Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam - SLOKA 45


417. Rtuh

Seasons (The Lord of Time who governs the seasons).om Rtave namah.The nAma is derived from the root Rgati-prApaNayoh to go. Rcchati itiRtuh. The term Rtuh which refers to seasons is based on the fact thatthe seasons push one another and keep coming fresh and lively withoutinterruption. SrI BhaTTar interprets the nAma as referring to bhagavAn'sauspicious guNa-s which are unique and delightful and which presentthemselves like waves of seasons in the hearts of His devotees and blessesthem. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri: Rtu refers to a two-month period, of whichthere are six in an year. These are called vasanta, grIshma, varsha,Sarad, hemanta, and SiSira. The cycle of time involves these Rtu-ssuccessively moving one after the other without interruption. This nAmaindicates that BhagavAn is in the form of Time which is behind the cycleof seasons. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri refers us to aruNa praSnam (9)-Rtur-RtunA nudyamAnah vinnAdAbhidhAvah - One season prods the other outand declares its arrival loudly.SrI satyadevo vAsishTha points out that bhagavAn is called Rtuh becauseHe is everywhere in the form of seasons.

418. sudarSanah

a) He of a delightful appearance that induces happiness in those who see Him.b) He whose vision leads to moksham.c) He whose eyes resemble the lotus petals.d) He who is seen easily by His sudarsanAya namah.SrI BhaTTar gives the interpretation that the nAma refers to His guNa thatthe very sight of Him is a source of delight and is auspicious even tothose who may be ignorant of His qualities and greatness. SrI v.v. rAmAnujan gives the term "dRshThi cittApahAri to describe thisguNa of BhagavAn.SrI Sankara has given three interpretations:a) su darSanam asya iti sudarSanah - He who has the good Vision that leadsto moksham. su - Sobhanam, nirvANa phalam; darSanam - j~nAnam, asya itisudarSanah. b) He who has eyes that resemble the petals of lotus - Subhe darSane -IkshaNe padma-patrAyate asya iti sudarSanah.c) He who is easily seen by His devotees - sukhena dRSyate bhaktaih itisudarSanah.SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri relates this nAma to the previous one byinterpreting the current nAma as referring to the devatA for the sudarSanacakra. Just as time is spinning uninterruptedly in the form of the sixRtu-s, the six-pronged sudarSana cakra is revolving powerfully andwithout interruption, and BhagavAn is the devatA for this sudarSanacakram. He gives the following reference in support of thisinterpretation - shaDaram vA etat-sudarSanam mahA-cakram tasmAt shaDarambhavati, shaD-patram cakram bhavati, shaDvA Rtavah Rtubhih sammitambhavati, madhye nAbhir-bhavati, .... (nRsimha pUrva 7.2).SrI satyadevo vAsishTha observes that this nAma refers to bhagavAn'sability to see and know everything in this Universe in and out clearly andwithout blemish through His netra in the form of the Sun, and also throughHis being the antaryAmi in everything.

419. kAlah

a) He who draws all towards Himself.b) He who measures and sets a limit to everythingc) He who is Death or annihilation to all His enemiesd) He who measures everyone's karma and doles out the phala.The nAma is derived from the root kala samkhyAne to measure or count. SrIBhaTTar's bhAshyam for this nAma is carAcara sa~nkalanAt kAlah - He whogathers everything - movable and non-movable, into Himself through Hisdelightful qualities (kalanAt kAlah).SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam is kalayati sarvam iti kAlah - He who measures andsets a limit to everything is kAlah. He gives reference to gItA - kAlahkalayatAm aham (10.30). SrI rAmAnuja bhAshya for this part in gItA isanartha-prepsutayA gaNayatAm madhye kAlah mRtyuh aham - Of those whoreckon with the desire to cause misfortunes or calamities, I am god ofdeath. tirukkaLLam SrI nRsimharAghavAcArya svAmi has commented that thereference here is to the One who is proficient in keeping track of timefor everyone's end viz. citragupta. It can also mean that He is the Deathor annihilation to all His enemies (SrI cinmayAnanda).SrI cinmayAnanda adds that this nAma signifies that bhagavAn measures themerits and defects in each individual, and doles out the appropriateresults - kalayati iti kAlah. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha has also given thissame interpretation - sarveSvaro vishNureva kAlo, yato hi sa kalayatigaNayati samasta-prANi-karmANi, tadanukUla phala-pradAya. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri observes that among those that are used to measureor quantify things, kAla or Time is the most precise; it is not prone toany error and keeps prodding everything to its destined end. This isBhagavAn's act. He gives reference to the following passage - "kAlo hinAma bhagavAn svayambhuh anAdi madhya nidhanah | sa sUkshmAmapi kalAm nalIyate iti kAlah | samkalayati kAlayati vA bhUtAni iti kAlah (suSrutasUtra 6.3).

420. parameshThI

a) He who resides in the Supreme Abode, SrIviakunTham.b) He who resides in the Supreme cave of the parameshThine namah.SrI BhaTTar gives the derivation - parame sthAne tishThati itiparameshThI - He who resides in the Supreme Abode, SrIvaikunTham. Aftercompleting His sport of hunting the rAkshasa-s, BhagavAn goes and stays inthe Supreme Abode, and so He is known as parameshThI. SrI v.v.rAmAnujanrefers us to tiruvAimozhi 6.4.10 - mAya~ngaL Seidu SEnaiaip pAzh paDanURRiTTup pOi viN miSaittana tAmame puga mEvia SOdi (jyoti). SrI cinmayAnanda, who follows SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam, bases his explanationon the kaThopanishad passage "parame vyomni prathisTHitah" - He who iscentered in the Supreme cave of the heart and readily available forexperience.

421. parigrahah

a) He who takes all with Himb) He who is grasped on all sides by those who seek refuge in Himc) He who accepts any offering by His devotees when offered with sincerityd) He who has everything in this Universe under His parigrahAya namah.SrI BhaTTar bhAshyam - atra tatra ca parito grahah asya iti parigrahah -Here, there, and everywhere, He accepts all. Quite appropriately, this isthe last of the nAma-s that SrI BhaTTar interprets as referring to the SrIrAma incarnation. When Lord rAma departed to SrIviakunTham after thepurpose for his incarnation was completed, He took every ayodhyA-vAsi withHim, including the gardens, trees, etc. SrI nammAzhvAr very nicelydescribes this - puRpA mudalAp pul eRumbu Adi onRinRiyE naRpAl ayoddhiyilvAzhum carAcaram muRRavum naRpAlukku uittanan nAnmuganAr peRRa nATTuLE(tiruvAimozhi 7.5.1). SrI BhaTTar concludes his anubhavam of Lord rAma's guNa-s by singling outHis souSIlyam as the most outstanding guNa in SrI rAma avatAra - His guNaof mingling with everyone without distinction regardless of His SupremeSuperiority.Among the interpretations given by SrI Sa~nkara are: a) parito gRhyate -He who is grasped on all sides by those who seek refuge in Him; and b)parigRhNAti iti parigrahah - He who receives (accepts) the offerings ofleaves, flowers, etc. offered by the devotees. Recall "patram pushpamphalam toyam..." in the gItA (9.26). SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives the interpretation that bhagavAn isparigrahah - paritah sarvatah grahaNam - He who has everything in thisUniverse under His control through His power.

422. ugrah

The ugrAya namah.SrI BhaTTar explains the next few nAma-s in terms of the kalkiincarnation. The nAma is derived from uc - samavAye - to collecttogether. At the end of kali yuga, when all are more inclined to commitsins, and when there is great confusion in the divisions of caste and theseveral stages of life, bhagavAn becomes ugra- furious and wrathful, andtakes the kalki incarnation and destroys the hosts of mleccha-s. SrIv.v.rAmAnujan points out that when bhagavAn is unable to conquer throughHis 'kUDArai vellum Sir" those who are bent on the path of adharma, it isthen that He becomes ugra.

423. samvatsarah

a) He who resides (in the pAtAla loka).b) He in whom everything samvatsarAya namah.The word is derived from the root vasati preceded by the preposition sam.SrI BhaTTar's vyAkhyAnam is that bhagavAn is reclining on the ananta-couchin the pAtAla loka with all His weapons awaiting the time when He has toappear as the kalki incarnation. SrI Sa~nkara bhAshyam: samvasanti bhUtAni asmin iti samvatsarah - He inwhom all beings reside. SrI cinmayAnanda gives the meaning "Year" to theword samvatsarah, and interprets this to mean Time, in the context ofwhich all beings exist and gather their experiences.

424. dakshah

He who is quick in dakshAya namah.The word is derived from the root daksh - to grow or act quickly. (Notethat the word dakshiNA also results from the same root, since it is meantto grow the welfare of the yajamAna). SrI BhaTTar continues hisinterpretation in terms of the kalki incarnation, and points out that thisnAma refers to bhagavAn's quick action in eliminating the dasyu-s(miscreants, looters) quickly during His incarnation. SrI v.v.rAmAnujanrefers us to nammAzhvAr 4.8.1 - kulam kulamA asurargaLai nIRAgum paDiyAganirumittup-paDai toTTa mARALan. This nAma also occurs later as nAma 917, where SrI BhaTTar interprets theword in terms of bhagavAn's being very fast in coming to the rescue ofgajendra, even though gajendra was just an animal. SrI v.v.rAmAnujanobserves that SrI BhaTTar's anubhavam of this incident is that bhagavAnwas so fast when He came to the help of gajendra that He did not have timeto inform pirATTi, and when He found that the speed of garuDa was notsufficient, He carried garuDa (instead of garuDa carrying Him) and flewand landed on the banks of the pond with utmost speed. SrI cinmayAnanda gives the explanation "He who is Smart", because He isvery prompt, efficient and diligent in His function of creation,protection, and destruction of the Whole Cosmos. He also explains the nAmaas referring to " bhagavAn's readiness to reach and help all, at alltimes, everywhere, under every circumstance".SrI Sa~nkara observes that daksha refers to one who has the threequalities, immensity, strength, and quick execution (pravRddhah, Saktah,SIghrakArI ca dakshah). This nAma conveys that all these qualities arenatural to the Supreme Being.

425. viSrAmah

a) The Place of Rest.b) One who provides rest to all the viSrAmAya namah.The word viSrAmah is derived from the word Srama. He is the place of restfor those who are extremely tired by the heavy burden of their sins andthe experience of their fruits. SrI satyadevo vAsishTha gives thederivation - viSrAmyati yasmin sarvam iti viSrAmah. BhagavAn is also theplace of rest for all the jIva-s at the time of pralaya. Another explanation provided by SrI satyadevo vAsishTha is - viSrAmayatisarvam iti viSrAmah. SrI rAdhAkRshNa SAstri observes that BhagavANcreated night after a day's toil for the beings to rest, death after alife of karma-s, fire for those who shiver from cold, shade to rest forthose scorched by the sun's rays, etc., and thus He constantly providesthe comfort of rest for every tApa. When those who suffer the effects oftheir karmA think of Him, He makes this thought itself the shield for themfrom their sufferings, and provides the needed comfort.

426. viSva-dakshiNah

a) He who is well-disposed towards all.b) He who offers the whole world as dakshiNA in the aSva-medha yAga.c) He who is proficient in everything.d) He who is more proficient than viSva-dakshiNAya namah.The first two interpretations are SrI BhaTTar's, and the next two are SrISa~nkara's.a) viSvasmin ishTa-anishTa kAriNiavisesheNa dakshate iti viSva-dakshiNah -He shows His favor uniformly to all. This was the case in the trivikramaincarnation, where He blessed everyone with His Feet in addition tomahAbali. The word dAkshiNya (derived from the same root as dakshiNah)refers to the guNa of forgiving enemies. b) viSvam dakshiNA asya iti viSva-dakshiNah. In vanaparva in mahAbhArata,we have "Then He will destroy all the robbers and will offer this Earth asdakshiNA in the aSvamedha yAga to the officiating priests". "tataS-cora-kshaya kRtvA dvijebhyah pRthivIm imAm | vAjimegha mahA-yaj~ne vidhivat kalpayishyati ||(bhArata vana 191.1)c) viSveshu karmasu dAkshiNyAt viSva-dakshiNah - One who is proficient ineverything.d) viSvasmAt dakshiNah Saktah - One who is more skilled than everyone.SrI cinmayAnanda elaborates that all the efficiency and skill in theuniverse among the living dynamic creatures is but an expression of Him,since He is the source of the skill and efficiency.
-dAsan kRshNamAcAryan