Abode, and  is joining them, and consider it their good fortune that this  incident is taking place.  They all welcome the mukta by offering  pAdya upacAra (washing his feet) at each house as the mukta passes  along (pAda'ngaL kazhuvinar - 10.9.10).  It is thus that bhagavAn and  pirATTi look forward to their long-lost child, and welcome the mukta  to SrI vaikunTham.

880. vihAyasa-gatih –

a) He Who is the means for the attainment of paramapadam.
b) He Who travels in the form of the Sun.
c) He Who travels in space through His vehicle garuDa- the King of birds.
d) He Who is attained by tapasvin-s through their tapas (hA - tyAge - to abandon).

Om vihAyasa-gataye namah.

SrI vAsishTha derives the nAma starting with vi as an upasarga,  the  root hA - gatau - to, to get, to attain; or hA - tyAge - to abandon,  and adding the `asun' pratyaya according to  a related uNAdi sUtra.   gati means "that which is attained'.  That through which one travels  is vihAyasa, meaning space.  vihAyasa also can refer to those who  sacrifice, or those sAttvik people who perform tapas etc.  Thus,  vihAyasa-gatih can mean "One Who travels in space", or "One Who is  attained by those who follow the sAttvik path".  The amara koSa gives  the meanings "sky", "bird", Lord's vishNus' Abode, etc., for the word  vihAyasa - viyad vishNupadam vihAyasI. 

a) SrI BhaTTar uses the last of these, and gives the interpretation -  tathA nirUDha bhakti parakoTibhih vihAyasam = parama vyoma padameva  gamyate asmAt iti vihAyasa-gatih -    He is called vihAyasa-gatih  since it is through Him and because of Him that those devotees who  have reached the highest stage of bhakti attain the supreme abode,  namely paramapadam.

He quotes from the vishNu purANa in support:

bhunktvA ca vipulAn bhogAn tam ante mat-prasadAdajam     |
mamAnusmaraNam prApya divyam lokam avApsyasi            ||  (V.P. 5.19.26)

"Having enjoyed the worldly pleasures in abundance by My grace, you
will remember Me at the last moment of life,  and will attain the
divine world of parama padam". 

He also quotes brahma sUtra 4.2.16 in support:

tadokah agra-jvalanam tat-prakASita-dvAro vidyA-sAmarthyAt tac-
cheshagatyanusmRti yogAcca hArdAnugRhItah SatAdhiikayA   |

"Because of the efficacy of the bhakti yoga that has been practiced  by the devotee and because of the constant meditation on the path  that leads to the Supreme Abode of the Lord" - the devotee is able to  see the opening by which he has to go when he leaves the body, and  when the soul leaves the body through the mUrdhanya nADi or the  sushumnA nADi, it leads him to the Supreme Abode of the Lord.

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to divya prabandham, where AzhvAr refers  to bhagavAn letting His devotee enjoy the pleasures of this world,  and then takes them to His world in the end:

"i'ngu ozhindu bhOgam nee eidip pinnum nam iDaikkE pOduvAi". (periya tiru. 5.8.5)

nammAzhvAr refers to bhagavAn as "vAneRa vazhi tanda vATTARRAn"
(tiruvAi. 10.6.5), and "maN ulagil vaLam mikka vATTARRAn vandu inRu
viN ulagam taruvAnAi viRaiginRAn" (tiruvAi. 10.6.3). 

b)SrI Sa'nkara uses the meaning `abode' for the term `gati', and  gives the explanation for the nAma as: "One Who has His abode in the  firmament - referring to either Lord vishNu or His form as the Sun" -  vihAyasah - vihAyAsam gatih ASrayah asya iti vihAyasa gatih, vishNu  padam, Adityo vA". 

SrI cinmayAnanda refers to the nAma of bhagavan - sUrya nArAyaNa, in  this context.  SrI satya devo vAsishTha also gives an interpretation  that the nAma refers to bhagavAn in the form of the Sun - vihAyase  antarikshe gatih gamanam yasya sa vihAyasa-gatih - sUryah.

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri takes the term vihAyasa as a reference to the  sky, and observes that bhagavAn is called vihAyasa gatih because He  has the sky as His path - unobstructed, unsupported, vast, limitless -  in the form of the Sun.  He comments that bhagavAn manifests in the  form of the Sun as one reflection of His immense love for His  creation - priya-kRt, prIti-vardhanah etc.  He will look at the next  10 nAma-s as describing bhagavAn in the forms of various aspects of  the Sun.

c) SrI kRshNa data bhAradvAj uses the dual meaning "sky" and `bird"  for the word vihAyasa", and  interprets the nAma as "One Who travels  in space by means of the king of birds - garuDa, as His vAhana -  vihAyase - vyomni vihAyah patinA gatih yasya iti vihAyasa-gatih.

SrI satya sandha tIrtha also gives the explanation in terms of  bhagavAn's garuDa vAhana - vihAyaso -garuDah, tena tena gatih yasya  sa vihAyasa-gatih.

d) An alternate interpretation provided by SrI vAsishTha uses the  meaning `tapasvin' for the term `vihAyasa' (see first paragraph for  this nAma;  hA - tyAge - to abandon):  "He Who is attained by the  tapasvin-s through their tapas" - vihAyasaih tapasvibhih, abhigamyate  prApyata iti vihAyasagatih vishNuh. 

881. jyotih –

a) The Light that leads to SrI vaikunTham.
b) The Light that is self-luminous.
c) The Light that illuminates the Sun, the moon etc.

Om jyotishe namah.

Starting from this nAma, SrI BhaTTar interprets the next few nAma-s  as a description of the different steps involved in the arcirAdi  mArga, the path taken by the mukta-s in their way to paramapadam. The root from which the nAma is derived is dyuta - dIptau - to  shine.  The uNAdi sUtra - dyuter-isin AdeSca jah (uNAdi. 2.110)  results in the word jyotih starting from the root duyta.  dyotyate  asmAt iti jyotih - He by Whom things are illumined, is jyotih.  

a) SrI BhaTTar interprets this nAma as the first step in the ascent  of the jIva-s to parama padam.  This step is also called arcih.   
arcih refers to the first deity that escorts the mukta jIva to the  Supreme Abode. 

SrI BhaTTar refers to chAndogya Upanishad (5.10.1) and to the brahma  sUtra-s for the above details:
te arcisham abhisambhavanti (chAn. 5.10.1) -
"They unite with agni;  from agni to the deity of the day, and from there to the bright half  of the month”.
Sri ananta ra'ngAcArya translates arcih as a  reference to agni).

brahma sUtra 4.3.1 - arcirAdinA tat-pratitheh  |  -
"Along the path  beginning with light, this is well-known" -
The mukta-s (Released  souls) are led along the stages beginning with arci (light), and this  is well-known from the upanishadic texts.

brahma sUtra 4.3.4 - AtivAhikAh tal-li'ngAt | 
"They are persons  deputed to take the meditators to Brahman, because there is  indication of this" -
arcih and the other deities are known as  AtivAhika (Escorting Angels) because of the nature of their duty  which is to lead the mukta-s to the Supreme Abode.   

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives reference to the gItA (Sloka-s 8.24 to  8.27), where the path taken by the knowers of Brahman to reach  Brahman is described.   
agni jyotir-ahah Suklah shaNmAsA uttarAyaNam   |
tatra prayAtA gacchanti brahma brahmavido janAh    ||   (gItA 8.24)

"Light in the form of fire, the day, the bright fortnight, the six  months of the northern course of the Sun - the knowers of Brahman who  take this path go to Brahman."

By contrast, those who reach svarga (a temporary abode where the jIva  enjoys the benefits of his good karma and then is reborn in this  world) take the dhUmAdi mArga (Slokam 8.25) - smoke etc., and those  who are headed for narakam take the yAmaya mArga according to the  SAstra-s.   

In divya prabandham also we have the description of the path taken by  the knowers of Brahman.   SrI rAmAnujan gives reference to  nammAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi 10.9 (SUzh viSumbaNi), where the ten  pASuram-s describe in detail the welcome that is offered to the mukta  jIvan on his way to SrI vaikunTham.   

SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives an interpretation similar to that of  SrI BhaTTar: 
"dyotate sushumnayA nirgatah tad-bhaktah arcih prApya  yasmAt sa jyotih" -
He Who is the guiding light for those devotees  whose souls leave the body through the sushumnA nADi, is jyotih.   

b) SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation that the nAma signifies that  bhagavAn is "One Who shines of His own accord".  He quotes the mahA  nArAyaNa upanishad in support - nArAyaNa paro jyotir-AtmA nArAyanah  parah. 

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives additional support from  bRhadAraNyaka upanishad -
atra ayam purushah svayam jyotih (bRhadA.  4.3.9). 

SrI T. S. Krishnamoorthy translates Sri Sa'nkara's  commentary as:  "One Who is the light of self-luminous consciousness -  He Who reveals Himself (without external aid), as well as other  things - is jyotih".

SrI cinmayAnanda refers us to the gItA:  jyotishAmapi tad-jyotih -  (gItA 13.18) - The Light of all lights.    SrI cinmayAnanda  also  gives support from muNDakpanishad:

tameva bhAntam anubhAti sarvam tasya bhAsA sarvam idam vibhAti    (muNDa. 2.2.10)

"Everything shines following Him alone as He shines.  All this shines  by His light".   

SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj explains the nAma as: 
dyotate dIpyati  kAntyA iti jyotih - He Who enlightens through His kAnti is jyotih.

c) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha observes that the Sun and Fire are both  referred to as jyoti in the vedic terminology,
and since bhagavAn is  the One who illumines these, He is appropriately jyotih:

agnir-jyotir-jyotir-agnih svAhA      |
sUryo jyotir-jyotih sUryah svAhA  ||    (yajur. 3.9)

882. su-rucih –

a) He of lovely effulgence - The Day time.
b) One Who has the good desire or Will to protect the world.
c) He Who is the cause of all the effulgence in everything.
d) He Who has intense attachment to His devotees.

Om su-rucaye enamah.

The root from which the nAma is derived is:
ruc - diPtAvabhiprItau - to shine, to look beautiful, to be pleased with. 
SrI vAsishTha gives  the derivation:
sushThu rocata iti su-rucih - He Who shines  beautifully and well is `su-rucih'.  

a) SrI BhaTTar continues his interpretation as a continuation of the  previous nAma,
and interprets the current nAma as a reference to "Day  time", which is the second step in the ascent of the mukta to SrI  vaikunTham. 
He derives the interpretation as follows: 
sUryodayAt  rocate iti rucih, sA asya SobhanA iti su-rucih -
The rising of the  Sun is pleasing because of its effulgence. 
Since He is the cause of  that beauty, He is called su-rucih. 

SrI BhaTTar quotes the Sruti - arcisho-ahah - (chAndog. 5.10.1) -  
After agni to the deity of the day.., where the path to Brahman is  described.

SrI baladeva vidyAbhUshaN gives an interpretation that associates the  nAma su-rucih to the daytime, similar to SrI BhaTTar. 
His vyAkhyAnam  is:  Sobhano rucih = divasah yasmAt sa su-rucih -
He by Whose Grace  we have a pleasant day time is su-rucih. 

b) SrI Sa'nkara explains the nAma as: 
"One Whose effulgence is  beautiful, auspicious and attractive", or,
"One Whose Will is  beautiful, auspicious and attractive". 

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri uses  the meaning `taste' for the word' ruci',
and gives the explanation  for the nAma as "One who has good desire or taste to protect the  world". 

c) SrI vAsishTha explains the nAma as a reference to bhagavAn being  the cause of anything that is effulgent.

SrI cinamyAnanda uses the meanings "Glory" or "Desire" for the  term `ruci', and gives the meanings: 
"He of auspicious Glory or He  of auspicious desire",
both referring to this world being an  expression of His Will or Desire. 

d) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj explains the nAma as -
SobhanA su-rucih  = abishva'ngaH anurAgaH yasmin bhaktAnAm iti su-rucih -
He Who is  intensely attached to His devotees, is su-rucih. 
He quotes the amara  koSa in support -
abhishva'nge spRhAyAm ca gabhastau ca rucih  striyAm - 3.3.29, giving the meaning
"abishva'ngaH = intense  attachment, affection" to the word ruciH.

883. huta-bhug-vibhuh –

He that is the Bright Fortnight of the Moon.

Om huta-bhug-vibhave namah.

The term hutam is formed from the root hu - dAnAdanayoH - to offer,  to perform a sacrifice, to eat.  `bhuk' is formed from the root bhuj -  pAlana, abhyavahArayoH - to protect, to consume.  One who consumes  the offering is huta-bhuk - hutam bhu'ngte = huta-bhuk.  The term  vibhuH is defined by SrI vAsishTha as:  vi  is an upasarga or prefix,  meaning vividha;  the root bhU - sattAyAm - to be, to exist.  vividho  bhavati it vibhuH - That which manifests itself in different ways. 

SrI BhaTTar interprets the term hutag-bhuk to refer to the moon -  hutam bhu'njAnah - somah, and the term vibhuH is given the  meaning "One who grows and becomes full - pUrNo bhavati).   In other  words, the term huta-bhug-vibhuh is interpreted as a reference to the  waxing moon - one that has consumed (bhuk) the offerings (huta) made  to it, and has become full (vibhuh - pUrNo bhavati).  The nirukti  author summarizes Sri BhaTTar's interpretation as follows:

hutam sudhA pariNatam bhu'njAnaS-candramAs-tathA    |
vibhuh pUrNo bhavet yasmin sa vai syAt huta-bhug-vibhuh   ||

This is the third step in the arcirAdi mArga.  Again, reference is  made to the chAndogya Upanishad 5.10.1 in support - arcishaH ahaH  ahna ApUryamANa paksham.   "From agni to the deity of the day and  from there to the deity of the bright half of the month...

SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN's vyAkhyAnam for the current group of nAma- s continues to parallel that of SrI BhaTTar.  He interprets the nAma  huta-bhug-vibhuh as a reference to  the waxing period of the moon,  the Sukla paksha, similar to SrI BhaTTar.  His explanation is:  huta- bhuk = candraH, vibhuH = pUrNaH, yatra sa huta-bhug-vibhuH Sukla  pakshaH..  He because of Whom His devotees have all their darkness  removed just like Sukla paksha is called `huta-bhug-vibhuh'.  (The  translator of SrI vidyA bhUshaN's vyAkhyAnam in Hindi says - "jinkI  kRpA se bhakton kA nitya Sukla paksha hai, arthAt unke sarva andhakAr  dUr ho jAtA hai  |"). 

SrI Sa'nkara treats "huta-bhuk-vibhuh" as containing two nAma-s:   huta-bhuk, and vibhuH.  The dvaita AcArya, SrI satya sandha tIrtha,  and  SrI satya devo vAsishTha also follow the same system. With this  pATham, the nAma huta-bhuk re-occurs in Slokam 95 in the pATha-s of  both above vyAkhyAnaa-kartA-s  (In SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam, the nAma  is treated as ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA in Slokam 95, as we will see  later).

huta-bhuk

i)  He Who is the Consumer of oblations in homa-s etc.
ii) The Protector of the sacrifices.

om huta-bhuje namah:

i) The interpretation given by SrI Sa'nkara for the instance of the  nAma in the current Slokam is:  "He Who is the Consumer of the  oblations".  SrI Sa'nkara's words are:  samasta devatoddeSena  pravRtteshvapi karmasu hutam bhu'nkte bhunakti it vA huta-bhuk -  "Though offered to different gods in sacrifices, He is the real  Enjoyer, or He protects the offerings". 

ii) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 95, Sri Sa'nkara gives the  interpretation - hutam bhunakti it buta-bhuk - He Who protects the  sacrifice. 

SrI vAsishTha explains that hutam refers to the offerings in the fire  during homa etc., accompanied by the associated mantra-s:  hutamiti  agnau prakshiptam sa-mantram.  He refers us to the seven tongues of  fire that we have described earlier, under the nAma sapta-jihvaH:   sapta te agne samidhaH sapta jihvAH (yajur. 17.79).  He further adds  that its is this `huta-bhuk' guNa of bhagavAn that is reflected in,  and is responsible for, our being able to consume the offerings in  the form of food to our body.  Associated with the prANa vAyu that we  inhale and the fire that is in our body, this food or offering  gets `consumed'. 

vibhuh –

i) He Who is present everywhere, or Her Who is the Lord of all the worlds.
ii) He because of Whom al the beings of this universe become distinguished.
iii) He Who manifest Himself in different forms.

om vibhave namah:

SrI Sa'nkara's interpretation is:  sarvatra vartamAnatvAt trayANam  lokAnAm vibhutvAt vA vibhuH - Because He is everywhere, or because He  is the Lord of all the three worlds, He is called vibhuH. 

SrI  cinmayAnanda translates the nAma as "All-Pervading" - Lord nArAyaNa,  the Self, is unconditioned by time or space, for He is Eternal, the  Omnipresent.  He is All-pervading as He is unlimited by any  conditionings.

ii) SrI satya sandha tIrtha gives the interpretation - viSishTA  bhavanti asmAt it vibhuh - Since beings become distinguished and  distinct because of Him, the Lord is called vibhuh.

iii) SrI satyadevo vAsishTha interprets the nAma as: vividho bhavati  iti vibhuh - He Who manifests Himself in many forms is vibhuH.

884. raviH –

a) The Sun in his uttarAyaNa or Summer solstice.
b) He Who is responsible for the ability of all cetana-s and acetana-s to make sound.
c) He Who is praised by His devotees.

Om ravaye namaH.

a) SrI BhaTTar uses the root ru - Sabde - to sound, and interprets  the nAma as as rUyate - praSasyati iti ravih - One Who is praised.    In his mapping of the nAma-s of this Sloka with the different steps  in the arcirAdi mArga, SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma as "One Who is  praised as the uttarAyaNa, or the Summer solstice" - the period in  which the Sun begins his movement towards the north.  uttarAyaNa is  the fourth step in the arcirAdi mArga (see the detailed introduction  at the beginning this Slokam).

SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives an interpretation similar to that of  SrI BhaTTar.  He derives the nAma from the root ru - gatireshaNayoH -  to go, to hurt, and gives the explanation for the nAma as -
ravate  gacchati uttarAyaNena yasmAt sa raviH; 
yad-anukampayA uttarAyeNa  yAti iti arthaH. 
The translator in hindi gives the meaning as -  
JinkI kRpA se sUrya uttarAyaNa mem gaman kartA hai  | -
He by Whose  Grace the sun is able to traverse the uttarAyaNa mArga, is raviH. 

SrI Sa'nkara explains the nAma as a reference to the Sun - Aditya  AtmA - The driving force behind the sun.  `rasAn Adatta iti raviH' -   The Sun has the name ravi because he absorbs all the rasas or fluids  from all objects.  SrI Sa'nkara quotes the vishNu dharmottara 1.30.16  in support of his interpretation -  rasAnAm ca tathA AdAnAt ravih iti  abhidhIyata. 

SrI ananta kRshNa SAstry refers to bhagavad gItA 10.21:

AdityAnAm aham vishNuH jyotishAm ravir-amSumAn   |   (gItA  10.21)

"Of Aditya-s I am vishNu, of luminous bodies I am the radiant Sun".

b) SrI vAsishTha derives the nAma from the root ru - Sabde - to cry,  to yell, to sound as bees; The application of the uNAdi sUtra 4.139 -  "aca iH" leads to the word raviH - the Sun.  SrI vAsisTha indicates  that the affix `i' adds the sense of "one who does", "one who causes  others to do" - kartari karaNe vA.  So in his interpretation, the  term raviH means "One who causes sound", or "One who enables others  to make sound", and indicates that it is because of Him that the  beings are able to create sound, and so He is called raviH. 

c) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj explains the nAma as -
rUyate stUyate  bhakta janaih iti raviH -
He Who is praised by His devotees is raviH.

885. virocanaH –

a) The Illuminant (the year).
b) He of various splendors - such as Sun, moon, day, night, etc.
c) He Who shines in the minds of His devotees in various special ways.
d) He Who gave special sight (divya cakshus) to arjuna, sa'njaya etc. (vi-locanaH).

om virocanAya namaH.

The root from which the nAma is derived is `ruc' - dIptAvabhiprItau -  to shine, to look beautiful, to be pleased with.  vi- is an upasarga  or prefix.  The pratyaya which leads to the word rocana from ruc,  (the pratyaya yuc, which becomes ana), has the sense of "one who has  a habit of", according to SrI vAsishTha, who gives pANini sUtra  3.2.149 - anudAttettah ca halAdeh - in support.  Thus, virocate  tacchIlo virocanaH - He Who has the habit of, or for whom it is part  of His nature, to shine and to look beautiful.  He Who is naturally  shining, and Who enlightens this Universe, is virocanaH.

a) SrI BhaTTar explains the nAma as "dvAbhyAm ayana-gatibhyAm  samvatsaro rathena virocayati iti virocanaH" -  He is the year that  illuminates the Sun when he rides his chariot through the two ayana-s  or the two periods of six months each (the uttarAyaNa and the  dakshiNAyana - the summer solstice and the winter solstice).  This is  the fifth step in the arcirAdi mArga (see the detailed introduction  at the beginning of this Sloka).   SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN  continues to parallel the interpretation of SrI BhaTTar - virocayati  samvatsareNa gacchantam svopAsam abhiprautam dIpra'nca karoti it  virocanaH - He Who makes the Sun shine as he travels through the  samvatsara or through the year. 

b) SrI Sa'nkara explains the nAma as "vividham rocata iti vi-rocanaH -  He of various splendors.  One translator gives the example of His  shining in forms such as the Sun, the moon, etc. ; another refers to  His shining as the day, night, twilight, etc.;  SrI rAdhAkRshNa  SAstri points to His providing various types of rays to assist in the  growth of the plants etc.

c) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj points to His shining in special ways  in the minds of His devotees - viSesheNa rocate bhaktebhya iti  virocanaH.  He quotes the yajur vedic mantra - namo rucAya brAhmaye  (yajur. 31.20).   SrI cinmayAnanda notes:  "Whatever form the devotee  chooses to contemplate upon Him, the Lord manifests in that very Form  for the sake and joy of the devotee".

SrI vAsishTha refers us to a few mantra-s where the nAma virocana  occurs in the Sruti:

   - tasyA virocanaH prAhlAdir-vatsa AsId-ayaspAtram pAtram   |    (atharva. 9.10.2)        -
Sriye sudRSIruparasya yAh svar-virocamAnaH kakubhAmacodate   |   (Rg. 5.44.2)

- ayam punAta ushaso virocayat  (  (Rg. 9.86.21)

d) SrI satya sandha tIrtha gives an alternate pATham -vi-locanah -  One Who gave the special sight to arjuna, to sa'njaya etc. - divyam  locanam pArthasya yasmAt sa vi-locanaH.  He supports his  interpretation with a reference to the gItA - divyam dadAmi te  cakshuH (gItA 11.8).

886. sUryah –

a) The source of movement in the form of wind.
b) He Who brings forth everything, or He Who brings  forth wealth.
c) One who generates SrI or brilliance in sUrya or  agni (sacred fire).  
d) He because of Whom we get enlightenment.

Om sUryAya namah.

SrI vAsishTha derives the nAma from the root sR - gatau - to go, or  sU - preraNe - to excite, to impel. 
The pANini sUtra 3.1.114 - rAja  sUya sUrya ..leads to the word sUryah by the addition of the kvip  pratyaya. 
The meaning is "That which moves", or "That which impels  all beings to action" -
sarati gacchati  iti sUryah, or suvati  karmaNi prerayati lokAn iti sUryah.  

SrI cinmayAnanda notes: 
"The term etymologically means the One  Source from which all things have been borne out, or out of which  they have been delivered.  The Lord as the First Cause is the Womb of  the Universe".  The term is commonly used to refer to the Sun,  because on the surface of the world it is the Sun that nurtures and  nourishes all living creatures. 

a) SrI BhaTTar interprets the root sR with the meaning `to move'.  He  notes that the kRt affix (kvip in the present case) has got wide  application, and the meaning of the affix is not restricted.  Thus,  the word sUrya can be interpreted in a way suitable to the context,  and he interprets the term in association with `vAyu', since the wind  always moves out of Him - vAyuh sadA sarati yasmAt iti sUryah.  In  other words, he maps the nAma sUrya to the sixth step in the arcirAdi  mArga.  

SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN also gives the same  interpretation - vAyum sarati svopAsakam nItvA iti sUryah.  SrI rAdhA  kRshNa SAstri explains the nAma as a reference to One Who streaks  through the skies like a snake (sarati).  This can closely relate to  the interpretation of the nAma as a reference to the wind.

vAyu is placed next to samvatsara in the arcirAdi mArga based on the  kaushItakI Upanishad -
sa vAyu lokam (kaushItakI upa. 1.3) - "He (the  jIva) goes to the vAyu loka). 

b) & c) Sri Sa'nkara's vyAkhyAnam is -
sUte sarvam iti sUryah  | sUte  Sriyam iti vA sUryah   | 
One translator translates this to mean "He  Who brings forth everything, or He Who brings forth wealth, is  sUryah". 
Another translator gives the following as the  interpretation - "One who generates SrI or brilliance in sUrya or  agni (sacred fire) is sUryah".

d) In addition to some of the above interpretations, SrI satya sandha  tIrtha gives one another interpretation -
sUri gamyatvAt sUryah - He  because of Whom we get enlightenment is suryah.  

Somewhat related to  this interpretation, SrI raghunAtha tIrtha gives the following  explanation -
sUribhih j~nAnibhih prApyate iti sUryah - He Who is  attained by the enlightened Sages.

887. savitA –

a) He Who produces or brings forth the crops etc., in the form of the Sun.
b) He Who brings forth everything in the Universe (including the sun etc.).

om savitre namah.

sUte iti savitA. 

This nAma occurs again as nAma 969 (Slokam 104).

SrI vAsishTha derives the nAma from the root sU - prANi garbha vimocane - to bring forth, to produce. 

SrI BhaTTar gives the vyAkhyAnam - sUrya dvArA vRshTi sasyAdikam sUte  iti savitA -
BhagavAn produces, through the sun as the medium, rain  and the crops, and so He is called savitA or Aditya.  
This is the  seventh step in the arcirAdi mArga. 

For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 104, SrI BhaTTar gives the  interpretation that
bhagavAn's nAma here signifies that He is the  Creator of everything (including the sun)  -
sarveshAm sAkshAt  janayitA savitA.

SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation - sarvasya jagatah prasavitA  savitA -
He Who brings forth or creates all the Universes. 
He gives  support for the interpretation from vishNu dharmottara:

rasAnAm ca tathAdAnAt raviH iti abhidhIyate     |
prajAnAm tu prasavanAt savitA iti nigadyate   ||      (vishNu  dharmottara 1.30.15).

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives references to Sruti: 
devo varuNah  prajApatiH savitA (chAndogya. 1.12.5) -
"He who shines brilliantly,  He who brings rain, He who is the Protector of people, the Lord  SavitA";
savanAt savitA - (maitrAyaNi 5.7).

SrI ananta kRshNa SAstry gives an interesting alternate pATham that  has the same meaning -
"sa pitA - He, The Father of All". 

SrI vAsishTha gives the explanation -
sUrya dvArA vRshTi sasyAdikam  utpAdya jagat janayati iti savitA -
He Who creates grains etc.  through rain by means of the sun and generates and sustains life, is savitA. 

888. ravi-locanaH –

a) He Who illuminates (through the rays of the sun).
b) He that has the Sun for His eye.
c) He from Whose eyes the Sun was born.
d) He Who is fond of praise.

om ravi-locanAya namaH.

raviNA - tat prakASena, locayati - darSayati iti ravi-locanaH -
That  which reveals everything to us through its luster.   
The root from  which `locana' is derived is `loc - darSane - to see'.   ravi refers  to the Sun.

a) SrI BhaTTar ues this nAma to cover the eighth, ninth and tenth steps of arcirAdi mArga -
the Moon, indra (lightning), and varuNa.   All these shine by means of the sun's rays,
and so they are together covered by this nAma in SrI BhaTTar's interpretation -
ravi raSmi  sa'nkrAntyAdi mukhena candra-vidyud-varuNAn locayati iti ravi- locanaH. 
The chAndogya Upanishad mantra quoted at the beginning of  this Sloka - AdityAt candramasam, candramaso vidyutam",
and the  kaushItakI Upanishad passage - sa varuNa lokam (1.3), are invoked in  support of the interpretation. 

b) SrI Sa'nkara's interpretation is - raviH locanam = cakshuH asya  iti ravi-locanaH -
He Who has the Sun as His eye is ravi-locanaH.    
SrI Sa'nkara quotes the muNDakopanishad passage in support:

agnir-mUrdhA cakshushI candra sUryau  (Mundako. 2.1.4)

"He Who has fire for the crown of His head, and Who has candra and  sUrya as His eyes". 

c) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj interprets the nAma as "One from Whose  eyes arose sUrya" -
raviH bhAskaraH locanAd-yasya iti ravi-locanaH.   He refers us to purusha sUkta -
cakshoh sUryo ajAyata (Rg. Veda  10.90.13). 

SrI satya devo vAsishTha gives multiple explanations: 

- raviNA locayati sarvasm it raiv-locanaH - He Who enlightens  everything through the Sun;  -
He Whose eyes are the Sun, and through which we see - locyate  anena iti locanaH, raviH locanam = cakshuH yasya sa ravi-locanaH.

d) SrI raghunAtha tIrtha seems to derive his interpretation based on  the root  ru - Sabde - to sound, for the word raviH, and gives the  meaning `praise' for the word `raviH'.  His interpretation for the  term locanaH is "One Who is pleased", probably based on the root loc -  to shine.  His interpretation for the nAma is:  raviH stutiH;  locanIyatvAt locanam priyam;  raviH stutiH, locanam - priyam yasya  sah ravi-locanaH - He Who is fond of praise, is ravi-locanaH. 

-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan