ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA sukha-do naikado-'grajah |
om ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktre namah.
a) He Who is indra and brahmA of immeasurable greatness.
a) SrI BhaTTar interprets this nAma as representing the last two steps (the eleventh and twelfth) in the arcirAdi mArga. indra and brahmA escort the jIva in the final two steps in the ascent of the jIva to parama padam through the arcirAdi mArga (sa indra lokam, sa prajApati lokam - kaushItakI. ).. SrI BhaTTar interprets the term huta-bhuk as a reference to indra, since he is the consumer of the offerings through fire in the sacrifices - sapta tantushu hutam bhu'nkte iti indro huta-bhuk. He maps the term `bhoktA' in this nAma to `brahmA' - prajAh bhunakti - pAlayati iti prajApatih bhoktA. Since brahmA sustains and protects the process of creation - birth etc., he is called bhoktA (prajA means propagation, production, birth). Since both indra and brahmA, who are endowed with immense greatness (ananta), are under bhagavAn's control, He is called ananta- huta-bhug-bhoktA.
SrI bala deva vidyA bhUshaN, who has given the same anubhavam as SrI BhaTTar for the past few nAma-s (i.e., in terms of bhagavAn leading the mukta jIva-s in their path to SrI vaikunTham after they leave their body in this world), treats `ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA' as consisting of two nAma-s - `anantah' and `huta-bhug-bhoktA', and gives an interpretation similar to that of SrI BhaTTar for the term `huta-bhug-bhoktA -
b) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj treats `ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA as one nAma, but interprets its as consisting of two parts -
Now we will look at the different interpretations by other vyAkhyAna kartA-s who have interpreted `ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA' as consisting of three nAma-s - anantah, huta-bhuk, and bhoktA.
SrI Sa'nkara is the leading vyAkhyAna kArtA who takes this approach. (The nAma `anantah' occurs as nAma 665 (Slokam 70) in SrI BhaTTar's interpretation, and the nAma bhoktA has been studied as nAma-s 145 and 502 in SrI BhaTTar's interpretation).
i) anantah - The Infinite.
Om anantAya namah.
`anta' means `end'; ananta means "One Who is not limited", "One Who is endless", etc. -
The reader is referred to the detailed write-up for this in Slokam 70 (nAma 665).
In addition to the interpretations given for the instance of this nAma in Slokam 70, SrI Sa'nkara gives an alternate interpretation here - Because He is in the form of AdiSesha, He is called ananta - Sesha rUpo vA.
Om huta-buje namaH.
We encountered the nAma huta-bhuk earlier in Slokam 94 in Sa'nkara pATham (SrI BhaTTar takes the nAma as huta-bhug-vibhuh in Slokam 94).
SrI vAsishTha gives the root hu - dAnAdanayoH - to offer, to perform a sacrifice, to eat; and the root bhuj - pAlanAbhyavahArayoH - to protect, or anavane - to eat, to consume, for deriving the nAma.
a) For the current instance of the nAma in SrI Sa'nkara's pATham, the interpretation given is -
SrI rAdhA kRshNa SAstri notes that this protection refers to the successful completion of the sacrifice by His blessing, even when there may be inadvertent deficiencies in the performance of the sacrifice -
yasya smRtyA ca nAmoktyA taop yAga kriyAdishu |
b) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 94 in SrI Sa'nkara's pATham, he gives the explanation -
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri elaborates on this further: When offerings are made to different devatA-s in a sacrifice, agni (fire) again receives it first, and then passes it on to sUrya, who then takes it to the respective deities. All the deities ultimately offer these to bhagavAn, Who is the ultimate receiver of all the offerings.
om bhoktre namaH.
The root for `bhoktA' is the same as for the term `bhuk', namely, bhuj - to protect, to eat.
Two derivations for the term `bhoktA' are - bhunakti iti bhoktA - The Protector, and bhunkte iti bhoktA - The Enjoyer.
a) For nAma 145, SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that bhagavAn is the Enjoyer of things offered by His devotees with love, like nectar.
patram pushpam phalam toyam yo me bhaktyA prayacchati |
"If a devotee offers to Me a mere leaf, flower, fruit, or water with sincere devotion and love,
b) Alternatively, SrI BhaTTar explains that bhagavAn is bhoktA since He is the Ultimate recipient and Enjoyer
bhoktAram yaj~na tapasAm sarva-loka-maheSvaram |
"Knowing Me as the Enjoyer of all sacrifice and austerities, as the Supreme Lord of all the worlds,
We also have bhagavAn's declaration in Sloka 9.24 of the gItA.
aham hi sarva yaj~nAnAm bhoktA ca prabhureva ca |
"For, I am the only enjoyer and the only Lord of all sacrifices.
c) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 53 (nAma 502), SrI BhaTTar extends this guNa of bhokta of bhagavAn
havya kavya bhujo vishNoH udak-pUrve mahodadhau (mahAbhArata SAnti parva 348.3)
"bhagavAn is stationed in the north-east ocean and consumes the havya and kavya that are offered with sincerity".
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives several references to support the above interpretations:
- Seigaip-payan uNbEnum yAnE ennum (tiruvAi. 5.6.4)
- ahamannam_ahamannam_ahamannam ahamannAdo_'hamannAdo_'hamannAdah (taitti. Upa.)
"I am the food or the object of enjoyment for My devotees, and
- vArik-koNDu ennai vizhu'nguvan kANil enRu..
AzhvAr and bhagavAn are competing with each other to enjoy each other, and bhagavAn succeeds in the competition!
- avA aRac-cUzh ariyai (tiruvAimozhi pASuram 10.10.11)
The obvious examples of kaNNan accepting with great delight the handful of puffed rice from kucela, and
The dharma cakram writer explains the function of bhagavAn as bhoktA in a way that applies to our day-to-day life,
upadrashTA anumantA ca bhartA bhoktA maheSvaraH |
"Close Observer, Giver of sanction, Sustainer, Experiencer,
For those who spend their time in worldly pursuits, He is just the observer. For those who observe the path of dharma,
d) SrI satya devo vAsishTha uses the meaning bhuj - to eat, and interprets the nAma `bhoktA' as
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to the kaThopanishad mantra:
yasya brahmaSca kshtram ca ubhe bhavata odanaH | (kaTho. 2.25)
"He for whom brahma and kshatra (the movables and immovables) both become food".
SrI vAsishTha notes that just as the ocean is the source of the rain that results in the small rivers, and the rivers merge back into the ocean,
e) SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN uses the meaning "to protect" for the root `bhuj',
a) The Giver of Bliss to His devotees.
Om sukha-dAya namah.
We studied this nAma in Slokam 49 (nAma 460). The reader is referred to the write-up for nAma 460 as well.
a) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 49, SrI BhaTTar's interpretation was that this nAma indicated bhagavAn's guNa of bestowing bliss on those who followed the sadArAca. It should be remembered that the `sukha' that is bestowed by bhagavAn, in addition to including the ordinary pleasures of life, specifically refers to the pErinbam or the Supreme Bliss of moksha, which He alone can bestow among all the deities.
For the current instance of the nAma, SrI BhaTTar continues on the interpretation of the immediately preeceding nAma-s describing the ascent of the jIva to parama padam, and interprets the current nAma as follows:
SrI BhaTTar gives support from the Upanishad:
tat purushah amAnavah sa enAn brahma gamayati |
"From there (through the moon, vidyut etc.), the amAnava, the super- human, takes him to parabrahman. This is known as the path of the gods."
SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN's interpretation is along the same lines -
b) SrI Sa'nkara gives two alternate interpretations for the nAma `sukha-dah':
c) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives another anubhavam for the nAma:
d) SrI Sa'nkara also uses an alternate pATham - a-sukha-dah, and gives the interpretation that bhagavAn removes the misery of His devotees - asukham dyati, and so He is called a-sukha-dah.
e) SrI vAsishTha notes that sukham means `udakam' or `water' as specified in nighanTu (1.12) - probably based on the root khanu - avadhAraNe - to dig. So he interprets the nAma as referring to bhagavAn being the Giver of water in the form of wells, rivers, ponds, etc., for the survival of all the beings.
f) Alternately, SrI vAsishTha interprets the term su-kha as a reference to this body - a well-dug moat, and since bhagavAn has given this body to the jIva-s, He is su-kha-dah - suvyavasthita khAtam ca idam SarIram jIvebhyo dadAti iti su-kha-dah. The Lord has beautifully mixed flesh and bones with fluids and made a beautiful piece of creation called the `body', and so He is `su-kha-dah'.
a) The Giver of many things (Literally, The Giver of Not just one thing).
Om naika-dAya namaH.
a) The nAma can be looked at as na-eka-daH. SrI BhaTTar continues his interpretation based on the reception accorded to the mukta jIva who is arriving at SrI vaikunTham. He explains the nAma as follows: ekam dadati iti eka-dAH; tad-viruddAh naika-dAH - Those who give only one thing are called `ekada-s; unlike these, naikada-s are those that give not just one thing, but many things. The context in which SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma is in terms of the reception accorded to the mukta jIva as he ascends to parama padam. BhagavAn has thousands of celestials as His attendants, who are well-versed in the art of giving to the mukta-s, and who bestow countless garlands, clothes, etc., as the jIva arrives. He quotes the kaushItakI Upanishad in support:
tam pa'nca-SatAni apsarasaH upadhAvanti Satam mAlA-hastAh
"Five hundred apasara-s (divine damsels) rush forth to receive the mukta. A hundred of theme have garlands in their hands, and another hundred have scented ointments etc., in their hands to decorate him..They decorate him with the adornments of the Brahman itself".
SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN's interpretation is also that He is the Giver of many things -
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj also gives a similar interpretation, namely, that bhagavAn's nAma `naika-dah' refers to His being the Bestower of all the four purushArtha-s - dharma, artha, kAma and moksha -
b) SrI Sa'nkara uses the pATham `naika-jah' - One Who is not born just once, but has many births for protecting dharma - dharma guptaye asakRt jAyamAnatvAt naika-jah. Note that the birth referred to here is to His incarnations out of His own free Will, and not the births because of karma that the jIva-s take. Lord kRshNa declares:
paritrANAya sAdhUnAm vinASAaya ca dushkRtAm |
"For the protection of the good and also for the destruction of the wicked, for the establishment of dharma, I am born from age to age".
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to Lord kRshNa's words in the previous Slokam of gItA:
yadA yadA hi dharmasya glAnir-bhavati bhArata |
"Whenever there is a decline of Dharma, and an uprising of adharma, O arjuna!, then I incarnate Myself".
SrI satya sandha tIrtha uses the pATham ,naikajah, but gives an entirely different interpretation - he looks at the nAma as consisting of the upasarga `ni', and the word ka-ja. He interprets the word ka-ja as `born from water', namely lotus etc. ke jAyanti iti kajAni kamalAni. He then interprets `ni-kajA as a reference to SrI mahA lakshmi, and gives the meaning to naikajah as "The Lord of SrI mahA Lakshmi". Alternatively, he interprets `nikajam' as a reference to the gardens or forests containing lotuses, tulasi flowers etc., and then gives the interpretation that bhagavAn's nAma symbolizes that He is ever present in these places - nitarAm kajAni yasmin tad-vanam ni-kajam, tatra bahvo nai-kaja iti - He Who is present where there are lots of lotus flowers, tulasi flowers etc. He quotes:
tulasI kAnanam yatra yatra padma vanAni ca |
"Hari is present in the tulasi gardens, in the forests where there are lotus flowers, and in places where vaishNava-s live".
As his last interpretation, he gives the explanation of His being born many times through His incarnations.
SrI raghunAtha tIrtha, another AcArya of the dvaita sampradAya, uses yet another pATham - aneka-dah,
om agra-jAya namaH.
agra means first. agra-jaH means One Who is born first, or existed before everything - agre jAyata iti agra-jaH. SrI vAsishTha refers us to the purusha sUkta mantra -
SrI BhaTTar uses the word agra in the sense of `in front', and ja in the sense of "One who came forward". He continues the interpretation of the current nAma along the lines of the mukta jIva's arrival at SrI vaikunTham. He explains the nAma as referring to bhagavAn coming forward, or manifest Himself, along with SrI or mahA Lakshmi, to welcome the mukta jIva on his arrival at SrI vaikunTham. His words are:
evam prAptAnAm muktAnAm agre saha sarveSvaryA SriyA yathA -parya'nka
This is described in the kaushItaki Upanishad:
" sa Agacchati amitaujasam parya'nkam" iti prabhRti |
"The mukta comes near the dazzlingly lustrous couch. The Supreme Brahman is seated on it with Lakshmi beside Him and the celestial attendants around Him. The mukta who has meditated on the Lord thus, now realizes Him in this manner, and climbs on the couch. The Supreme Brahman enquires about the mukta. Then the mukta acquires the knowledge that the Supreme Brahman has. He also enjoys the Bliss that is that of Brahman".
SrI Sa'nkara gives the explanation - agre jAyata iti agra-jaH - "The First-Born".
Other interpreters give interpretations that all refer to His having existed before anything else existed. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj refers us to SrImad bhAgavatam, which describes that brahmA was able to see Lord SrIman nAraYaNa and His loka-s prior to starting his creation, through intense tapas:
tasmai sva-lokam bhagavAn sabhAjitaH sandarSayAmAsa param na yat-param |
"Thus worshipped, Lord vishNu revealed to brahmA His Abode, SrI vaikunTham, that is blemishless, above which there is nothing superior, and which is the object of meditation and praise by the learned Atma-j~nAni-s".
SrI cinmayAnanda explains the nAma as: "The One Who was First-Born". Naturally, everything came from Him alone". That from which everything comes, in which everything exists, and into which everything finally merges, is agra-jaH.
a) He Who is not despondent that the jIva-s are not resorting to Him for redemption.
om a-nir-viNNAya namaH.
We studied this nAma earlier in Slokam 47 - nAma 436.
SrI satya devo vAsishTha gives two roots for deriving the nAma: vid - sattAyAm - to happen, to be; and vid - vicAraNe - to discuss, to consider. ni- is an upasarga or preposition that is used in many senses, including `a collection'. nirviNNa means `despondency, depression'. a-nirviNNah refers to "One Who does not have any concerns". SrI vAsishTha gives the interpretation - nirvedam kshobham kleSam Alasyam vA na prApnoti sa a-nirviNNo vishNuH - He Who does not become despondent, indifferent, depressed, lazy, etc., is a- nirviNNah; or, yo na kadAcidapi nir-vedam = khinnatAm (viraktatAm) prApnoti sa a-nir-viNNah - He Who does not attain depression, despair, frustration etc., on any account is a-nir-viNNah. The different vyAkhyAna-kartA-s give different anubhavam-s of why He is without concerns or worries.
a) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 47, SrI BhaTTar explains that bhagavAn engages in His act of creation, and gives bodies to the jIva-s, and gives them the benefit of all pleasures, hoping that they will turn to Him for redemption. But the jIva-s continue to revel in material pleasures, and His wish is not fulfilled. But He does not become despondent over this unsuccessful outcome, and goes on with His next cycle of creation. This is how the cycle of creation and destruction go on repeatedly, and He never gives up or becomes dispirited in the process. a-nirviNNaH = an-alasaH - He Who does not become indolent, lazy, frustrated, giving up, etc.
SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr - SOmbAdu ip-palluruvai ellAm paDarvitta vittA - periya tiruvantAdi 18. tirumazhiSai AzhvAr also refers to bhagavAn as "bhakti uzhavan" in his nAnmugan tiruvantAdi 23 - BhagavAn tries to inculcate bhakti even in those who have gone away from Him, without giving up, even as a farmer keeps cultivating his land no matter whether he get results out of first effort or not.
b) For the current instance of the nAma, SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that bhagavAn `ceases to be concerned - because he is relieved', and so He is a-nirviNNah - devoid of concern. This interpretation is a continuation of his interpretations of the previous nAma-s starting with vihAyasa-gatih (nAma 880), describing the path taken by the released soul - mukta jIva, to SrI vaikunTham. SrI BhaTTar explains that bhagavAn is at last relieved that His devotee - the mukta, has arrived safely at SrI vaikunTham, and has been united with Him. Until this time, this jIva as an object of compassion for bhagavAn, who keeps worrying about whether this jIva will use his life to become free of his karma-s and move towards Him. Now that this jIva has become a mukta - a released soul, bhagavAn does not have worries about this jIva any more.
SrI BhaTTar give the example of how relieved Lord rAma was, once He crowned vibhIshaNa as King of la'nkA. He had given His word to vibhIshaNa to crown him as the king of SrI la'nkA, and until the time of coronation of vibhIshaNa, Lord rAma felt that He had a word that He still had to fulfill. After the coronation, He felt relieved as One who had fulfilled His duty at last - kRtakRtyas-tadA rAmo vi- jvaraH pramumoda ha - (bAla kANDam 1.85).
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan comments that in the very first pASuram of tiruvAimozhi, the term "tuyar aRu SuDar aDi", was enjoyed by emperumAnAr as "tuyar aRum SuDar aDi" - the Lotus Feet that became free of tuyar or sorrow, because He had blessed AzhvAr with "mayarvaRa madi nalam" - the intense j~nAna and bhakti that are free from any flaws or deficiency.
c) Sri Sa'nkara explains that bhagavAn is `not depressed - a- nirviNNaH',
SrI cinmAyananda refers us to the gItA Slokam 3.22:
na me pArtha asti kartavyam trishu lokeshu ki'ncana |
"For Me, arjuna, there is nothing in all the three worlds which ought to be done,
d) SrI ananta kRshNa SAstri gives another view - BhagavAn never gets tired of fulfilling the desires of His devotees, and so also He is a- nirviNNah - One Who does not get exhausted, negligent, lazy, etc., in fulfilling His devotees' desires.
The same explanation is given by SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj -
SrI vAsishTha and SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri both note that nirviNNa - virakti - frustration, despondency, etc., are characteristics of those who keep changing constantly, or for those who can't get enough of what they want, or not satisfied with what they get. All of these happen because of the effects of pUrva-janma karmA. None of these is an issue for bhagavAn - He has no birth and no karma, He is never- changing, He has everything He wants, and can get anything He wants at His will. So He is beyond being dissatisfied, frustrated etc. He is full of Bliss, brahmAnanda svarUpan. BhagavAn's creations are changing constantly, and are suffering from their karma-s, and so they undergo nirviNNa, but He Himself is beyond all these, and so He is a-nirviNNaH.
a) He Who is ever patient (sadA _ marshI).
Om sadA-marshiNe namah.
The root from which the nAma is derived is mRsha - titikshAyAm - to suffer, to allow, to pardon.
SrI BhaTTar continues his description of the arrival of the mukta jIva in SrI vaikunTham. He enjoys the nAma in terms of bhagavAn's trait of helping the mukta jIva in performing kainkaryam to Him once he is in SrI vaikunTham. The `patience' aspect comes in since bhagavAn patiently accepts, with pleasure, all kainkaryam offered to Him by the mukta. Whatever kainkaryam the mukta wishes to perform to bhagavAn out of his intense love and bhakti to the Lord, He will accept it with a sweet disposition, even if it is not a kainkaryam that He needs. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi pASuram 10.8.10:
uRREn ugandu paNi Seidu una pAdam peRREn, EdE innam vENDuvadu entAi ..
"Oh Lord! It was given to me to enjoy Your Lotus feet. The kainkaryam (in this case, the singing of tiruvAimozhi by AzhvAr) was performed with an ardor that led to the enjoyment of Your Lotus feet. This enjoyment of Divine feet is what I would request for all time .".
b) SrI Sa'nkara interprets the nAma as -
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj echoes the same thoughts -
SrI SAstri refers us to SrImad rAmAyaNam in support:
katha'ncit upakAreNa kRtena ekena tushyati |
"Lord rAma is intensely pleased with even a single act, even minor, that is performed towards Him;
SrI satya devo vAsishTha gives support from the Rg veda, illustrating the extreme patience of bhagavAn:
nAkshas-tapyate bhUri bhAraH (Rg. 1.164.13)
"The axle of the wheel that supports all the living creatures never becomes over-heated,
c) SrI satya sandha tIrtha derives the exact opposite meaning for the term sadAmarshI, based on looking at the nAma as "sadA + AmarshaH (instead of sadA + marshaH) - sadA AmarshaH kopo daityeshu asya asti iti sadAmarshI - He Who is extremely impatient with the evil people, the demons. In samskRt, the prefix A is sometimes used to give the opposite meaning of the verb it is associated with (e.g., gam - to go, Agama - to come). So also, marshI - One who is patient, A- marshI - One who is angry or impatient. SrI Apte gives the meaning "anger" to the word "AmarshaH" in his dictionary.
Om lokAdhishThAnAya namaH.
The root word for the nAma is sthA - gati nivRttau - to stand, to be. adhi is a prefix, which means `principal, chief, supreme' in the current context. `loka' refers to the worlds. He Who is the Principal Support for all the worlds is "loka adhi-sThAnam' - lokasya adhishThAnam lokAdhishThAnam.
In continuation of his anubhavam of the previous nAma-s in terms of the mukta jIva's arrival at SrI vaikunTham, SrI BhaTTar specifically refers to bhagavAn being the Support of the world that the mukta jIva enjoys, namely the world of bhagavAn's nitya vibhUti.
SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN echoes similar thoughts -
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to tiruvAimozhi: ...
"He gives all mundane prosperity. Then He takes us to vaikunTham, and tells us:
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives several supports from the Sruti:
- tasminnAthasthur-bhuvanAni viSvA (Rg. 1.164.13) -
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives additional support:
SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation -
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri notes that He is the Support for the world
a) He Who is extremely wonderful.
om adbhutAya namaH.
SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the nAma using the root bhU - to be, and the uNAdi sUtra 5.1 (adi bhuvo dutac).
a) SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma in terms of His being "Insatiable" -
SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN captures the spirit of the interpretation through the following words -
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives support from divya prabandham:
- innAr enRu aRiyEn; annE! AzhiyoDum pon Ar Sa'ngam uDaiya
"Lord nArAyaNa who delights in performing wonderful acts" -
SrI Sa'nkara gives support from the Upanishad and from bhagavad gItA:
SravaNAyApi bahubhir-yo na labhyaH SRNvanto'pi bahavo yam na vidyuH |
"The Supreme Self is such that He is not gained by many for the mere hearing, and not known by many even while hearing. Rare is an expounder of Him, and rare is an able attainer, and rare is he who knows Him under the instruction of an adept teacher".
SrI cinmayAnanada summarizes the message as
- Bhagavad gItA:
AScaryavat paSyati kaScidenam AScaryavat vadati tathaiva cAnyaH |
"One looks upon this self as a wonder; likewise, another speaks of It as a wonder;
The message of both passages is identical.
b) SrI vAsishTha gives the meaning: ad = kadAcit bhavati iti adbhutam - He Who occasionally appears, is adbhutam. sannapi a- bhUtam iva iti arthah - Being present, He is not present at the same time. While bhagavAn exists amongst us all the while, we are oblivious to this fact, and more or less live in a state where He does not exist for us. This is signified by the nAma `adbhutaH'.
c) SrI raghunAtha tIrtha explains the nAma as