b) The Remover of all obstacles.
c) One who moves in the hearts of the devotees
d) One who removes the ignorance from the hearts of His devotees
e) One who is the root of all sound (akshara "a").
This nAma occurs two more times later (nAma 206 and 524).
a) The first meaning is derived as na jAyata iti ajah - One who is not born in the traditional sense.
Sri Sankara gives the following from the srutis to support this explanation:
na jAto na janishyate - He was neither born nor will be born (Rg veda 1.81.5)
"na hi jAto na jAye'yam na janishye kadAcana |
kshetraj~nah sarvabhUtAnAm tasmAt aham ajah smrtah || MB SAntiparva 330.9
"I was not born, nor am I born, nor will I have a future birth; I am the soul in all beings; hence I am called the Unborn".
Other references to the name aja are:
"ajo nityah SASvato'yam purANah" (kaThopanishad 1.2.18), and
"sa vA esha mahAn aja AtmA" (brhadAraNyaupanishad 4.4.22).
Sri Bhattar points out that BhagavAn only emerges out of a pillar etc., but is not born like others (see the explanation for svayambhuh - nAma 37).
b) There are several interpretations of the nAma aja using the meaning "movement" for the root aj - aja gati kshepaNayoh - The root 'aj' signifies movement or throwing away .
Sri Bhattar uses this meaning and interprets the name as meaning "The Remover of all obstacles" to ensure that His devotees accomplish in their objective of reaching Him. Sri Sankara uses the same meaning for aja (movement, motion) and comes up with the explanation - ajati gacchati kshipati iti vA ajah - He who moves into the heart of His devotees. Sri rAdhAkrshNa SAstri uses the meaning "movement" and interprets the name as Remover of the ignorance in us, or One who goes to the bhaktas to enable them to reach Him, or One who throws away His weapons at anyone who disturbs or causes hardship to His devotees.
One other explanation given for aja is akAravAcyatayA jAtah - One who is known through the letter "a". - akAra vAcyatayA jAtah ajah. In the gItA we have "aksharANaAm akAro'smi - (gItA 10.33) - I am 'a" among the syllables. Sri rAdhAkrhNa SAstri points out that at the time of pralaya the panca bhUtas coalesce into ehter (the reverse of AkASAt vAyuh, vAyoragnih, aganerApah, adbhyah pethivI, etc.)., and the ether coalesces into its tanmAtra, the sound, and Sabda ultimately dissolves into the sound "a", which is the form of BhagavAn at the conclusion of prlaya. The sruti is 'akAro vai sarvA vAk". In tirukkural we have "akara mudalAya ezhutthellAm Adi bhaghavan mudatre ulagu".
a) One who reaches all who seek Him
b) One who is the Isvara for all isvaras
a) Sri Bhattar derives the first interpretation from the root aS to pervade. By the uNAdi sUtra 738, aSnoterASukarmaNi varat ca - the affix varat comes after the root aS - to pervade, when the word formed from it refers to "having the power of granting success soon". Thus aS + varat = ISvarah. The interpretation is that He is sarveSvara because He quickly reaches all those who have taken refuge in Him in order to avoid delay in dispelling their uneasiness whether they are qualified or not. Or rather, the sufficient qualification is that they have taken refuge in Him.
b) sarveshAm ISvarANAm ISvarah sarveSvarah. The Sruti says - esha sarveSvarah - BrhadAraNya upanishad - 4.4.22 - He is the Lord of all lords.
One who is available at the hands of His devotees.
niruktam summarizes Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna as svarUpeNaiva bhaktAnAm siddhatvAt siddhah ucyate - He is in the hands of His devotees in His true form. A siddha can also mean One who has accomplished all that has to be achieved. Sri Sankara gives the interpretation that He is ever perfect - nitya nishpanna rUpatvAt siddhah.
An interpretation for the amarakoSa gives the definition siddhyati iti siddhah.
The word siddhi literally means accomplishment, success etc. BhagavAn is siddhi because He is the Goal or accomplishment by adopting the means. Or, in the context of success or accomplishment, He is siddhi because He gives the ultimate fruit of action, moksha. All other accomplishments can only give lesser benefits such as the lesser joys of heaven etc., but only by attaining Him one can get moksha, the ultimate success.
The Origin or Cause of all things.
SarveshAm purushArtAnAm Adih sarvAdih or sarva bhUtAnAm AdikAraNatvAt sarvAdih. One who is the very beginning of all; One who was in exsitence earlier than anything else. Even before the effects arise, the Cause. The Infinite whish was before creation, and from which the created beings emerged out.
a) One who has never slipped from His glory.
b) One who never lets His devotees slip.
c) One who undergoes no modifications such as birth, growth, decay,
This nAma occurs two more times later (320 and 557).
a) cyti means "fall" and cyuta means "fallen". acyuta means "One who has never fallen from His true nature". Several explanations are given to further expand this guNa of the Lord. Sri Bhattar points out that He does not ever fall from His position of overlordship unlike Brahma, Indra, etc. who are subject to loss of position, and therefore He is called acyuta. Sri rAdhAkrshNa SAstri points out that He also does not slip from His position by being influenced by kAma etc. unlike Brahma, Indra etc.
In mahAbhArata we have
"yasmAt na cyuta pUrvo'ham acyutastena karmaNA" - SAnti parva 12.330.16.
Sri Sankara and Sri Bhattar have interpreted the above sruti slightly differently. Sri Sankara's words are - svarUpasAmarthyAt na cyuto na cyavate na cyavishyata iti acyutah - He has not lapsed, is not lapsing, and will not lapse from His own glory; hence the name acyuta. Sri Bhattar's interpretation fo the above Sruti lead to the second meaning, which follows:
b) Sri Bhattar's vyAkhyAna for the above is "I have never abandoned (my bhaktas). Because of this act of mine, I am known as acyuta". His words are "tebyah prapannebhyah na apagatah acyutah - He is never away from those who have sought refuge in Him". Sri tirukkaLLam nrsimharAghavAchAryar in his bhagavadgItA bhAshya has given the explanation na cyAvayati iti acyutah - One who does not let His devotees slip - arjuna using this name here to call Lord krshNa who has taken it upon Himself to be his charioteer and who will not let him slip.
c) cyutam means modification. The upanishad says of BhagavAn - "SASvatam Sivam acyutam" - Eternal, Auspicious, and Changeless" - taittirIya AraNyakam - 10.11). Sri rAdhAkrshNa SAstri points out that BhagavAn is acyuta because he does not slip from stage to stage in the sequence of events such as birth, living, growth, change in appearance, decay, and finally disappearance from the body.
One who lifted the Earth from the waters of adharma in the form of varAha.
In the mahAbhArata we have
"kapir varAhah SreshThaSca dharmaSca vRsha ucyate |
tasmAd vRshAkapim prAha kASyapO mAm prajApatih || (Santi parva 330.24)
"The word vRsha means dharma, and the word kapi refers to boar (pA means to protect and ka means water, and so kapi refers to varAha incarnation where He protected the Earth from the waters). Sri chinmayAnanda points out that the name derives from the fact that He protected the Earth from the ocean of adharma in His varAha incarnation. The meaning dharma for the word vRsha is based on the ability of dharma to shower all that is desired.
Sri chinmayAnanda points out that this is one of the nAmas on which there is wide controversy between the different vyAkyAna kartAs; however, in the few tests that I have referred to, this indication of serious controversy is not evident. If any of you can elaborate on other interpretations by our AchAryas and other vyAkhyAna kartAs, I will be extremely grateful.
One whose Nature cannot be comprehended.
Ameya means unaccountable or incomprehensible. Sri ChinmayAnanda indicates that the virAt purusha form of the Lord is suggested here. His self or nature is such that it cannot be measured by any particular standard and determined.
104. sarva yoga vinissRtah
a) One who is beyond any attachment
b) One who is easily attained by all means by His devotees
The word yoga can mean union or it can mean the means. Depending on which one of these is chosen, we get a different interpretation. VinissRta means gone forth or out, or escaped according to the Sanskrit dictionary by Sir William-Monier.
Using the first meaning for yoga, we get the interpretation that He is free from any and all of kind of bondage, and so He is sarva yoga vinissRta. Using the second meaning, Sri Bhattar's interpretation is that He is attainable easily by all means. His interpretation is - yOgaih - upAyaih; vi - viSheshENa - vEda parama guhyairiva; nissRtah - prAptum yogyah, sugraha iti vA.