50. viSva karmA
One who cannot be defined, explained, measured, etc. through logical means, (but who can only be experienced)
pramAtum na yogya: aprameyah -
He is beyond reach through normal means because
Sri Bhattar goes on to point out that BhagavAn is aprameya because He is
beyond the sense organs of even Brahma and other gods.
a) The controller of the sense-organs of all including Brahma, Rudra etc.
The two interpretations are derived by looking at this word as hrshIkA +
Isa or hrishI + kesa.
Sri Sankara gives the following support from MahAbhArata, Moksha dharma, SAnti parva for the second interpretation:
"sUrya candramasoh SaSa vadamSubhi: keSa samjnitaih |
"The sun and the moon through their kesa or rays always uphold the
world by awakening it and causing it to sleep. By such awakening and sleeping,
the world is delighted.
Sri T.S. Krishnamurthy, who has written an English translation to Sri
Sankara bhAshya, has taken this guNAnubhava one more step by saying that the
keSa - hair of the Lord
One from whose navel the lotus (the cause of the Universe) emanates.
Sri Bhattar points out that this name substantiates or summaries all that has been said through the previous nAmas about BhagavAn being the creator or cause of Brahma (e.g., dhAtA, vidhAtA, dhaturuttamah).
Sri RadhAkrshNa Sastri gives a beautiful and simple explanation to enable the appreciation of this nAma. In our normal life, the child before and at birth is connected to the mother through the navel chord, and gets its nourishment from the mother through this chord. Similar is the chord from the Lord's navel, which is nothing but the Universe in its prakrti form, and which looks like a lotus which has not expanded. This is prior to its expansion through Time, and He is the nourisher of this creation of His (which is none other than Brahma).
The Lord of the immortal gods.
AmarANAm prabhuh amaraprabhuh.
The Lord is amaraprabhu because He created the different devatAs and entrusted them with acts such as creation, destruction, etc., made them immortal because of their functions, and directs them in their functions.
Sri Bhattar quotes the following words ascribed to Brahma in Uttara kANda in RAmAyaNa -
"mahArNave SayAnau'psu mAm tvam pUrvam ajIjana: |
"You were lying on the waters of the great ocean and you first of all created me. The entire duty of the PrajApati (the rulership of the beings) was entrusted to me by you".
Also, the following from MahAbhArata is given -
"etau dvau vibudha SreshThau prasAda-krodhajau smrtau |
"These two great gods (Brahma and Rudra) are said to have emerged from the sweet temper and wrath of BhagavAn respectively. They carry out the duty of creation and destruction in the way shown by Him".
a) One who is the agent of all actions with regard to the Universe.
viSvam karma jagad-vyApArah yasya sa viSva karmA.
Among the many passages in the sruti that support the interpretation are:
"so'kAmayatabahu syAm prajAyeya iti -
"so'bidhyAya SarIrAt svAt sisrkshu: vividhAh prajA: -
The Great Thinker: MananAt manuh -
In the BrhadAraNya upanishad, we have
"nAnyo'to'sto mantA -
To mentally conceive an act prior to the act itself is mananam. BhagavAn has to but think and not do anything else in order to achieve what He wills. The creation of the cosmos was only a minute part of His will. Sri Bhattar uses the word sankalpa lava mAtrAt - by the mere fraction (lava mAtrAt) of His will, to explain this.
One who created all the different forms and names in this Universe.
name is dervied from the root tvaksh - to pare, to reduce, to chisel. Sri
Bhattar uses this meaning to interpret this nAma to mean that BhagavAn has
tvashTAram rUpANi vikurvantam vipascitam.
Sri Sankara uses the same meaning to interpret this name as indicating that BhagavAn pares down all the beings or makes them shrink at the time of cosmic dissolution or pralaya. It is interesting to note that the first interpretation refers to the creation of forms and shapes from the primordial matter, and the second interpretation refers to the dissolution of forms and shapes back into primordial matter.
One who is exceedingly huge in size.
The name is derived from the two words sthUla and ishTha - One who willed to be huge.
Sri Bhattar points out that this huge size is the manifestation of BhagavAn
as the brahmANda (the egg-shaped
One who has always existed, older than the oldest.
The name is derived from the root stha - tishThati - to stand. This nAma signfies that BhagavAn is not constrained by Time. All His creation goes through the cycle of creation and pralaya, and He uses Time for His creation and dissolution, but He is not constrained by it. Thus He is older than the oldest.
One who is unaffected by Time, Unchanging, Permanent.
The word is derived from the root dhr - to carry, maintain, preserve, to be eternal, immovable - (sthiratvAt dhruvah). The previous nAma indicated that BhagavAn is the oldest of the oldest. This nAma signifies that He is unchanging while Time keeps moving.
Perhaps because both the nAmas sthavira and dhruva refer to the quality of BhagavAn being beyond the influence, effect, or control of Time, Sri Sankara has chosen to interpret the two words as one nAma - sthaviro dhruvah - One who is unchanging and older than the oldest. Thus the sequence number for the nAmas that follow start differing from this nAma between Sri Sankara bhAshya and Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna.