a-raudraH kuNDalI cakrI vikram_yUrjita-SasanaH |
om a-raudrAya namaH
He Who is not driven to anger easily.
The root from which the nAma is derived is rudir - aSru vimocane - to cry, to weep, to roar.
SrI BhaTTar notes that bhagavAn is gentle, agreeable, and cool by nature, and is not irate, even though He is sarveSvaran - parama aiSvarye'pi guNa SItalimnA a-raudraH. Hence He is called a-raudraH. Note the dhyAna Slokam starting with
SrI Sa'nkara's interpretation is -
SrI raghunAtha tIrtha gives an essentially similar interpretation -
SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN notes that bhagavAn is the exact opposite of raudram -
He Who is bedecked with beautiful ear-rings.
om kuNDaline namaH.
The term kuNDalam refers to the ear-ring, or the decoration worn for the ear
In his SaraNAgati gadyam, Bhagavd rAmAnuja describes bhagavAn as
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to nammAzhvAr's description of His makara kuNDalam in tiruvAimozhi pASuram-s 7.3.10 and 8.8.1:
- makara neDum kuzhaik kAdan mAyan (7.3.10) -
The term kuNDalee also refers to a `serpent' -
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives the support for this interpretation from SrImad bhAgavatam:
bibharti sA'nkhyam yogam ca devo makara kuNDale |
"The Supreme Deity wears the sA'nkhya and yoga as His two makara kuNDala-s and the whole brahma lokam as His crown".
SrI vAsishTha indicates the roots for the nAma as kuDi - dAhe - to burn, or kuDi -rakshaNe - to protect.
SrI satya sandha tIrtha explains the nAma as - makarakuNDalvAn kuNDalee,
om cakriNe namaH.
The nAma occurs also in Slokam 107 (nAma 995). (nAma 417 - sudarSanaH, is related).
SrI BhaTTar explains the nAma as - "tAdRSa divyAyudhaH cakrI" -
"nitya sudarSanaH | svabhRtyasura pratibhaTa rakshaH asura SONita kalmAshita jvAlA'ncitam cakramapi tathiva iti cakrI" -
BhagavAn is called cakrI because He has it as one of His weapons".
Note that SrI BhaTTar avoids the punarukti dosham by interpreting the nAma cakrI in the current instance as a mark of His divine ornament,
NammAzhvAr praises and enjoys the guNa of bhagavAn as the Protector (rakshakattvam) - `kAkkum iyalvinan' -
We have bhagavad rAmAnuja describing the divine Ayudha-s of bhagavAn in his SaraNAgati gadyam -
SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives several references to divya prabandham:
- nammAzhvAr describes His always bearing the cakra in readiness to help His devotees -
In his upanyAsam on SrI vishNu shasra nAmam, SrI velukkuDi kRshNan points out that the cakra is a distinguishing mark of emperumAn,
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives several additional references:
- sudarSanam cakram asahya tejaH (SrImad bhAga. 8.20.30) - The sudarSana Discus with its intense brilliance.
SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri comments that bhagavAn used this cakra of His during the protection of gajendra,
SrI Sa'nkara's interpretation is:
SrI Sa'nkara gives support from vishNu purANa:
cala svarUpam atyantam javenAntaritAnilam |
"vishNu holds in His hand the cakra which represents the mind that is unsteady, and which is swifter than the wind". The sudarSana cakra in His hand is always rotating and ready to be discharged at anyone who causes obstacles to His devotee, and so it is equated to being `unsteady' in this translation.
An alternate interpretation given by SrI Sa'nkara for the instance of this nAma under Slokam 107 is
The word `cakra' also means `army' - (varUthinI balam sainyam cakram.. amara koSa 2.8.78);
a) He Who has prowess.
om vikramiNe namaH.
We had this nAma in Slokam 9 (nAma 76). The word `vikrama' means 'valor', as well as `a pace, stride' (SrI Apte's dictionary).
a) For nAma 76, SrI BhaTTar uses the first meaning above, and comments that bhagavAn is called vikramI because it is His nature to dispel any possibility of anything going against His desire or will -
SrImad SrImushNam ANDavan explains that bhagavAn has the `viSesha kramam' that He will eliminate any obstruction to His Will, and so He is called vi-kramI.
SrI veLukkuDi kRshNan refers us to Lord rAma's declaration to sugrIva, that He will eliminate any foe with the tip of His finger, if only He so wishes:
piSAcAn dAnavAn yakshAn pRthivyAm caiva rAkshasAn |
"O King of vAnara-s! If only I so desire, I can eliminate any of the beings, be it a piSAca (devilish being), asura, yaksha, or rAkshasa, with the tip of My finger".
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan notes that the whole of tiruvAimozhi 5.10 speaks of bhagavAn's vikramam. Some examples are given below:
- piRandavARum vaLarndavARum periya bhAratam kai Seidu,
"How You were born, what all You suffered, what miracles You wrought, how You grew up with mischief-s, how you killed Your foes sportively, how You contrived to conduct a battle showing Your deftness in support pf pANDava-s, the many episodes that You enacted that pass one's understanding.."
- vaduvai vArtaiyuL ERu pAindadum mAya mAvinai vAi piLandadum . (5.10.2)
"To win nappinnai in marriage, You jumped on the seven bulls and slew them.
- peyyum pUm kuzhal pEy mulai uNDa pILLait teRRamum pErndu Or
"You beautifully got rid of pUtaNA who tried to trick You by decorating herself like a well-meaning mother,
b) For the current instance of the nAma, SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation -
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to periAzhvAr's emotional recollection of bhagavAn's vikramam:
- unnuDaiya vikkiramam onRu ozhiyAmal ellAm ennuDaiya ne'njagam pAl Suvar vashi ezhudikkoNDEn (periAzhvAr tiru. 5.4.6)
"My Lord! Just like the pictures that are drawn on a wall and that are very clearly visible to the eye,
SrImad SrImushNam ANDavan SrI ra'ngarAmAnuja mahAdeSikan explains the nAma as a reference to the `vikrama gati' - the walk that is consistent with His valor and heroism. He refers us to ANDAL, who describes His majestic walk or vikrama (stride) resembling that of a lion that is just coming out of its cave and surveying its surroundings with its authoritative majesty:
mArI malai muzha'ngil mannik kiDantu uRa'ngum
SrI vAsishTha indicates the derivation of the nAma from the root kram - pAda vikshepe - to walk, to step.
idam vishNur vicakrame tredhA nidadhe padam |
yasyorushu trishu vikramaNeshu adhikshiyanti bhuvanAni viSvA (Rg. 1.154.2) -
SrI Sa'nkara uses the meaning `pAda vikshepa - stride', as well as bhagavAn's prowess, in his interpretation:
In his SaraNAgati gadyam, bhagavad rAmAnua lists a series of bhagavAn's kalyANa guNa-s, including Sauryam - vikramam,
- svAbhhAvika anavatikAtiSaya j~nAna bala aiSvarya vIrya Sakti
"You are the Ocean unto which flow rivers of limitless excellent virtues, all natural to You, and useful for the protection of the devotees.
SrI velukkuDi kRshNan enjoys the nAma in terms of bhagavAn's act of bestowing His blessings on His devotees without any limit or restraint.
c) SrI satya sandha tIrtha gives another anubhavam - he interprets the term `krama' as `tAratamya' or `stepwise differences'.
SvAmi deSikan describes the avatAra rahasyam of emperumAn in his SaraNAgati dIpikA (Slokam 17), emphasizing that in all of bhagavAn's incarnations,
d) SrI raghunAtha tIrtha gives yet another interpretation - he interprets `krama' as `occupation' or `function', and gives the meaning
He of inviolable commands.
om Urjita-SAsanAya namaH.
SrI vAsishTha derives the term Urjita from the root Urj - bala prANanayoH - to strengthen, to live, and gives the meaning `balavat' or `endowed with strength' to the word "Urjita". He derives the word SasanaH from the root "SAs - anuSishTau - to teach, to inform, to govern, to correct, to advise. Thus `Urjita-SAsanaH" would mean "One Who governs with forceful effectiveness" - balavat anuSAsanam = A~jnAnuvartanam yasya sa UrjitaSAsanaH vishNuH anatikramaNIya niyamaH - He Whose order cannot be transgressed or violated.
SrI BhaTTar's interpretation is - viri'nci purandarAdi alanghyA~jnaH Urjita-SAsanaH - He Whose commands cannot be disobeyed even by brahmA, indra, and others. SrI baladeva vidyA bhUshaN gives an essentially similar explanation - vidhi rudrAdi ala'nghya A~jnatvAt Urjita-SAsanaH.
In his tiruvASiriyam-3, nammAzhvAr refers to emperumAn as `ANai mei peRa naDAya daivam' - The Lord Whose commands are fulfilled without obstruction (reference by SrI v.v. rAmAnujan). SrI veLukkuDi kRshNan refers us to tirumazhiSai AzhvAr - poru kaDal nIr vaNNan ugaikkumEl, et-tEvar vAlATTum? (nAnmugan tiruvantAdi 38) - Not a single one among all the deities can as much as lift a finger against bhagavAn's Will.
The taittirIya upanishad declares:
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj gives support from bRhadAraNyaka Upanishad:
etasya vA aksharasya praSAsane gArgi sUrya candramasau vidhRtau tishThataH |
"yA~jnavalkya said: O gArgi under the mighty rule of this immutable Brahman, the Sun and the moon are held in their positions. Under the mighty rule of this Brahman, heaven and earth in their positions..."
SrI Sa'nkara gives another dimension to the anubhavam of the power of His commands - in the form of Sruti and smrti-s - "Sruti smRti lakshaNam Urjitam SAsanam asya iti Urjita-SAsanaH - He of powerful commands in the form of Sruti and smRti. SrI Sa'nkara gives the following support:
Sruti smRtI mamaivA~jne yaste ulla'nghya vartate |
The Lord has said: The Sruti and smRti are My commands. He who overrides them is a violator of Law and My enemy. Such a person, though he may profess to be My devotee, is not a true VaishNava (worshipper of vishNu)".
SrI cinmayAnanda asserts the inviolability of bhagavAn's Laws - "It permits no exceptions, accepts no excuses, admits no circumstantial conditions".
He Who is beyond words.
om SabdAtigAya namaH.
SrI vAsishTha explains the nAma as "Sabdam atigacchati = vAcam atikramya vartate iti `SabdAtigaH".
SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that His Glory is such that even the thousand-tongued AdiSesha, or the veda-s with all their innumerable branches, or even Goddess sarasvati herself, will be unable to describe them through words -
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives the following examples:
- tan muDivu onRu illAda taN tuzhAi mAlaiyanai Sol muDivu kANEn nAn Solluvadu en? SollIrE? (nammAzhvAr's tiruvAimozhi 2.5.8)
"His Power, beauty, quality, splendor, feats, etc., have no end. The tulasi garland around His neck is proof of His overlordship. How can I describe in words what I have enjoyed? If any of you think you can describe His greatness, try it".
- tE nIr kamalak kaNgaLum vandu en Sindai niraindavA! . tU nIrk kaDaluL tuyilvAnE endAi Solla mATTEnE! (tiruvAi. 8.5.4)
"You have filled my mind with Your captivating, honey-exuding, watery, kindly lotus eyes. I recall with gleeYour lying in sleep in the middle of the Milky Ocean. Oh My Lord! It is not enough that I have the mental experience; I will not be able to put in all in words here".
The Sruti itself declares about Him:
SrI Sa'nkara also explains the nAma as One Who transcends speech, because He is not of a species that can be described by words -
SrI cinmayAnanda explains that the veda-s only `point to the Truth', but cannot explain, or even define the truth.
SrI BhaTTar describes nAma-s 912 to 945 that follow, in terms of the gajendra episode (gajendra mokshaNam).
om Sabda-sahAya namaH.
The word Sabda is derived from the root Sap - AkroSe - to curse, to wear, to blame, and the use of the uNAdi sUtra 4.97 - SASapibhyAm dadanau - The affix dan comes after the root roots Sap - to curse, with the meaning Sabda - noise. The term saha is derived from the root sah - marshaNe - to forebear.
SrI BhaTTar relates the nAma to the cry of help from gajendra; since bhagavAn bears the responsibility of protecting even animals which may incoherently cry for help, He is called Sabda-sahaH - aspashTa SabdAnAm tiraScAmapi Arta-Sabdam ati-bhAramiva sahate iti Sabda- sahaH. Arta refers to one who is in distress or pain. BhAratvena sahati iti sahaH - He treats the cry for help from the Arta just like carrying a major responsibility or load. When bhagavAn heard the cry of gajendra for help, the cry of "AdimUlam", it immediately evoked a sense or urgency on the part of bhagavAn to help the wounded animal, and He left SrI vaikunTham in a very great hurry to help gajendra. BhagavAn noted that that the elephant had a flower in its hand, and He pondered over its devotion, and this was enough for Him to consider it a major responsibility of His to immediately rush to protect the elephant. `Sabdam' can refer to both good and bad words. SrI vAsishTha takes the word here to refer to `abusive words', and explains that the nAma signifies that bhagavAn puts up with even abusive words from His enemies, because He is full of patience - kshamA vibhUshA sakalasya loke, sarvam kshamAvAn sahate kshmAyAm. So his interpretation is that it is bhagavAn's kshamA or patience that is really spoken of through His nAma `Sabda-sahaH'. Note that Lord rAma is described as kshamayA pRthivI samaH - "In patience, Lord rAma is like Mother Earth". SrI vAsishTha notes that this same guNa transfers to those who are worshippers of Lord vishNu - they are kshamA-vAn-s, those endowed with a predominance of sAttvic tendency. SrI satya sandha tIrtha gives the example of bhagavAn putting up with the insults of Sage bhRgu - bhRgvAdi bhakta kRta tarjana rUpa Sabdam sahata iti Sabda-sahaH.
SrI Sa'nkara interprets the nAma as - sarve vedAH tAtparyeNa tameva vadanti iti Sabda-sahaH - He Whom alone all the veda-s proclaim, with single focus. SrI cinmayAnanda explains the nAma as "One Who allows Himself to be invoked by the vedic declarations".
He Who rushed to render help.
om SiSirAya namaH.
SrI vAsishTha indicates the root for the nAma as SaSa - pluta gatau - to leap, to jump. The word "SiSiraH' is formed by using the uNAdi sUtra 1.53, which states that the word is formed by adding the kirac affix to the root SaSa - to go by leaps. SaSati = Seeghram utplutya gacchati iti SiSiraH.
a) SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma in terms of bhagavAn rushing to the scene where gajendra needed help - Arta Sabda SravaNAntaram ati- tvarayA gataH SiSiraH. SrI BhaTTar quotes the following passage in support, to indicate the speed with which He arrived at the scene where gajendra needed help: SrutvA cakra gadAdharaH, sAnnidhyam kalpayAmAsa tasmin sarasi" - "Immediately on hearing the painful cry of the elephant gajendra, the Lord, armed with His Discus and Mace, flew (on the back of garuDa) and stood on the bank of the pond". Commentators enjoy this incident by pointing out that bhagavAn left without even informing pirATTi, and, when He found that garuDa was not fast enough for His desired speed, He carried garuDa in His hand, and jumped at the scene instantly.
SrI v.v. rAmAnujan refers us to the following divya prabandham passages in support:
- "Anaiyin tuyaram tIrap puL Urndu SenRu Azhi toTTAn (tirumozhi 2.3.9)
"He Who came on garuDa and relieved the misery of the suffering elephant gajendra by releasing the carkrAyudha against the crocodile".
- nArAyaNA! O! maNi vaNNa! NAgaNaiyAi! VArAi en iDarai nIkkAi - ena veguNDu tIrAda SIRRattAl SenRu iraNDu kUrAga ErA adanai iDar kaDindAn (SiRiya tirumaDal) - "When gajendra cried for help - O nArAyaNa! MaNi vaNNa! ananta Sayana! Please remove my misery", bhagavAn became very angry at the crocodile, hurried to the scene, split the crocodile into two, and relieved gajendra from his agony.
SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj also gives an interpretation similar to that of Sri BhaTTar - SaSati -drutam gacchati svajanAnAm avanAya iti SiSiraH - He Who rushes to the protection of His devotees is `SiSiraH'.
b) The word SiSirah also means `the cool season'. SrI Sa'nkara uses this meaning, and interprets the nAma as signifying that bhagavAn cools down the tApa-traya-s of His devotees (physical, mental and supernatural) - tApa trayAbhitaptAnAm viSrama sthAnatvAt SiSiraH. The three tApa-s are called AdhyAtmika, Adhibhautika, and Adhidaivika. SrI cinmayAnanda notes that bhagavAn has this nAma indicating that He is the cool resting place for those tortured by the heat of samsAra.
SrI vAsishTha uses both the above meanings for "SiSira', namely "one who leaps', and `the cool season', and gives the interpretation that bhagavAn's nAma "SiSiraH' signifies that He is One who supports all the beings by the methodic and regular changing of seasons etc.
SrI bala deva vidyA bhUshaN explains the nAma as - dRshTa mAtraH teshAm santApam nivartayati iti SiSiraH - By His very darSanam, all the sorrows of the devotees are washed away, as signified by the nAma SiSiraH.
a) He Who had the destructive weapons in His hands. b) The Maker of `night' - in the form of samsAra. c) The maker of night - the time for rest. d) He Who is in the form of the cool rays of the moon in the nights. e) He Who causes destruction of His enemies.
om SarvarI-karAya namaH.
a) SrI BhaTTar indicates the derivation of the word `SarvarI' from the root SR - himsAyAm - to tear to pieces, to hurt, to kill, and the application of the uNAdi sUtra 2.122 that results in addition of the affix shvarac to the root SR (SR + shvarac = SarvarI). SrI BhaTTar interprets the word `karaH' as "One with the weapons in His hands" (kara - hand). Some of the other interpreters use the meaning "He Who does" for the word `karaH', based on the root - kR - karaNe - to do.
SrI BhaTTar continues his interpretation in terms of the gajendra moksham incident - himsA para vidAriNI pa'ncAyudhI kare asya iti SarvarI-karaH - He Who had the five destructive weapons in His hands, when He came to help gajendra. BhagavAn has the five weapons - Sa'nkha, cakra, gadA (the mace), Sar'nga (the bow), and nandaka (the sword) in His hands, ready to destroy the enemies who are a source of harm to others.
b) One of the meanings for the word SarvarI is `night' - SRNAyAm loka ckashUmshi iti SarvarI (amara koSa vyAkhyAnam) - That which shuts out the vision of the beings. SrI Sa'nkara uses this meaning, and gives the interpretation that the nAma signifies that bhagavAn is "The Maker of Night". To those bound in samsAra, the knowledge of the Atman is dark as night, and to those who are illumined, samsAra is undesirable and dark as night. As bhagavAn is the cause of both of these, He is called SarvarI-karaH. SrI Sa'nkara quotes support from the gItA for this interpretation:
yA niSA sarva bhUtAnAm tasyAm jAgarti samyamI | yasyAm jAgrati bhUtAni sA niSA paSyato muneH || (gItA 2.69)
"What is night for all beings (i.e., lacking in knowledge of the self), in it the controlled one is awake; when all beings are awake (i.e., involved in the enjoyment of sense objects), that is the night to the sage who sees". (That understanding which has the self for its object, is obscure like night to most. But he who has subdued the senses and is serene, is awake in respect of the self).
c) SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri comments that the daytime reflects rajo guNa or activity, and the nighttime reflects tamo guNa or inactivity. In this nighttime, the feeling of "I", "mine" etc., are not dominant in our lives. This alternation of day and night is a great help from nature for our lives in this world. The `night' allows us to rest, and forget all the worldly worries. The j~nAnI enjoys the calm of the night even while he is awake. But the aj~nAnI is given the chance to rest by bhagavAn blessing him with the `night' time to rest. So bhagavAn is "SarvarI-karaH" by giving the time of rest - the night for all of us. SrI kRshNa datta bhAradvAj also gives a similar interpretation - SarvarI niSA loka-viSrAma dAyinI | tasyAH karaH sampAdakaH iti SarvarI-karaH - He Who gives the night which is a time of rest for all the beings.
d) A different anubhavam is given by SrI satya sandha tIrtha using the meaning `rays' for the term `karaH', and the meaning `night' for the word `SarvarI' - SarvAyAm = rAtrau, karAH = kiraNA yasya candrArgata rUpeNa iti SarvarI-karaH - He Who is in the form of the cool rays of the moon in the night.
e) SrI raghunAtha tIrtha uses the meaning `doer' for the word `karaH', but gives yet another anubhavam: SarvarI = himsA, tAm karoti iti SarvarI-karaH - He Who causes destruction of His enemies.