320. acyutahHe who does not fall from His status.om acutAya namah.This nAma occurred previously (nAma 101). The different interpretationshave been covered there.The additional material below was not covered earlier. SrI v.v. rAmAnujanadds the following reference from rAmAyaNa - "mitra-bhAvena samprAptam na tyajeyam kathancana dosho yadyapi tasyasyAt " - "No matter what flaws a person has, if he has come to Me seeking Myfriendship, there is no way that I will abandon him under any circumstance".SrI rAmAnujan also gives the reference to divya prabandham - "kArtigaiyAnum kari-mugattAnum kanalum mukkaN-mUrtiyum mODiyumveppum mudugiTTu" - the reference here is to the story of bANAsura who wasabandoned by the other devatA-s when he approached them for protection. Notso with bhagavAn - na me bhaktah praNaSyati - "My devotee will never perish" - gItA.Another meaning for acyta is One who does not slip from His position - nacyuta iti acyutah. The dharma cakram writer points to the passage inmuNdakopanishad which describes the two birds sitting in different branchesof the tree, one tasting the fruit and the other just watching the bird thatis tasting the fruit (of karma). This has been described in a previouswrite-up. BhagavAn is the acyuta, from His superior position, watching thejIvAtmA which is tasting the fruits of karma in this case.
321. prathitahOne who is famous, One who is of great reputation.om prathitAya namah.The nAma is derived from the root prath - to become famous (prath - prakhyAn - prasiddhi). This fame can be associated with the previous nAma - His guNaof being acyuta, or on account of His creation, sustenance, etc. of theUniverse. Supports for the interpretation are: "tasya nAma mahad-yaSah" -taittirIya nArAya... 1.9; "yaSasaSca eka bhAjanam" - rAmAyaNa - kishkindA ..15.19; perumai uDiaya pirAnAr - tiruvAi mozhi - 1-6-9; nagar-il- pugazhAi -tiruvAi mozhi - 6-10-10.The dharma cakram writer points out that the fame that is derived fromthings such as wealth, position in life, etc. are impermanent and disappearas soon as the underlying cause that resulted in this fame disappears.This is not the case when the fame results from adherence to dharma, and inthis case the fame is permanent. This is as evidenced by the cases ofhariS-canDra, the pANDava-s, prahlAda, hanumAn, etc. BhagavAn is prathitahfor the same reason i.e., He is satya-parAkrama, satya, satya-kAma,satya-samkalpa, satya-vrata, etc., and so He is prathitah.
322. prANahThe Life-Breath.om prANAya namah.He is prANa for those who resort to Him (SrI BhaTTar). He is also thelife-energy for all beings (SrI Sankara) - prANo vA aham asmi - aitareyaAraNyaka 2.2.3). SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference to prabandham - ulagukkEOr uyirumAnAi - tiruvAi mozhi 6-9-7.The next 11 nAma-s are interpreted by SrI BhaTTar as describing the kUrma(Tortoise) incarnation.
323. prANa-dahThe Life-Giver.om prANadAya namah.Since He gave the strength to the deva-s to churn the Milky Ocean, He isprANa-dah (SrI BhaTTar). SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He isthe Life-giver to everyone (deva-s and asura-s), and also gives anadditional interpretation using the meaning dyati - cuts - He cuts thestrength of asura-s. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the followingexplanation - prANan dadAti dyati khaNDayati va sa prANa-dah - BhagavAn bothgives life to all beings, and takes away the life of all beings when thetime comes, and so He is prANa-dah in both senses.The dharma cakram writer points out that the different aspects of our lifeand body - such as our thoughts, our words, etc., are all differentreflections of the prANa in us. Without prANa, our life will cease toexist, and our body will cease to function. But by controlling this prANa,we can control our body and all its actions. There is no limit to what canbe achieved by having control over our prANa or breath. This nAma of mahAvishNu should teach us that the prANa that has been given to us by Himshould be used for good purpose.
324. vAsavAnujahThe younger brother of vAsava or indra.om vAsavAnujAya namah.SrI BhaTTar says in his vyAkhyAna that this nAma refers to BhagavAn beingborn as the younger brother of indra in order to help him get the nectarwhich he wishes to have. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points out that the referencein this nAma is NOT to upendra or vAmana (nAma 153). I am unable toexplain what this incarnation is.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives an interpretation which does not involve areference to indra. He interprets vAsavAnujah to mean One who has enteredinto everything in this world - vasati sarvatra vaste sarvam iti vA vAsuh ISvarah; vAsohidam vAsavam sarvam jagat; vAsavam jagat anujAto = anupravishTovAsavAnujah.
325. apAm-nidhihThe Sustainer of the waters of the ocean.om apAm-nidhaye namah.SrI BhaTTar continues his interpretation of this nAma based on the kUrmaincarnation, and points out that this name indicates that He sustained thegreat Ocean when it was being churned.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to tiruvAi mozhi - appanE! Azh-kaDalaik kaDaindatuppanE! (4.7.5).SrI Sankara gives the meaning "The Ocean" to this nAma based on "Apo yatranidhIyante sah apAm-nidhih - The place where the waters get collected inabundance". He also gives reference to the gItA - sarasAm asmi sAgarah -Among lakes I am the Ocean - gItA 10.24. SrI cinmayAnanda points out thatthe glory and might of the oceans are but a tiny reflection of bhagavAn'sglory divine.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri takes the anubhavam of this nAma a step further andpoints out that just as the waters of all the rivers and canals ultimatelyreach the ocean and lose their identity, so also those who worship BhagavAnbecome one with Him. In this sense He is apAm-nidhih, or the Ocean whereeverybody merges in the end.The dharma cakram writer points out that just as the ocean is the beginningand the end for the water (by evaporation of the waters of the ocean, thevapor rises, condenses and comes back in the forms of rain, which then formsthe rivulets and rivers, and these in turn go back to the ocean), so alsothe beings of this world originate from Him, and ultimately merge back intoHim. Just as the good water as well as the dirty water gets into the oceanbut then lose their identity and get merged into the ocean, so also thejIvAtmA-s attain equality without distinction when they reach Him. Unlikethe bounds which man can place for the lesser bodies of water, there is nobound that he can place for the ocean - another reflection of BhagavAn asapAm-nidhih or Ocean. Though the external surface of the ocean is full ofwaves, its deep inside is peace incarnate, and in this sense also He isapAm-nidhih.
326. adhishThAnamThe Support.om adhishThAnAya namah.SrI BhaTTar interprets this as referring to His supporting the mandaramountain in His kUrma incarnation. He gives reference to vishNu purANa insupport - "kshIroda-madhye bhagavAn kUrma-rUpI svayam harih | mandarAdreh adhishThAnam bhramato'bhUt mahA-mune || (1.9.88) :Bhagava nArAyaNa Himself, in the form of kUrma, supported themandara mountain in the middle of the Milk Ocean when the mountain wasrevolving (at the time of churning)".SrI Sankara gives the more general meaning that He is adhishThAnam becauseHe is the basis or support for everything in this Universe - adhithishThantibhUtAni.
327. apramattahThe Vigilant.om apramattAya namah.He is extremely attentive in the protection of those who are in distress(SrI BhaTTar). pramatta refers to one who is careless or inattentive.apramatta refers to His guNa of extreme vigilance in protecting those whohave surrendered to Him - ASrita-rakshakan. SrI Sankara's interpretationis that He is vigilant in awarding the effects of karma to those who areentitled to them. SrI cinmayAnanda points out that pramada refers to onewho makes errors in judgment, and apramatta is One who does not make errorsin judgment. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that the vigilance herecould also refer to bhagavAn being very careful and vigilant in distributingthe nectar that came out of the churning of the Milk Ocean to theappropriate persons.The dharma cakram writer points out that the lesson we should take from thisnAma is that we should always be vigilant about the thoughts that enter ourmind, and ensure that our thoughts do not stray towards the pleasures ofindriya-s but instead meditate on Him constantly. Just as a thief wouldnot enter a house where people are awake, negative thoughts won't enterone's mind when one is awake and vigilant in the thought of bhagavAn.Whenever negative thoughts enter one's mind, one should divert thosethoughts to positive energy by chanting bhagavAn's nAma instead. This isthe lesson one should take from this nAma.
328. pratishThitahHe who is self-dependent.om pratishThitAya namah.One who is supported and established in His own greatness, without anysupport from external sources. The following upanishadic quote echoes thisexplanation almost verbatim - "sa bhagavah kva pratishThita iti | sve mahimni" - (chAndogya7.24.1) To the question "Where is bhagavAn firmly established?", the replyis "In His own greatness".In vishNu dharma (72.2), we have a similar statement - "sve mahimni sthitamdevam" - "The Lord who rests on His own greatness".One who supports the rest of the Universe obviously is not supported bysomething external, since then His support will depend on something else.We get our greatness from our wealth, our fame, etc., which are allimpermanent; not so with bhagavAn - His greatness is not dependent onimpermanent things.SrI cinmayAnanda explains this nAma in terms of cause and effect.Everything else in this Universe has its cause, and thus everything else isan effect. Unlike this, bhagavAn is the Ultimate Cause.The lesson we should take from this guNa of bhagavAn is that we should learnto depend on the One who is Permanent in this Universe, and not be dependenton all the impermanent things such as wealth, fame, etc. The dharma cakramwriter gives the example of pANdava-s and kaurava-s. We are constantlyreminded of the impermanent things in life by the occurrence of aging,death, loss of fame, friend becoming enemy, etc., and all these should teachus that the life that is to be led is by meditating on the One who isPermanent, viz. bhagavAn. -dAsan kRshNamAcAryan