Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam - SLOKA 95

ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA sukha-do naikado-'grajah    |
a-nirviNNah sadAmarshI lokAdhishThAnam_adbhutah       ||

om ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktre namah.
om sukha-dAya namah.
om naikadAya namah
om agrajAya namah
om a-nirviNNAya namah
om sadA-marshiNe namah
om lokAdhishThAnAya namah
om adbhutAya namah.

889. ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA

a) He Who is indra and brahmA of  immeasurable greatness.
b) He Who is endless, and Who consumes the offerings  through fire.

a) SrI BhaTTar interprets this nAma as representing the last two  steps (the eleventh and twelfth) in the arcirAdi mArga.  indra and  brahmA escort the jIva in the final two steps in the ascent of the  jIva to parama padam through the arcirAdi mArga (sa indra lokam, sa  prajApati lokam - kaushItakI. )..    SrI BhaTTar  interprets the term  huta-bhuk as a reference to indra, since he is the consumer of the  offerings through fire in the sacrifices - sapta tantushu hutam  bhu'nkte iti indro huta-bhuk.  He maps the term `bhoktA' in this nAma  to `brahmA' - prajAh bhunakti - pAlayati iti prajApatih bhoktA.   Since brahmA sustains and protects the process of creation - birth  etc., he is called bhoktA (prajA means propagation, production,  birth).  Since both indra and brahmA, who are endowed with immense  greatness (ananta), are under bhagavAn's control, He is called ananta- huta-bhug-bhoktA.

SrI bala deva vidyA bhUshaN, who has given the same anubhavam as SrI  BhaTTar for the past few nAma-s (i.e., in terms of bhagavAn leading  the mukta jIva-s in their path to SrI vaikunTham after they leave  their body in this world), treats `ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA' as  consisting of two nAma-s - `anantah' and `huta-bhug-bhoktA', and  gives an interpretation similar to that of SrI BhaTTar for the  term `huta-bhug-bhoktA -
huta-bhugbhih amRta pariNAma rUpam hutam  
bhu'njAnaih vidyuta paryanta Agatena amAnavena purusheNa sahitaih  
varuNa indra prajApatibhih sva-pada gAminam bhaktam bhunakti pAlayati  it huta-bhug-bhoktA -
He is the Protector of the devotee who have  been escorted by the amAnava purusha-s through the indra lokam, etc.,  and who are on their final stages of reaching His Abode, escorted by  varuNa, indra, and prajApati.

b) SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj treats `ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA as one  nAma, but interprets its as  consisting of two parts -
na antah yasya  iti anantah - One for Whom there is no end, is anantah; and,
huta- bhujA pAvakena bhu'nkte iti huta-bhug-bhoktA - He Who consumes (the  offerings of oblations in sacrifices) through fire is huta-bhug-  bhoktA; 
anantaSca asau huta-bhug-bhoktA iti ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA -  He Who is endless, and Who consumes the offerings through fire, is  ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA.      

Now we will look at the different interpretations by other vyAkhyAna  kartA-s who have interpreted  `ananta-huta-bhug-bhoktA' as consisting  of three nAma-s - anantah, huta-bhuk, and bhoktA. 

SrI Sa'nkara is  the leading vyAkhyAna kArtA who takes this approach. (The  nAma `anantah' occurs as nAma 665 (Slokam 70) in SrI BhaTTar's  interpretation, and the nAma bhoktA has been studied as nAma-s 145  and 502 in SrI BhaTTar's interpretation).

i) anantah -  The Infinite.

Om anantAya namah.

`anta' means `end';  ananta means "One Who is not limited", "One Who  is endless", etc. -
na antam yasya sa anantah. 

The reader is referred to the detailed write-up for this in Slokam 70  (nAma 665).

In addition to the interpretations given for the instance of this  nAma in Slokam 70, SrI Sa'nkara gives an alternate interpretation  here - Because He is in the form of AdiSesha, He is called ananta -  Sesha rUpo vA.

ii) huta-bhuk: 
a) The Protector of the sacrifice.
b) The Consumer of the offerings in a sacrifice.

Om huta-buje namaH.

We encountered the nAma huta-bhuk earlier in Slokam 94 in Sa'nkara  pATham (SrI BhaTTar takes the nAma as huta-bhug-vibhuh in Slokam  94). 

SrI vAsishTha gives the root hu - dAnAdanayoH - to offer, to perform  a sacrifice, to eat; and the root bhuj - pAlanAbhyavahArayoH - to  protect, or anavane - to eat, to consume, for deriving the nAma.

a) For the current instance of the nAma in SrI Sa'nkara's pATham, the  interpretation given is -
hutam bhunakti iti huta-bhuk - He Who  protects the sacrifice. 

SrI rAdhA kRshNa SAstri notes that this  protection refers to the successful completion of the sacrifice by  His blessing, even when there may be inadvertent deficiencies in the  performance of the sacrifice -

yasya smRtyA ca nAmoktyA taop yAga kriyAdishu   |
nyUnam sampUrnatAm yAti satyo vande tam acyutam    ||

b) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 94 in SrI Sa'nkara's  pATham, he gives the explanation -
hutam bhu'ngte iti huta-bhuk - He  Who consumes the offerings in the sacrifice. 

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri  elaborates on this further:  When offerings are made to different  devatA-s in a sacrifice, agni (fire) again receives it first, and  then passes it on to sUrya, who then takes it to the respective  deities.  All the deities ultimately offer these to bhagavAn, Who is  the ultimate receiver of all the offerings. 

iii) bhoktA:
a) The Enjoyer of all offerings made by devotees with  love.
b) Enjoyer of offerings made in all sacrifices.   
c) Enjoyer of offerings made to the pitR-s etc.  
d) He Who consumes (destroys) everything over time through  different forms - as agni, sUrya, kAla etc.
e) He Who protects everything (bhuj - pAlane - to protect).

om bhoktre namaH.

The root for `bhoktA' is the same as for the term `bhuk', namely,  bhuj - to protect, to eat. 
We have studied the nAma `bhoktA'  previously in Sloka 16 (nAma 145) and Sloka 53 (nAma 502).

Two derivations for the term `bhoktA' are - bhunakti iti bhoktA -  The Protector, and bhunkte iti bhoktA - The Enjoyer.  
SrI satyadevo  vAsishTha nicely expresses this as `rakshako bhakshaNaSca'.    BhagavAn creates, protects, and then swallows at the time of pralaya.

a) For nAma 145, SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that bhagavAn  is the Enjoyer of things offered by His devotees with love, like  nectar. 
He refers us to Lord kRshNa's words in the gItA:

patram pushpam phalam toyam yo me bhaktyA prayacchati |
tadaham bahktyupahRtam aSnAmi prayatAtmanah ||            (gItA 9.26)

"If a devotee offers to Me a mere leaf, flower, fruit, or water with  sincere devotion and love,
I accept it as invaluable treasure."

b) Alternatively, SrI BhaTTar explains that bhagavAn is bhoktA since He is the Ultimate recipient and  Enjoyer
for all the sacrificial  offerings irrespective of the deity to whom the offering is made.   
SrI BhaTTar refers us to Sloka 5.29 of the gItA, where Lord kRshNa  declares:

bhoktAram yaj~na tapasAm sarva-loka-maheSvaram    |
suhRdam sarva-bhUtAnAm j~nAtvA mAm SantimRcchati     ||    (gItA 5.29)

"Knowing Me as the Enjoyer of all sacrifice and austerities, as the  Supreme Lord of all the worlds,
as the Friend of every being, one  attains peace".

We also have bhagavAn's declaration in Sloka 9.24 of the gItA.

aham hi sarva yaj~nAnAm bhoktA ca prabhureva ca     |
na tu mAm abhijAnanti tattvena atah cyavanti te    ||      (gItA 9.24)

"For, I am the only enjoyer and the only Lord of all sacrifices.   
They (The ordinary people) do not recognize Me in My true nature, and  hence they fall".

c) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 53 (nAma 502), SrI BhaTTar  extends this guNa of bhokta of bhagavAn
to include not only the  offerings to the gods (havya), but also to the kavya, the offering to  our pitR-s or the deceased ancestors -

havya kavya bhujo vishNoH udak-pUrve mahodadhau (mahAbhArata SAnti  parva 348.3)

"bhagavAn is stationed in the north-east ocean and consumes the havya  and kavya that are offered with sincerity".

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives several references to support the above  interpretations:

- Seigaip-payan uNbEnum yAnE ennum (tiruvAi. 5.6.4)

- ahamannam_ahamannam_ahamannam  ahamannAdo_'hamannAdo_'hamannAdah (taitti. Upa.)

"I am the food or the object of enjoyment for My devotees, and
I am  the Enjoyer or consumer of the offerings of My devotees as well".

- vArik-koNDu ennai vizhu'nguvan kANil enRu..
ennil munnam pArittu tAn ennai muRRap paruginAn  (nammAzhvAr's  tiruvAimozhi 9.6.10).

AzhvAr and bhagavAn are competing with each other to enjoy each  other, and bhagavAn succeeds in the competition!

- avA aRac-cUzh ariyai (tiruvAimozhi pASuram 10.10.11)
"He who mingles with His devotees intimately and to His heart's  content."

The obvious examples of kaNNan accepting with great delight the  handful of puffed rice from kucela, and
His accepting the food  offered by vidura over that offered by duryodhana are well-known.

The dharma cakram writer explains the function of bhagavAn as bhoktA  in a way that applies to our day-to-day life,
using Sri Sa'nkara  vyAkhyAnam for Sloka 13.22 from the gItA.  BhagavAn is in all of us -  as the observer, as the guide, as the Enjoyer, etc.

upadrashTA anumantA ca bhartA bhoktA maheSvaraH  |
paramAtmA iti cApyukto dehe'smin purushaH paraH   ||  (gItA  13.22)

"Close Observer, Giver of sanction, Sustainer, Experiencer,
the pre- eminent Lord, Supreme Self - thus is styled the Supreme Spirit in the  human body".

For those who spend their time in worldly pursuits, He is just the  observer. For those who observe the path of dharma,
He is the bhartA  or Protector and Supporter in times of need - as in the case of  pANDava-s.
For those who offer to bhagavAn the worldly gains that  they get, such as the fame etc. that come to them, He is the bhoktA  or Enjoyer,
i.e, He accepts these as offerings, and He bestows on  them His anubhavam instead.
The more we dedicate our actions and the benefits of these actions to Him, and thus make Him the bhoktA,
the  more He reveals to us what true happiness is, and the more we are  relieved of undesirable attributes such as ahamkAram, mamakAram, etc.  
The significance of this nAma thus is for us to realize that we  should dedicate all our actions and their effects to bhagavAn as the bhoktA,
and we should  instead enjoy Him and attain eternal bliss.

d) SrI satya devo vAsishTha uses the meaning bhuj - to eat, and  interprets the nAma `bhoktA' as
One Who consumes or swallows  everything in the form of kAla or time -
kAla rUpo hi bhgavAn  kAlakRameNa sarvam bhu'nkte. 
He also links the term `ananta'  to `bhoktA' by pointing out that
bhagavAn consumes all things over  time in different forms - agni, sUrya, kAla or yama, etc.  

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to the kaThopanishad mantra:

yasya  brahmaSca kshtram ca ubhe bhavata odanaH |  (kaTho.  2.25)

"He for whom brahma and kshatra (the movables and immovables) both  become food".

SrI vAsishTha notes that just as the ocean is the source of the rain  that results in the small rivers, and the  rivers merge back into the  ocean,
so also bhagavAn is the Origin of everything, He is the  Support for everything (bhoktA), and He is also the end of everything  
(One Who consumes everything in the end - bhoktA) - utpAdayitA,  rakshitA, bhakshitA ca bhavati.

e) SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN uses the meaning "to protect" for the  root `bhuj',
and interprets the nAma as "One Who protects the good" -  bhunakti pAlayati SishTAn iti bhoktA.

890. sukha-dah

a) The Giver of Bliss to His devotees.
b) The Remover of happiness for the wicked.
c) The Remover of tiny pleasures from His devotees  (dyati - cuts) so that they can seek the Higher Bliss.
d) The Remover of unhappiness for His devotees (a- sukha-dah; dyati - cuts).
e) He Who is the source of water for all beings  (sukham = udakam  = water).
f) He Who has given a beautiful body to the jIva-s.

Om sukha-dAya namah.

We studied this nAma in Slokam 49 (nAma 460).  The reader is referred  to the write-up for nAma 460 as well.

a) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 49, SrI BhaTTar's  interpretation was that this nAma indicated bhagavAn's guNa of  bestowing bliss on those who followed the sadArAca.  It should be remembered that the `sukha' that is bestowed by bhagavAn, in addition  to including the ordinary pleasures of life, specifically refers to  the pErinbam or the Supreme Bliss of moksha, which He alone can  bestow among all the deities. 

For the current instance of the nAma, SrI BhaTTar continues on the  interpretation of the immediately preeceding nAma-s describing the  ascent of the jIva to parama padam, and interprets the current nAma  as follows: 
amAnava mukhena spRshTvA sa-vAsanam samsAramutsAyam,  
svApti sukham dadAti iti sukha-dah. -
Once the jIva reaches the final  step, bhagavAn removes the last traces of contact of the jIva with  this world along with the latent impressions, and confers Bliss on  the jIva, and so He is called sukha-dah.  The touch by the amAnava  purusha removes all traces of association of the jIva with samsAra,  and thus purified, the jIva is led to paramAtmA. 

SrI BhaTTar gives support from the Upanishad:

tat purushah amAnavah sa enAn brahma gamayati  | 
esha  devayAnah panthA iti || (chAndogya. 5.10.2)

"From there (through the moon, vidyut etc.), the amAnava, the super- human, takes him to parabrahman.  This is known as the path of the  gods."

SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN's interpretation is along the same lines -  
tato mAnavena sva-pArshadena AnItAya vidhvasta-li'nga dehAya
sva- bhaktAya sva-pArshada tanu lAbha rUpam sukham dadAti it sukha-dah. 

b) SrI Sa'nkara gives two alternate interpretations for the  nAma `sukha-dah': 
i) He Who bestows happiness on the righteous ones -  sukahm dadAti; or
ii) He Who deprives the wicked of their happiness -  sukham dyati. 

c) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives another anubhavam for the nAma:   
sukha-dah = sukham dyati - bhagavAn even takes away the `sukham' of  His devotees, namely the ordinary pleasures of life,
in order to help  the devotees lose their attachment to the materialistic pleasures,  and instead seek the higher Bliss of attaining Him. 

d) SrI Sa'nkara also uses an alternate pATham - a-sukha-dah, and  gives the interpretation that bhagavAn removes the misery of His  devotees - asukham dyati, and so He is called a-sukha-dah.

e) SrI vAsishTha notes that sukham means `udakam' or `water' as  specified in nighanTu (1.12) - probably based on the root khanu -  avadhAraNe - to dig.   So he interprets the nAma as referring to  bhagavAn being the Giver of water in the form of wells, rivers,  ponds, etc., for the survival of all the beings. 

f) Alternately, SrI vAsishTha interprets the term su-kha as a  reference to this body - a well-dug moat, and since bhagavAn has  given this body to the jIva-s, He is su-kha-dah - suvyavasthita  khAtam ca idam SarIram jIvebhyo dadAti iti su-kha-dah.  The Lord has  beautifully mixed flesh and bones with fluids and made a beautiful  piece of creation called the `body', and so He is `su-kha-dah'.

891. naika-daH

a) The Giver of many things (Literally, The Giver of Not just one thing).
b) He Who is not `born' just once, but many times (naika-jaH).

Om naika-dAya namaH.

a) The nAma can be looked at as na-eka-daH.  SrI BhaTTar continues  his interpretation based on the reception accorded to the mukta jIva  who is arriving at SrI vaikunTham.  He explains the nAma as follows:   ekam dadati iti eka-dAH; tad-viruddAh naika-dAH - Those who give only  one thing are called `ekada-s;  unlike these, naikada-s are those  that give not just one thing, but many things.  The context in which  SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma is in terms of the reception accorded  to the mukta jIva as he ascends to parama padam.  BhagavAn has  thousands of celestials as His attendants, who are well-versed in the  art of giving to the mukta-s, and who bestow countless garlands,  clothes, etc., as the jIva arrives.   He quotes the kaushItakI  Upanishad in support:

tam pa'nca-SatAni apsarasaH upadhAvanti Satam mAlA-hastAh  
Satam a'njana-hastAH .tam brahmAla'nkArena ala'nkurvanti.(1.4).

"Five hundred apasara-s (divine damsels) rush forth to receive the  mukta.  A hundred of theme have garlands in their hands, and another  hundred have scented ointments etc., in their hands to decorate  him..They decorate him with the adornments of the Brahman itself".

SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN's interpretation is also that He is the  Giver of many things  -
"na ekam vastu dadAti, api tu sva-paryantAni  sarvANi vastUni dadAti" -
He gives everything, including Himself. 

SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj also gives a similar interpretation,  namely, that bhagavAn's nAma `naika-dah' refers to His being the  Bestower of all the four purushArtha-s - dharma, artha, kAma and  moksha -
bhaktebhyo na ekAn arthAn bahUn eva kAmAn catur-varga  
antarvartino dadAti iti naika-dah.

b) SrI Sa'nkara uses the pATham `naika-jah' - One Who is not born  just once, but has many births for protecting dharma - dharma guptaye  asakRt jAyamAnatvAt naika-jah.  Note that the birth referred to here  is to His incarnations out of His own free Will, and not the births  because of karma that the jIva-s take.  Lord kRshNa declares:

paritrANAya sAdhUnAm vinASAaya ca dushkRtAm    |
dharma samsthApanArthAya sambhavAmi yuge yuge   ||   (gItA  4.8)

"For the protection of the good and also for the destruction of the  wicked, for the establishment of dharma, I am born from age to age".

SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to Lord kRshNa's words in the  previous Slokam of gItA:

yadA yadA hi dharmasya glAnir-bhavati bhArata     |
abhyutthAnam adharmasya tad-AtmAnam sRjAmyaham  || (gItA 4.7)

"Whenever there is a decline of Dharma, and an uprising of adharma, O  arjuna!, then I incarnate Myself". 

SrI satya sandha tIrtha uses the pATham ,naikajah, but gives an  entirely different interpretation - he looks at the nAma as  consisting of the upasarga `ni', and the word ka-ja.  He interprets  the word ka-ja as `born from water', namely lotus etc.  ke jAyanti  iti kajAni kamalAni.  He then interprets `ni-kajA as a reference to  SrI mahA lakshmi, and gives the meaning to naikajah as "The Lord of  SrI mahA Lakshmi".   Alternatively, he interprets `nikajam' as a  reference to the gardens or forests containing lotuses, tulasi  flowers etc., and then gives the interpretation that bhagavAn's nAma  symbolizes that He is ever present in these places -  nitarAm kajAni  yasmin tad-vanam ni-kajam, tatra bahvo nai-kaja iti - He Who is  present where there are lots of lotus flowers, tulasi flowers etc.    He quotes:

tulasI kAnanam yatra yatra padma vanAni ca    |
vasanti vaishNavA yatra tatra sannihito hariH   ||

"Hari is present in the tulasi gardens, in the forests where there  are lotus flowers, and in places where vaishNava-s live".

As his last interpretation, he gives the explanation of His being  born many times through His incarnations.

SrI raghunAtha tIrtha, another AcArya of the dvaita sampradAya, uses  yet another pATham - aneka-dah,
but the meaning he gives is the same  as the ones who use the pATham naika-daH -
anekAni bahUni dadAti it  aneka-daH.anekAni bahUni dadAti it  aneka-daH.

892. agra-jaH - He Who manifests in front of the mukta-s.

om agra-jAya namaH.

agra means first.  agra-jaH means One Who is born first, or existed  before everything - agre jAyata iti agra-jaH.  SrI vAsishTha refers  us to the purusha sUkta mantra -
pUrvo yo devebhyo jAtaH; namo rucAya  brAhmaye" (yajur. 31.20). 

SrI BhaTTar uses the word agra in the sense of `in front', and ja in  the sense of "One who came forward".  He continues the interpretation  of the current nAma along the lines of the mukta jIva's arrival at  SrI vaikunTham.  He explains the nAma as referring to bhagavAn coming  forward, or manifest Himself, along with SrI or mahA Lakshmi, to  welcome the mukta jIva on his arrival at SrI vaikunTham.   His words  are: 

evam prAptAnAm muktAnAm agre saha sarveSvaryA SriyA yathA -parya'nka 
vidyam parama bhogyo jAyate iti agrajah "    }

This is described in the kaushItaki Upanishad:

" sa Agacchati amitaujasam parya'nkam" iti prabhRti  |
upaSrIrupabRmhaNam tasmin brahmAste, tamitthamvit pAdenaiva agre
Arohati, tam brahma Aha "ko'si" iti" iti prabhRti ca   |  sA yA
brahmaNi citiH yA vyashTiH tAm citim jAyati, tAm vyashTi vyaSnute
iti" ityevamantA hi parya'nka vidyA   |(kaushI. 1.5, 1.6)   

"The mukta comes near the dazzlingly lustrous couch.  The Supreme  Brahman is seated on it with Lakshmi beside Him and the celestial  attendants around Him.  The mukta who has meditated on the Lord thus,  now realizes Him in this manner, and climbs on the couch.  The  Supreme Brahman enquires about the mukta.  Then the mukta acquires  the knowledge that the Supreme Brahman has.  He also enjoys the Bliss  that is that of Brahman".

SrI Sa'nkara gives the explanation - agre jAyata iti agra-jaH - "The  First-Born".

Other interpreters give interpretations that all refer to His having  existed before anything else existed.   SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj  refers us to SrImad bhAgavatam, which describes that brahmA was able  to see Lord SrIman nAraYaNa and His loka-s prior to starting his  creation, through intense tapas:

tasmai sva-lokam bhagavAn sabhAjitaH sandarSayAmAsa param na  yat-param   |
vyapeta samkleSa vimoha sAdhvasam sva-dRshTavadbhiH  abhishTutam   ||  (bhAga. 2.9.9)  }

"Thus worshipped, Lord vishNu revealed to brahmA His Abode, SrI  vaikunTham, that is blemishless, above which there is nothing  superior, and which is the object of meditation and praise by the  learned Atma-j~nAni-s".

SrI cinmayAnanda explains the nAma as: "The One Who was First-Born".   Naturally, everything came from Him alone".  That from which  everything comes, in which everything exists, and into which  everything finally merges, is agra-jaH.

893. a-nir-viNNah

a) He Who is not despondent that the jIva-s are  not resorting to Him for redemption.
b ) He Who is relieved of worry after having liberated a jIva who  becomes a mukta.
c) He Who is not depressed because He has nothing to wish for.
d) He Who is not tired of fulfilling the wishes of His devotees.

om a-nir-viNNAya namaH.

We studied this nAma earlier in Slokam 47 - nAma 436. 

SrI satya devo vAsishTha gives two roots for deriving the nAma:  vid -  sattAyAm - to happen, to be; and vid - vicAraNe - to discuss, to  consider.  ni- is an upasarga or preposition that is used in many  senses, including `a collection'.  nirviNNa means `despondency,  depression'.  a-nirviNNah refers to "One Who does not have any  concerns".  SrI vAsishTha gives the interpretation - nirvedam  kshobham kleSam Alasyam vA na prApnoti sa a-nirviNNo vishNuH - He Who  does not become despondent, indifferent, depressed, lazy, etc., is a- nirviNNah; or,  yo na kadAcidapi nir-vedam = khinnatAm (viraktatAm)  prApnoti sa a-nir-viNNah - He Who does not attain depression,  despair, frustration etc.,  on any account is a-nir-viNNah.  The  different vyAkhyAna-kartA-s give different anubhavam-s of why He is  without concerns or worries.

a) For the instance of the nAma in Slokam 47, SrI BhaTTar explains  that bhagavAn engages in His act of creation, and gives bodies to the  jIva-s, and gives them the benefit of all pleasures, hoping that they  will turn to Him for redemption.  But the jIva-s continue to revel in  material pleasures, and His wish is not fulfilled.  But He does not  become despondent over this unsuccessful outcome, and goes on with  His next cycle of creation.  This is how the cycle of creation and  destruction go on repeatedly, and He never gives up or becomes  dispirited in the process. a-nirviNNaH = an-alasaH - He Who does not  become indolent, lazy, frustrated, giving up, etc.

SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr - SOmbAdu ip-palluruvai  ellAm paDarvitta vittA - periya tiruvantAdi 18.  tirumazhiSai AzhvAr  also refers to bhagavAn as "bhakti uzhavan" in his nAnmugan  tiruvantAdi 23 - BhagavAn tries to inculcate bhakti even in those who  have gone away from Him, without giving up, even as a farmer keeps  cultivating his land no matter whether he get results out of first  effort or not. 

b) For the current instance of the nAma, SrI BhaTTar gives the  interpretation that bhagavAn `ceases to be concerned - because he is  relieved', and so He is a-nirviNNah - devoid of concern.  This  interpretation is a continuation of his interpretations of the  previous nAma-s starting with vihAyasa-gatih (nAma 880), describing  the path taken by the released soul - mukta jIva, to SrI vaikunTham.   SrI BhaTTar explains that bhagavAn is at last relieved that His  devotee - the mukta, has arrived safely at SrI vaikunTham, and has  been united with Him.  Until this time, this jIva as an object of  compassion for  bhagavAn, who keeps worrying about whether this jIva  will use his life to become free of his karma-s and move towards  Him.  Now that this jIva has become a mukta - a released soul,  bhagavAn does not have worries about this jIva any more. 

SrI BhaTTar give the example of how relieved Lord rAma was, once He  crowned vibhIshaNa as King of la'nkA.  He had given His word to  vibhIshaNa to crown him as the king of SrI la'nkA, and until the time  of coronation of vibhIshaNa, Lord rAma felt that He had a word that  He still had to fulfill.  After the coronation, He felt relieved as  One who had fulfilled His duty at last - kRtakRtyas-tadA rAmo vi- jvaraH pramumoda ha -  (bAla kANDam 1.85).

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan comments that in the very first pASuram of  tiruvAimozhi, the term "tuyar aRu SuDar aDi", was enjoyed by  emperumAnAr as "tuyar aRum SuDar aDi" - the Lotus Feet that became  free of tuyar or sorrow, because He had blessed AzhvAr  with "mayarvaRa madi nalam" -  the intense j~nAna and bhakti that are  free from any flaws or deficiency.  

c) Sri Sa'nkara explains that bhagavAn is `not depressed - a- nirviNNaH',
because He has nothing to be depressed about, since He  has all His desires fulfilled, and He has nothing more to attain  - 
avApta sarva kAmatvAt, aprApta hetyabhAvAt, nirvedaH asya na vidyata  iti a-nirviNNaH. 

SrI cinmAyananda refers us to the gItA Slokam 3.22:

na me pArtha asti kartavyam trishu lokeshu ki'ncana    |
nAnavAptam avAptavyam varta eva ca karmaNi   ||        (gItA  3.22)

"For Me, arjuna, there is nothing in all the three worlds which ought  to be done,
nor is there anything not acquired that ought to be  acquired.  Yet I go on working".

d) SrI ananta kRshNa SAstri gives another view - BhagavAn never gets  tired of fulfilling the desires of His devotees, and so also He is a- nirviNNah - One Who does not get exhausted, negligent, lazy, etc., in  fulfilling His devotees' desires. 

The same explanation is given by  SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj -
na nirvindati kadApi svajana  kAmanApramaparA pUrtishu iti a-nirviNNaH.

SrI vAsishTha and SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri both note that nirviNNa -  virakti - frustration, despondency, etc., are characteristics of  those who keep changing constantly, or for those who can't get enough  of what they want, or not satisfied with what they get.  All of these  happen because of the effects of pUrva-janma karmA.  None of these is  an issue for bhagavAn -  He has no birth and no karma, He is never- changing, He has everything He wants, and can get anything He wants  at His will.  So He is beyond being dissatisfied, frustrated etc.  He  is full of Bliss, brahmAnanda svarUpan.  BhagavAn's creations are  changing constantly, and are suffering from their karma-s, and so  they undergo nirviNNa, but He Himself is beyond all these, and so He  is a-nirviNNaH. 

894. sadA-marshI

a) He Who is ever patient (sadA _ marshI).
b) He Who is patient towards the mistakes of good  people (sat +A+marshI).
c) He Who is extremely impatient with the wicked  people (sadA + AmarshI).

Om sadA-marshiNe namah.

The root from which the nAma is derived is mRsha - titikshAyAm - to  suffer, to allow, to pardon. 

SrI BhaTTar continues his description of the arrival of the mukta  jIva in SrI vaikunTham.  He enjoys the nAma in terms of bhagavAn's  trait of helping the mukta jIva in performing kainkaryam to Him once  he is in SrI vaikunTham.  The `patience' aspect comes in since  bhagavAn patiently accepts, with pleasure, all kainkaryam offered to  Him by the mukta.  Whatever kainkaryam the mukta wishes to perform to  bhagavAn out of his intense love and bhakti to the Lord, He will  accept it with a sweet disposition, even if it is not a kainkaryam  that He needs.  SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr's  tiruvAimozhi pASuram 10.8.10:

uRREn ugandu paNi Seidu una pAdam peRREn, EdE innam vENDuvadu entAi ..

"Oh Lord! It was given to me to enjoy Your Lotus feet.  The  kainkaryam (in this case, the singing of tiruvAimozhi by AzhvAr) was  performed with an ardor that led to the enjoyment of Your Lotus  feet.  This enjoyment of Divine feet is what I would request for all  time .".

b)  SrI Sa'nkara interprets the nAma as -
sataH sAdhUn Abhimukhyena  mRshyate kshamata iti sadA-marshI - He Who always forgives,  especially if the good men commit any aparAdham unintentionally.    SrI Sa'nkara looks at the nAma as sat + A + marshI, `sat' referring  to the `good people'. (SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri).  The prefix A is used  in some instances to signify "from all sides" (SrI vAman Apte's  dictionary).

SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj echoes the same thoughts - 
sataH sAdhUn A  samantAt masrshitum Seelam yasya iti sad-A-marshI.

SrI SAstri refers us to SrImad rAmAyaNam in support:

katha'ncit upakAreNa kRtena ekena tushyati    |
na smarati aparakArANAm Satamapi AtmavattayA   ||  (ayodhyA.  1.11)

"Lord rAma is intensely pleased with even a single act, even minor,  that is performed towards Him; 
On the contrary, He does not even  keep it in His mind even if a hundred acts are committed that are  unhelpful to Him, out of His sheer nature".

SrI satya devo vAsishTha gives support from the Rg veda, illustrating  the extreme patience of bhagavAn:

nAkshas-tapyate bhUri bhAraH (Rg. 1.164.13)

"The axle of the wheel that supports all the living creatures never  becomes over-heated,
and is never broken".

c) SrI satya sandha tIrtha derives the exact opposite meaning for the  term sadAmarshI, based on looking at the nAma as "sadA + AmarshaH  (instead of sadA + marshaH) -  sadA AmarshaH kopo daityeshu asya asti  iti sadAmarshI - He Who is extremely impatient with the evil people,  the demons.   In samskRt, the prefix A is sometimes used to give the  opposite meaning of the verb it is associated with (e.g., gam - to  go, Agama - to come).  So also, marshI - One who is patient, A- marshI - One who is angry or impatient.  SrI Apte gives the  meaning "anger" to the word "AmarshaH" in his dictionary.

895. lokAdhishThAnam - The Support of all the worlds.

Om lokAdhishThAnAya namaH.

The root word for the nAma is sthA - gati nivRttau - to stand, to  be.  adhi is a prefix, which means `principal, chief, supreme' in the  current context.  `loka' refers to the worlds.  He Who is the  Principal Support for all the worlds is "loka adhi-sThAnam' - lokasya  adhishThAnam lokAdhishThAnam. 

In continuation of his anubhavam of the previous nAma-s in terms of  the mukta jIva's arrival at SrI vaikunTham, SrI BhaTTar specifically  refers to bhagavAn being the Support of the world that the mukta jIva  enjoys, namely the world of bhagavAn's nitya vibhUti. 

SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN echoes similar thoughts -
lokAnAm  svAntikam AgatAnAm svajanAnAm nityam ASryatvAt lokAdhishThAnam - He  is the final resting place and Abode for those who have reached the  end of their journey and reached Him.  

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to tiruvAimozhi: ...
SAi koNDa immaiyum SAdittu vAnavar nATTaiyum  nI kaNDu koL enRu vIDum tarum ninRu ninRE.    (tiruvAi.  3.9.9).

"He gives all mundane prosperity.  Then He takes us to vaikunTham,  and tells us: 
"This is your house.  Take it".  We then become owners  of vaikunTham.".

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives several supports from the Sruti:

- tasminnAthasthur-bhuvanAni viSvA (Rg. 1.164.13) -
Rco akshare parame vyoman yasmin devA adhi viSve nisheduH  (Rg. 1.164.39) -
yasminnidam sam ca vicaiti sarvam (tait. AraN. 10.1.1)

SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives additional support:
- yasmin viSvAni bhuvanAni tasthuH (yajur. 17.30).

SrI Sa'nkara gives the interpretation -
tam anAdhAram adhishThAya  trayo lokAH tishThanti lokAdhisThAnam -
The three worlds rest in Him  as Support, even though He Himself needs no support. 

SrI rAdhAkRshNa  SAstri notes that He is the Support for the world
in the forms of His  kUrma and varAha incarnations, and in the form of AdiSesha. 

896. adbhutah

a) He Who is extremely wonderful.
b) He Who makes appearances occasionally amongst us.
c) He because of Whom grains, food etc. exist (Adyam  = grains).

om adbhutAya namaH.

SrI satyadevo vAsishTha derives the nAma using the root bhU - to be,  and the uNAdi sUtra 5.1 (adi bhuvo dutac). 
`ad' is an indeclinable  meaning `occasionally' or `sudden'.   The term `adbhuta' also  means `AScarya' - wonderful.  

a) SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma in terms of His  being "Insatiable" -
He is always delightful to enjoy, no matter how  much we have enjoyed Him. 
He is a source of wonder always, as if  unseen before -
sarvadA sarvaiH sarvathA anubhave'pi apUrvavat ati- vismayanIyaH. 

SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN captures the spirit of the interpretation  through the following words -
"vicitraiH pratikshaNam nItanaiH guNa  rUpa caritaiH taiH teshAm vismaya karaNAt adbhutaH" -
He makes His  devotees - the mukta-s enjoy Him every second in great wonder and  amazement,
by expressing His guNa, rUpa, etc. through numerous acts  that give pleasure to them.

SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives support from divya prabandham:
- paNDu ivaraik kaNDu aRivadu evvUril yAm (periya tirumozhi  8.1.9) -
Where did I see Him earlier?  In what divya kshetram? 
Or,  have I not seen Him before anywhere?

- innAr enRu aRiyEn; annE!  AzhiyoDum pon Ar Sa'ngam uDaiya
aDigaLai innAr enRu aRiyEn (periya tirumozhi 10.10.9) -
"My mother! I am unable to identify Him Who has the divine cakra in His hand,
and also the golden hued bow by name Sar'ngam.  I just can't define Him."

- aRpudan nArAyaNan, ari, vAmanan
niRpadu mEvi iruppadu en ne'njagam..........(tiruvAi. 8.6.10)

"Lord nArAyaNa who delights in performing wonderful acts" -
adbhuta  cEshTitangaLai uDaiya en appan.   What are His `adbhuta  cEshTita'ngaL' - His wonderful acts?  He helps not only His devotees  but also His enemies.  He takes incarnations and assumes all kinds of  forms including that of a boar, a tortoise, or anything at all, to  make sure He helps His devotees, and He gives us delight beyond  measure when He get to enjoy Him.  He comes as a dwarf vAmana, and  then rises to all the three worlds; and while He stands spreading  over all the worlds thus, He at the same time is occupying a seat in  my heart.  Such is the nature of His adbhuta ceshTita'ngaL.

SrI Sa'nkara gives support from the Upanishad and from bhagavad gItA:

- kaThopanishad:

SravaNAyApi bahubhir-yo na labhyaH SRNvanto'pi bahavo yam na vidyuH    |
AScaryo vaktA kuSalo'sya labdhA AScaryo j~nAtA kuSalAnuSishTaH   ||   (kaTho. 2.7)

"The Supreme Self is such that He is not gained by many for the mere  hearing, and not known by many even while hearing.  Rare is an  expounder of Him, and rare is an able attainer, and rare is he who  knows Him under the instruction of an adept teacher". 

SrI  cinmayAnanada summarizes the message as
"He, and the teacher who  teaches of Him, and even the student who grasps Him are  all `wonders'". 

- Bhagavad gItA:

AScaryavat paSyati kaScidenam AScaryavat vadati tathaiva cAnyaH     |
AScaryavac-cainam anyaH SRNoti SrutvApyenam vada ca caiva kaScit     ||  (gItA 2.29)

"One looks upon this self as a wonder;  likewise, another speaks of  It as a wonder;
still another hears of It as a wonder; and even after  hearing of It, one knows It not".

The message of both passages is identical.

b) SrI vAsishTha gives the meaning: ad = kadAcit bhavati iti  adbhutam - He Who occasionally appears, is adbhutam.  sannapi a- bhUtam iva iti arthah - Being present, He is not present at the same  time.  While bhagavAn exists amongst us all the while, we are  oblivious to this fact, and more or less live in a state where He  does not exist for us.  This is signified by the nAma `adbhutaH'.

c) SrI raghunAtha tIrtha explains the nAma as
"Adyam = bhogyam  annAdikam bhavati asmAt iti adbhutam -
"He because of whom grains and  food exist for sustaining life, is adbhutaH".  (The term Adyam refers  to "grains, food etc.).

-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan