Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam - SLOKA 41

375. udbhavah

a) He who removes the bondage.b) He who is beyond the bondage of samsAra.c) He who is the origin of the udbhavAya namahOne who removes the bondage of samsAra of those who meditate upon Him. SrIBhaTTar points out that those who meditate on the incident of His beingbound by the rope (kaNNinuN Sirut-tAmbinAl kaTTuNNap paNNiya perumAyan) willbe removed from the bondage of samsAra - udbhavo bhavah asmAt iti udbhavah.SrI Sankara gives the interpretation is that He is free from the bondage ofexistence, and so He is udbhavah - udgato bhavAt samsArAt iti udbhavah.SrI Sankara's alternate interpretation is that He is the Origin of theUniverse - prapa~nca utpatti upAdAna kAraNatvAt udbhavah.

376.  khsobhaNah

The Creator of a khshobaNAya namah.The nAma is derived from the root kshub - sa~ncalane to cause motion ordisturbance. kshobayati iti kshobaNah. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam isbandhArhAn kshobayati iti kshobhaNah - One who creates tumult in the mindsof those who are fit to be bound in samsAra. SrI Sankara's vyAkhyAna isthat He creates vibration and agitation in purursha and prakRti(consciousness or jiva-s and primordial matter) at the time of creation byentering them. He refers us to vishNu purANa in support - "prakRtim purusham caiva praviSya AtmeccayA harih | kshobhayAmAsa sarga-kAle vyayAvyayI || (V.P. 1.2.29)An alternate interpretation, supported by SrI satyadevo vAsisshTha, SrIcinmayAnada, etc., is that He is kshobaNah because He keeps the beings inthe Universe vibrant by being their antaryAmi and constantly keeping them inmotion.

377. devah

He who sports devAya namah.dIvyati krIDati iti devah. He plays with the jiva-s by binding them withmAyA or prakRti. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to divya prabandham - palapala mAya mayakkukkaLAl inburum iv-viLaiyATTuDaiyAn (tiruvAimozhi 3.10.7).A similar concept is expressed in nAma 312 (nahushah), 335 (Adidevah), etc.SrI cinmayAnanda points out that the term dIvyati means "to shine', 'toconquer', ' to praise', etc. SrI Sankara includes the play of creation,the desire to conquer the enemies of gods, functioning in all beings,shining in all beings, being praised by the holy men, pervading all, etc.,as the reasons for His being the only deva. He quotes the SvetAsvatAraupanishad - eko devah sarva bhUteshu gUDhah (6.11) - There is only one Godwho is hidden in all things that exist - in support.

378. SrI-garbhah

a) He who has Lakshmi always with Him in His play asdevah.b) He who has Lakshmi in Him in the form of the Universe.c) He who is the abode of all auspicious qualities (SrI).om SrI-garbhAya namah.He is inseparably united with Lakshmi. In His play as the deva He hasLakshmi always as His companion. vishNoh eshA anapAyinI - She is everinseparable from vishNu - vishNu purANa - 1.9.144. SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnamis "bhoga-krIDA sahAyatvena vardhanIyA asya SrIh iti SrI-garbhah - He isinseparable from SrI or Lakshmi in His sports. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers todivya prabandham - kOla malarp pAvaikku anbAgiya en appan - tiruvAimozhi10.10.7.SrI Sankara gives the interpretation that He has Lakshmi or aiSvarya in Hisbelly in the form of the Universe. SrI cinmayAnanda gives theinterpretation that He has all the glories (SrI) in Himself, and so He isSrI-garbhah.The dharma cakram writer points out that just as the wealth that a motherprotects carefully is the child in her womb, a stingy person protects hiswealth, and a j~nAni protects his knowledge, so also mahAvishNu protects theUniverse. Just as the child cannot live independent of the mother, so alsothe Universe can't exist without bhagavAn.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that bhagavAn is the antaryAmi insideeveryone in this Universe (SrI), and this is as if He is in the garbha ofthe Universe, and so He is called SrI-garbhah.

379. parameSvarah

The Supreme parameSvarAya namah.aiSvarya means Lordship. BhagavAn is parameSvarah because He is the Lord ofall, including mahA Lakshmi - tiruvukkum tiruvAgiya SelvA - tirumozhi 7.7.1.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri derives the meaning from parA mA - paramA -mahAlakshmi, One who is above all Sakti-s. This paramA voluntarily seeksthe place in His vaksha-sthala and serves Him; thus He is paramAyAh ISvarah- parameSvarah.The dharma cakram writer indicates that just as a human being does well inruling over himself if he has full control of his indriya-s, BhagavAn is infull control of al the beings as the parameSvarah or Ruler of the Universe.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives an interpretation based on mA - SobhA.parameSvarah thus indicates One who has Supreme SobhA. One who has SupremeSobhA, who is the Lord of this and also has full control of this, andattracts and controls everything because of this, is parameSvarah - parA mAyasya sa paramah. sa ca asau ISvarah parameSvarah.

380. karaNam

The Means.

381. kAraNam

The Cause - He who causes others to karaNAya kAraNAya namah.The two nAma-s are being looked at together here because of their closerelation.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the derivation kriyate anena iti karaNam -That by which or through whom an act is done. BhagavAn is the only meansfor attaining Him. The eyes, ears, etc. which are the means of knowledgeare all aspects of this power of bhagavAn. kAraNam is the Cause that makesthe beings act using the karaNa-s.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan points us to pANini's words - sAdhaka-tamam karaNam -karaNam is that which is the best among means or sAdhana-s. He also remindsus of the nAma "hRshIkeSa" in this context - He who is the eeSa or Lord ofthe indriya-s (the eyes, ears, etc. are the j~nAnendriya-s, and the legs,hands, etc. are the karmendriya-s).Beyond these indriya-s, there are the antah-karaNa-s which are the citta,the mind, buddhi, and ahamkAra, which are also controlled by bhagavAn. Thedharma cakram writer points out that for us to control the j~nAnemdriya-s,the karmendriya_s, the antah-karaNa-s, etc., meditation on mahA-vishNu isthe means. He also refers us to the gItA to point out that the way toachieve this control is firm determination (vairAgya) and repeated training(abhyAsa).Following SrI Sankara's vyAkhyAna, SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri distinguisheskaraNam from the next nAma - kAraNam, by interpereting karaNam as "primarycause", and kAraNam as the supplementary causes. BhagavAn is both theprimary cause as well as the supplementary causes in the creation. He givesthe example of the creation of a mud pot from clay. Both the clay and someadditional instruments are needed in this process. But these alone will notresult in the mud pot, unless there is the involvement of the maker of thepot. BhagavAn is the reason for not only the primary cause but the othercauses as well. SrI cinmayAnanda explains karaNam as "He from whom theUniverse arises", and kAraNam as "He who causes the Universe to arise".

382. kartA

The kartre namah.This nAma occurred earlier as nAma 317. There the interpretation by SrIBhaTTar was based on paraSurAma incarnation, as the one who slayed the demonkArta-vIrya. In the current instance his interpretation is that bhagavAn isthe Agent who causes others to act.SrI cinmayAnanda quotes pANini - svatantrah kartA - One who freely andindependently performs the functions of creation, protection anddestruction, is the "Doer". SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that He iskartA because without Him, the mere existence of the pa~nca bhUta-s etc.could not have resulted in the Universe, just as the presence of clay etc.without the presence of a pot-maker could not have resulted in the creationof a pot.Even though the jIvAtmA-s may think that they are independent in their acts,nothing functions without His Will - avan anRi Or aNuvum aSaiyAdu. BhagavAnis the only svatantra kartA - One who acts independently of everything else.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to tiruvAimozhi 5.6.4 -"SeikinRa kidi ellAm yAnE enRum SeivA ninRanagaLum yAnE enRum Seidu mun iRandavum yAnE enRum Seiyap payan uNbEnum yAnE ennum SeivArgaLaic ceivEnum yAnE ennum .....BhagavAn just does not stop with being the Agent, He also feels the effectsof the actions of the jIvAtmA-s as if they were His own. vyasaneshumanushyANAm bhRSam bhavati duhkhitah utsaveshu ca sarveshu pitevaparitushyati - When the people suffered, RAma suffered more than they did,and when they were happy, He felt happy like a father. After crowningvibhIshNa, Lord rAma felt very fulfilled - kRta kRtyah pramumoda ha

383. vikartA

a) He who undergoes modifications.b) He who created the world of vikartre namah.a) vikurvANah vikartA. In truth bhagavAn does not undergo anymodifications. He is avikAra. However, since the Universe is an extensionof Him, and since the Universe undergoes modifications constantly, it can besaid that He undergoes modifications. He has no joy or sorrow that resultsfrom His own act; but since He considers others' acts as His own and feelsone with the joys and sorrows of His creations, the resulting vikAra ormodification and feeling of joy and sorrow is for the sake of His creation.Lord rAma did not experience joy when He was to be crowned, no did He feelsorrow the next day when He lost it.b) SrI Sankara's interpretation is that bhagavAn is the creator of thisvaried Universe - vicitram bhuvanam kRtavAn iti vikartA. SrI rAdhakRshNaSAstri points out that His creation is vicitra because it is beyondcomprehension, and He did it out of His leelA. No two things in Hiscreation are identical. The dharma cakram writer points that in addition,no two minds are same, no two faces are the same. We don't know our past,we don't know where we go after we pass away, nor how many more births wewill have to go through. We go through birth after birth, and in each birthwe learn that the external pleasures are not real pleasures, but we don'tcarry this memory and experience to the next birth. Time does not leaveanyone behind, but we ignore this and try to immerse ourselves in thepleasures of our indriya-s. All these are the vicitra-s of His creation.

384. gahanah

He who is deep and gahanAya namah.He is beyond our intellect and reasoning. He is inside all of us, and yetwe don't know Him. yah pRthivyAs tishThan yam pRthivI na veda --He whois in the earth but whom the earth does not know - bRhadAraNya upanishad5.7.3. He is in all the gods but the gods don't know Him - viNNavarkkueNNal ariyAn - tiruvAimozhi 1.9.2 (v.v.rAmAnujan). He is both the eye andthe object to be seen - cakshuSca drashTavyam ca nArAyaNah. SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to kaThopanishad - tam durdarSam gUDhamanupravishTam guhAhitam gahvareshTham purANam - 1.21.SrI Sankara points out that He is Unknowable in regard to His Nature,capability or acts.The dharma cakram writer takes us through several instances in young childkRshNa's leelA-s to illustrate this point. The gopikA vastrApaharaNam, theinstance of pUtanA, the lifting of the govardhana giri, the episode of beingtied by yaSodA by a rope, etc., illustrate our inability to understand Himthrough our logic and rationale. The only way to understand Him is throughdevotion.

385. guhah

a) The Savior.b) One who hides Himself effectively from guhAya namah.gUhati rakshati iti guhah. SrI v.v.rAmAnujan gives reference totiruvAimozhi - kAkkum iyalvinan kaNNa perumAn - 2.2.9. This is SrIBhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri adds that this protection islike that of a child protected by the mother when the child is in her womb.SrI Sankara interprets the nAma based on gUhate samvRNoti - He who hidesHis Nature, and gives the reference to gItA - nAham prakASah sarvasyayogamAyA samAvRtah - 7.25. SrI cinmayAnanda gives reference to vishNubhAgavta 10.37.11 - gUDho guhASayah sAkshI mahA purusha ISvarah - This Lord,the Great Purusha, the witness who dwells in the vase most secretively.MuNDakopanishad describes Him as "nihitam guhAyAm. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstrirefers us to kaThopanishad 3.12 - esha sarveshu bhUteshu gUDhAtmA naprakASate, and to gItA -avajAnanti mAm mUDhA mAnushIm tanuASritam | param bhAvamajAnanto mama bhUta maheSvaram || 9.11Yet another interpretation, given by SrI R. anantakRshNa SAstri, is that Hereclines in the heart (guhah) of all.
-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan