Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam - SLOKA 42

om vyavaSayAya namahom vyavasthAnAya namahom samsthAnAya namahom sthAnadAya namahom dhruvAya namahom parardhaye namahom paramAya namahom spashTAya namahom tushTAya namahom pushTAya namahom SubhekshaNAya namahSrI BhaTTar interprets the next few nAma-s as referring to the aspect ofbhagavAn as dhruva, the Pole Star.<

386. vyavasAyah

a) The Pivot (of the planets).b) One with a firm and resolute mind, One with TrueKnowledge about vyavasAyAya namahatiSayena sIyate (badhyate) asmin jyotiScakram iti vyavasAyah - The circleof planets is tightly bound and closely fastened to bhagavAn, and so He iscalled vyavasAyah. Space which is the support for the stars and planets isthe body of bhagavAn, and so He is tied to them tightly.SrI cinmayAnanda refers us to two Sloka-s in the gItA where the termvyavasAya occurs. SrI rAmAnuja in his gItA bhAshya (2.41) interprets theword as referring to "unshakable conviction" (about the true nature of theself) - vyavasAyo niScayah. The same interpretation is given in gItA 2.44.So vyavasAyah can refer to One with a resolute mind, or One who has TrueKnowledge of the self.

387. vyavasthAnah

The vyavasthAnAya namah.The basis for the nAma is the root sthA (sthiti). vyavasthAnam karoti itivyavasthAnah, or asmin vyavasthitih sarvasya iti vyavasthAnah. One whoestablishes everything, or One on whom the basis of everything resides; orOne who regulates everything in the Universe and the associated functions.vyavasthA is given the meaning "determination, decision, settlement" inApte's dictionary, and vyavasthit means 'established'. One who determineseverything is thus vyavasthAnah, and One who establishes everything intheir respective places or positions is vyavasthAnah.SrI BhaTTar associates this basis with kAla or time, which is the basis foreverything that happens in this world. This again is determined by themovement of the planets, of which dhruva is the pole or the pivot. SrISankara associates the nAma with bhagavAn being the One who divides andregulates everyone including the different protectors of the world, varioustypes of beings, takes care of their survival and sustenance, etc.

388. samsthAnah

The final samsthAnAya namah.sarvam etasmin santhishThate - samApyate iti samsthAnah. One in whom allthings have their ultimate end is samsthAnah. Another interpretation, givenby SrI v.v.rAmAnujan, is samApyate iti samsthAnah - One who terminateseverything at some stage is samsthAnah.SrI Sankara gives an additional interpretation - samIcInam sthAnam asya itisamsthAnah - He who has the supreme place. This is elaborated by SrIrAdhAkRshNa SAstri as referring to the Milky Ocean, the sUrya maNDala, theheart of the yogis etc., or His position as dhruva in the dhruva maNDala.

389. sthAna-dah

The Giver of the Supreme sthAnadAya namah.sthAnam dadAti iti sthAna-dah. da is "to give". There are many nAma-s thatend with the affix -da, and all of these can be understood based on thissuffix. Other examples are prANa-dah, mAna-dah, SAnti-dah, SrI-dah,darpa-dah, sarva-kAma-dah, and svasti-dah. sthAna-dah is One who gives thebest of the sthAna-s, paramapadam.SrI Sankara gives a more general interpretation as One who gives status tothe beings as they deserve - dhruvAdInAm karmAnurUpam sthAnam dadAti itisthAna-dah. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri points out that bhagavAn is the One whogave the position to dhruva which is unlike all the other stars viz. dhruvais fixed in position compared to the others who are in constant motion.SrI cinmayAnanda gives references to kathopanishad (yathAkarmam yathASrutam- 2.5.7), and quotes "karma phala dAtA nArAyaNah" to support SrI Sankara'sinterpretation. The dharma cakram writer gives reference to tirukkuraL tosupport the same interpretation - "vaguttAn vagutta vagai allAl kODi toguttArkkum tuyttal aridu".SrI satyadevo vAsishTha comments that bhagavAn gives the position to thestars in space, to the devas in the antariksha loka, to the water-livingcreatures in the Oceans, etc. At a lower level, He has even createdappropriate places in our bodies for the refuse that results from the bodilyfunctions.

390. dhruvah

The Stationary (Fixed).om dhruvAya namah.The root dhru means to be steady. He conferred a status on dhruva that isas permanent as SrI vaikunTham. Since He can make any place as permanentas His abode viz. SrIviakunTham, the significance here is that He iseverywhere.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri comments that bhagavAn conferred on dhruva thatwhich is only His Nature - viz. the indestructible status, and so dhruva isbhagavAn Himself. The dharma cakram writer points out that in the midst ofthe cycle of creation and pralaya where everything that has been createdmerges in Him and then reappears, He is the only permanent or fixed one, andso He is dhruva. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha takes the meaning "certain" fordhruva, and points out that even though everything except Him in thisUniverse is adhruva, by His Nature of dhruvatva He gives a sense ofcertainty to everything - thus the rising of the sun and the setting of thesun are dhruva or certain, birth and death are certain, etc.Next begins the story of SrI rAma. The next 16 nAma-s are interpreted bySrI BhaTTar in the context of rAmAvatAra. SrI BhaTTar titles this sectionas "The story of SrI rAma which resuscitates even the dead". SrIv.v.rAmAnujan points out the "bias" that SrI BhaTTar has for thisincarnation shows in the vryAkhyAnam that he gives for these nAma-s. Thetitle is just the beginning.

391. pararddhih

He who is full of noble and auspicious paraddhaye namah.Rddhih means vibhUti or manifestation. parA Rddhih yasya sa pararddhih -One who has a super-abundance of auspicious qualities or kalyANa guNa-s.SrI v.v.rAmAnujan comments that it is not an exaggeration to say that in noother incarnation do we find the perfection of auspicious qualities as inthe rAma incarnation. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to rAmAyaNa wheresome of these qualities are described in Sloka-s 1.1.8 to 1.1.18 by sagenArada to vAlmIki. The last two Sloka-s are given here as examples: "samudra iva gAmbhIrye dhairyeNa himavAniva | vishNunA sadRSo vIrye somavat priyadarSanah || kAlAgni-sadRSah krodhe kshamayA pRthivI samah | dhanadena samstyAge satye dharma ivAparah || "rAma has gAmbhIrya like an ocean, dhairya of himavAn, vIrya ofvishNu, the sweet appearance of the moon, anger comparable to that ofpralaya agni, patience of Mother Earth, tyAga of kubera, and satya of dharmadevatA".SrI rAmAnujan gives an additional interpretation: pareshAm RddhirevaRddhih yasya - One who considers para samRddhih or the fulfillment ofothers as His own. After crowning vibhIshaNa, Lord rAma felt happy by thesheer act of fulfilling His word - kRta kRtyah tathA rAmah. He alsoquotes "utsaveshu ca sarveshu piteva paritushyati" - When the citizens arehappy, He feels happy like a father who feels pleasure at the happiness ofthe child".

392. parma-spashTah

He whose greatness is parama-spashTAya namah.spashTa (pratyaksha, dRshTA) pAramyah parama-spashTah. His greatness isexplicitly obvious. SrI BhaTTar refers us to rAmAyaNa - vyaktameshamahA-yogI paramAtmA sanAtanah - (yuddha kANDam - 114.4). These aremandodari's words when she sees rAma after He slays rAvaNa in thebattlefield. Similarly, tArA, vAli's wife, recognizes rAma's divine natureas soon as she sees Him - tvam aprameyaSca durAsadaSca.....manushyadehAbhyudam vihAya divyena dehAbhydayena yuktah (rAmAyaNa 4.24.31-32). LordrAma's only goal and firm determination (mahA-yogi) in this incarnation wasprotection of the world, and His greatness can be clearly cognized by meansof direct perception. sumitrA's words are: "sUryasyApi bhavet sUryah" - Heshines even brighter than the Sun, and He is the One who gives brightness tothe Sun. Other references to Lord rAma's explicit greatness are His beingcalled "pumsAm dRshTi cittApahAriNam", "rUpa samhananam lakshmIm tadRSurvismitAkArAh", etc.The dharma cakram writer points out that it is this explicit greatness thatcaused bharata to throw away the kingdom that was offered to him and insteadbe devoted to rAma, lakshmaNa to serve rAma for 14 years without food andsleep, and hanumAn to surrender to rAma as soon as he met him and serve Himfor the rest of his life.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives an independent interpretation based on theroot spaS - to bind ( spaSati - badhnAti), and gives the meaning "One whobinds everything in a superb way" for parama-spashTa. The example of thecomplex human body, which retains its beautiful appearance in spite of itsinternal complexity, is given as an example. He gives the following quotesin support: asya spaSo na nimishanti (rg 9.73.4), divah spaSah pracaranti(atharva 4.16.4), etc.

393. tushTah

He who is full of tushTAya namah.Instead of being in SrIviakunTham where only a chosen few could be with Him,He decided happily to choose dasaratha, a human, as His father, and be bornin this world so that He was within reach of everyone. When the deva-sappeared before Him in His rAma incarnation and praised Him as bhagavAn, Hetold them that He was happy to consider Himself as a human, the son ofdasaratha - AtmAnam mAnusham manye rAmam daSarathAtmajam. As we saw before,He is one who was happy like a father of an accomplished child when Hiscitizens were happy - piteva paritushyati, and who attained unbounded joy byjust fulfilling His word to vibhIshaNa and crowning him as the king of lankA- pramumoda ha.SrI Sankara interprets the nAma as referring to His being The Supreme Bliss.SrI cinmayAnanda explains that He is tushTa - One who becomes happy evenwith the smallest of offerings. He refers us to"patram pushpam phalam toyam yo me bhaktyA prayacchati | tadaham bhaktyupahRtam aSnAmi prayatAtmanah || "I accept even if one offers some leaf or flower, fruit, or spoon ofwater, happily, if it is offered in love".The dharma cakram writer points out that bhagavAn is tushTa because He isnot subject to the pains and pleasures that other beings are subject to.rAma did not feel instant happiness when He was going to become king, norwas He sad when He was asked to go the forest for 14 years. kRshNa onlysmiled when gAndhAri cursed that the yAdava race should come to an endforever. bhagavAn is only the witness to all events, and is not influencedin any way by any event, which for the outsiders is deemed good or bad,happy or sad etc. This nAma should teach us that the proper way to realizebhagavAn is to be tushTa always, and be witness to the events around us butnot be attached to them, and train to be a yogi - santhushTah satatam yogI.<

394. pushTah

He who is full of noble pushTAya namah.pUrNatvAt pushTah. He is complete in every respect, and so there is no roomfor likes and dislikes, wants and desires. The dharma cakram writer refersus to vaLLuvar referring to bhagavAn as "vENDUdal vENDAmai ilAn".Meditating on the significance of this nAma will lead us to move towardsthis state where we overcome likes and dislikes.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha extends this meaning to also suggest that He ispushTa because He keeps all his creations fulfilled by making available themeans for them to be fulfilled - pushNAti iti pushTah.

395. SubehshaNah

He who has auspicious SubhekshaNAya namah.We have seen the nAma-s padmanibhekshaNah (346) and aravindAkshah (348)earlier. SrI BhaTTar refers us to ayodhyA kANDam - "yaSca rAmam na paSyettu yam ca rAmo na paSyati | ninditah sa vaset loke svAtma'pi enam vigarhate ||(ayodhyA 17.14) "Whoever has not seen rAma or whomsoever rAma has not seen, thatperson stands condemned by all people in this world, and even his own selfcondemns him".SrI v.v.rAmAnujan refers us to amalanAdipirAn - kariyavAgip-puDai parandumiLirndu SevvariyODi nINDa ap-perivAya kaNgaL, sung by tiruppANAzhvAr.subhRUh Ayata tAmrAkshah sAkshAt vishNuriva svayam - He with such beautifulbrows and bright long red eyes - He is none other than vishNu, is the praiseof the citizens of ayodhyA. hanumAn describes rAma to sItAdevi as "rAmahkamala patrAkshah sarva sattva manorathah - where he describes the greatnessof seeing His eyes as well as being seen by His eyes. sItA pirATTi herselfdescribes Her Lord rAma thus - tam padma daLa patrAksham .. dhanyAh paSyantime nAtham - Those who are blessed see the beautiful lotus-like eyes of mynAtha.SrI Sankara elaborates on the power of the beauty of His eyes thus: "IkshNam darSanam yasya Subham Subhakaram narANAm, mumukshUNAmmokshdam, bhogArthinAm bhogadam, pApinAm pAvanam, sarva sandeha vicchedakAraNam, hRdaya-granther vicchedakaram, sarvakarmANAm kshpaNam, avidyAyAScanivartakam sah SubekshaNah". "His mere sight is so auspicious and bestows good on all beings; itgives moksham to the spiritually minded, enjoyments to those that desirethem, cleanses sinners, removes all doubts, burns up all the karma-s, andremoves all ignorance".He quotes the Sruti "bhidhyate hRdaya-granthih chidyante sarva samSayAhkshIyante cAsya karmANi tasmin dRshTe parAvare" (muNDakppanishad 2.2.8) -The knots of the heart are cut....SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri gives us several references to the Sruti. IkshANamalso refers to the determination by bhagavAn that He will become many fromOne. This samkalpam became the auspicious decision which resulted in thecreation of this Universe. Since He is the One with the Subha IkshaNa orsamkalpa, He is SubhekshaNa. SrI SAstri gives the following quotes tosupport this interpretation: tadaikshata bahu syAm prajAyeyeti (chAndogya6.2); sa Ikshata lokAnnusRjA iti (aitareya 1.1.1); sa IkshAm cakre (praSno6.3); seyam devataikshata hantAhamimAh tisro devatA anena jIvenaAtmA'nupraviSya nAmarUpe vyAkaravANi (chAndogya 6.3).The dharma cakram writer points out several examples of individuals whobenefited by the mere sight of bhagavAn falling on them. arjuna asked LordkRshNa to bless him with His Merciful glance; as soon as this happened, allof arjuna's doubts were cleared, and he realized the true nature of his soulimmediately. guha, hanumAn, paraSurAma, and Sabari are just among some ofthe examples of people who gained immensely from the mere sight of LordrAma.-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan